Fatty Liver Diet Plan
Long-term alcohol abuse also results in excessive accumulation of lipids and disease in liver cells (fatty liver) as well as other cells throughout the body. Alcohol-related liver disease is the sixth leading killer in the United States. Luckily, the most important liver cells (hepatocytes) can regenerate themselves if the damage is not too severe and the alcohol abuse ceases.
Inadequate status of ro-3 and ro-6 fatty acid families presents a clinical condition of essential fatty acid deficiency.48 Dietary deficiencies of a-linolenic and linoleic acids during development result in lower levels of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids in the central nervous system, resulting in altered learning behavior and visual function.52 Deficiency of the ro-3 fatty acids family leads to neuronal-specific defects, including reduced learning, impaired vision, numbness, leg pain, and abnormal electroretinogram.72,73 A normal electroretinogram is observed when a-linolenic acid is included in the diet again. Reduction in visual function is accompanied by decreased brain and retina DHA and an increase in docosapentaenoic acid. Changes in learning behavior have been reported in animals fed low a-linolenic diets containing less than 1 , and high content of linoleic acid.20 Deficiency of ro-6 fatty acids in humans, although rare,48 has been linked to several nonneuronal...
. . . if herbal supplements or botanicals are safe during pregnancy and nursing There's not enough scientific evidence yet to recommend safe levels for herbal supplements for pregnant or nursing moms. However, some are known to be harmful to a baby-for example, comfrey may cause liver damage, blue cohosh may cause heart defects, and pennyroyal may cause spontaneous abortions. Other herbs identified as potentially harmful include aloe, buckthorn, burdock, cascara, chamomile, coltsfoot, cornsilk, devil's claw root, Dong Quai, ephedra, feverfew, ginseng, goldenseal, hawthorne, horseradish, licorice, lobelia, mate, rue, sassafras, senna, St. John's wort, uva ursi, and yarrow.
Alcoholics are people who can't control their drinking. Untreated alcoholism is a life-threatening disease that can lead to death either from an accident or suicide (both are more common among heavy drinkers) or from a toxic reaction (acute alcohol poisoning that paralyzes body organs, including the heart and lungs) or malnutrition or liver damage (cirrhosis).
Taurine protects the body from damage by toxic compounds in the environment and diet. Taurine binds to, detoxifies, and enhances excretion of chemicals, pesticides, and other toxins.1 Taurine helps prevent liver damage from chronic, heavy alcohol consumption.
As other examples, very high doses of vitamin C can cause diarrhea and nausea. Liver damage may be caused by high doses of niacin (as time-released nicotinic acid) sometimes a physician will prescribe high doses of niacin to help lower an elevated blood cholesterol level. Excessive amounts of folic acid can hide symptoms of pernicious anemia, so the disease gets worse without being detected.
Prolonged use of high doses of preformed vitamin A (the Tolerable Upper Intake Level is 3000 micrograms day) may cause symptoms of hypervitaminosis A such as hair loss, bone pain and damage, fatigue, skin problems, liver damage, nausea, and vomiting. High doses are particularly dangerous for pregnant women (they may cause birth defects) and the elderly (they can cause joint pain, nausea, muscle soreness, itching, hair loss, and liver and bone damage). Overconsump-tion of beta-carotene supplements can be quite harmful as well.
Currently there is no known level of toxicity for beta-carotene, but it may turn the skin bright yellow if taken in large enough quantities because it builds up in the fat stores just under the skin. Overdosing on vitamin A may cause liver damage, since it is stored in both the liver and body fat. Beta-carotene is only one of a number of carotenoids which nature deposits in fruit and vegetables.
Toxicity is not a problem except in the case of niacin. Nicotinic acid, a form of niacin, is often prescribed by physicians to lower elevated blood cholesterol levels. Unfortunately, it has some undesirable side effects. Starting at doses of 100 milligrams, typical symptoms include flushing, tingling, itching, rashes, hives, nausea, diarrhea, and abdominal discomfort. Flushing of the face, neck, and chest lasts for about 20 minutes after a person takes a large dose. More serious side effects of large doses include liver damage and high blood sugar levels.
Many developed functional foods seem to have benefits for human health. For example, calcium-fortified orange juice provides approximately the same amount of calcium as milk. With more than half of all children under the age of five and nearly 85 percent of females age twelve to nineteen not meeting the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) for calcium, calcium-fortified orange juice may contribute significantly to calcium intake. On the other hand, a positive impact on health is more difficult to establish for other developed functional foods. These include prepared foods spiked with herbal preparations, which may contain little of the herbal ingredients listed on the label, or insufficient quantities of these ingredients to produce the claimed effect. Additionally, some herbal ingredients can be harmful, such as kava, which has been associated with liver damage, and belladonna, which is toxic.
This genetic and biochemical individuality can either place us at a high risk of certain diseases or a very low risk. For example, persons lacking a detoxification enzyme called glutathione transferase Ml show an increased risk of developing lung and bladder cancer, especially if they smoke. People with low liver-detoxification capacity due to other enzyme defects also show a high rate of carcinogen-induced cancers because of an inability to detoxify specific cancer-causing chemicals.
Choline is considered a conditionally essential nutrient, because when the diet contains no choline, the body can't make enough of it and liver damage can result. It is rare for the diet to contain no choline because it is so widespread in foods (rich sources include milk, eggs, and peanuts). The Food and Nutrition Board has set an Adequate Intake and a Tolerable Upper Intake Level for choline based on gender and age.
Iii) Fatty Liver Syndrome - The liver is the main site of fat synthesis in the bird, and so a 'fatty' liver is quite normal. In fact, a liver devoid of fat is an indication of a non-laying bird. However, in some birds, excess fat accumulates in the liver and this fat can oxidize causing lethal hemorrhages. Excess fat accumulation can only be caused by a surfeit of energy relative to needs for production and maintenance. Low protein, high-energy diets, and those in which there is an amino acid imbalance or deficiency can be major contributors to a fatty liver condition in layers. It is known that diets low in lipotrophic factors such as choline, methionine, and vitamin B12 can result in fatty infiltration of the liver. However, these nutrients are seldom directly involved in most of the fatty liver problems reported from the field. Excessive feed intake and more specifically high energy intake is the ultimate cause of the condition. It is well known that laying hens will over-consume...
In reaction to this buildup of galactose the body makes some abnormal chemicals. The buildup of galactose and these chemicals can cause liver damage, kidney failure, stunted growth, men-cataract clouding of the lens of the eye tal retardation, and cataracts in the eyes.
In patients receiving long-term parenteral nutrition without lipid, continuous glucose infusion results in high circulating levels of insulin that inhibit lipolysis and depress release of EFA from adipose fat stores (131). Development of EFAD in infants, children, and adults maintained on continuous fat-free or minimal-fat parenteral nutrition has been reversed by oral or intravenous administration of C18 2n-6 (151). Parenteral nutrition containing only amino acids and completely free of glucose does not produce evidence of EFAD (153). Clinical signs of EFAD include alopecia, scaly dermatitis, increased capillary fragility, poor wound healing, increased platelet aggregation, increased susceptibility to infection, fatty liver, and growth retardation in infants and children ( 153).
Table 2.5 shows some antitoxic properties reported for Spirulina and phycocy-anin against deleterious effects of metals, pharmaceuticals and radiation. Both these antitoxic properties as well as some pharmacological effects can be attributed to the antioxidant capacity of this alga. For example, the hepatoprotection by phy-cocyanin from CCl4 and R-(+)-pulegone toxicity is attributed to the inhibition of reactions involved in the production of reactive metabolites and possibly to its radical scavenging activity.87 In the same way, Torres-Duran et al.88 explain the potential hep-atoprotective role of Spirulina against fatty liver induced by CCl4 in rats. Moreover, Shastri et al.89 found that Spirulina acts as an antagonist to testis toxicity from lead though its antioxidant activity.
Three of the four biotin-dependent carboxylases are mitochondrial propionyl-CoA carboxylase, methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase and pyruvate carboxylase the fourth, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, is found in the mitochondria and the cytosol. Pyruvate carboxylase is a key enzyme in gluconeogenesis, so impairment as a result of biotin deficiency may lead to fasting hypoglycaemia. Work with chicks showed a fatal hypoglycaemia called 'fatty liver-kidney syndrome' was due to impaired gluconeogenesis caused by deficient activity of pyruvate carboxylase. Several workers have suggested that biotin deficiency may cause sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) by an analogous pathogenic mechanism (Mock, 1999). The hypothesis was supported by demonstrating that hepatic biotin concentrations were significantly lower in infants who died from SIDS than those dying from other causes. Further work is needed to confirm this finding. There are no reports of biotin toxicity in amounts up to 10mg day.
Children are most at risk due to their increased dietary needs. Inadequate caloric and protein intake manifests itself with certain physical characteristics. Symptoms may include any of the following failure to gain weight, stunted linear growth, generalized edema, protuberant (swollen) abdomen, diarrhea, skin desquamation (peeling) and vitiligo (white spots on the skin), reddish pigmentation of hair, and decreased muscle mass. Mental changes include lethargy, apathy, and irritability. Physiologic changes include a fatty liver, renal failure, and anemia. During the final stages of kwashiorkor, patients can experience, shock, coma, and, finally, death.
Rats A 5 Spirulina diet prevented the fatty liver induced by 102 two weeks prior to simvastatin, it induced onset of fatty liver a hypercholesterolemic diet and 20 ethanol decreased total liver lipids, mainly triacylglycerols, and increased serum lactate deshidrogenase (LDH) levels.
After absorption from foods or production in the skin, vitamin D is stored as 25-OH-vitamin D in the liver. When needed by the body, it is subsequently activated to 1,25 -OH-vitamin D by the kidney.1 Thus, a healthy liver and kidneys are essential for optimum vitamin D status. (1 jig vitamin D 40 IU vitamin D.)
This illustration shows a healthy liver above, and a diseased liver below. Liver disease in alcoholics progresses from an enlargement of the liver to cirrhosis, which is characterized by liver scarring and is usually fatal unless alcohol consumption ceases. Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc. Reproduced by permission. This illustration shows a healthy liver above, and a diseased liver below. Liver disease in alcoholics progresses from an enlargement of the liver to cirrhosis, which is characterized by liver scarring and is usually fatal unless alcohol consumption ceases. Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc. Reproduced by permission. In conclusion, knowing the effects of alcohol on the body and the consequences of alcohol abuse and misuse is very important. When consumed in large amounts or irresponsibly, alcohol can cause extensive damage to health and well-being, including liver damage, poor nutritional status, birth defects, and death. Therefore, if alcohol is consumed, it should be done...
This B-vitamin is also involved in energy-producing reactions in the cells that convert food to energy. In addition, niacin helps maintain healthy skin, nerves, and your digestive system. In some instances, you can use large doses of niacin as a cholesterol-lowering medication. However, you should only do this under the supervision of your doctor. Megadoses can cause hot flashes, itching, ulcers, high blood sugar, and liver damage.
Several common nutrients may be toxic when you scarf them down in megadose servings (amounts several times larger than the RDAs). Not only are large doses of vitamin A linked to birth defects, but they may also cause symptoms similar to a brain tumor. Niacin megadoses may cause liver damage. Megadoses of vitamin B6 may cause (temporary) damage to nerves in arms, legs, fingers, and toes. All these effects are more likely to occur with supplements. Pills slip down easily, but regardless of how hungry you are, you probably won't eat enough food to reach toxic levels of nutrients. (To read more about the hazards of megadoses, see Chapters 10 and 11.)
Further lowers nutrient absorption from foods. The liver is particularly vulnerable to alcohol - more than three drinks a day causes inflammation and accumulation of fat in the liver. This impairs liver function, reducing the ability to detoxify chemicals and drugs. Because the liver is important for blood sugar control, alcohol-induced liver damage can produce hypoglycemia, leading to fatigue, irritability, and concentration difficulties. Alcohol increases urinary losses of many minerals, including zinc, calcium, and magne-sium.5 Because of these effects, a diet rich in fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains, lean meats, and low-fat milk products should be carefully chosen.
More than 30 percent of men and more than 40 percent of women take a daily multivitamin mineral supplement. Doses of about 100 percent of the Daily Value (DV) of most nutrients are common in these supplements. Although nutrition experts agree that the average American does not need supplements, there is little harm in taking them. Problems can arise, however, when individual nutrients are taken. Megadoses of certain minerals and relatively low supplemental doses of certain fat-soluble vitamins can lead to toxicity. For example, a surplus of vitamin A can lead to cheilitis (cracking and inflammation of the lips), dryness of the nasal mucosa and eyes, hair loss, and, eventually, liver damage. Megadoses of vitamin D can lead to the calcification of soft tissues, such as the lungs, heart, and kidneys.
Tions which are still in place.39 Acute toxicity results, initially, in symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea. These gastrointestinal effects are often sufficiently severe and prompt to prevent systemic toxicity which, like chronic copper poisoning, is associated with liver damage. Chronic toxicity has most often been caused by contaminated water supplies, and occasionally by contamination of haemodialysis equipment by copper parts.40
Those with liver damage, or a weak liver, may need to moderate their intake of raw plant fats significantly when beginning The Sunfood Diet. Nuts may have to be bypassed and avocados and or blended seeds used instead. You will need to tune into your body, to know when you have eaten more fat than your liver can handle (acne may result from an excessive fat intake). Usually when the liver is working hard and processing raw plant fats, the appetite will shut down.
Malnutrition may be defined as a state of nutrient deficiency or excess. This fact is often overlooked when providing nutrition, despite the fact that some of the adverse effects of nutrient excess are evident to everyone. Carbohydrate excess, for example, clearly may lead to a state of obesity, with the well-recognized risks of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and shorter life expectancy. What is less obvious is that carbohydrate excess in the critically ill patient may also result in liver damage and the inability to wean from ventilators.26 In Chapter 2 and Chapter 11, this will be discussed in greater detail. Other nutrients, such as vitamin A, have the potential for toxicity that is even less obvious but equally dangerous.3842 This is discussed in greater detail in Chapter 9. It is apparent that in providing nutrition to stimulate healing, the caregiver cannot assume that more is better.
One fairly recent study from Poland found that a complex made of silymarin and lecithin had very powerful anti-atherosclerotic effects in experimental animals, more so than when each was given alone. The supplement complex also improved liver detoxification, normalized lipid metabolism, and corrected histologic changes in the animals' aortas. Further tests are being conducted on this complex.
There are even some instances where mega-doses of water soluble vitamins can be toxic. Mega doses of some B vitamins can potentially cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and even liver damage. However, in most instances, you simply excrete excess water soluble vitamins in your urine. That is why many times, your urine will be a deep yellow color a couple of hours after taking a vitamin that has high doses
Approximately two million Americans suffer from liver damage caused by alcohol abuse. About 10 to 20 percent of heavy drinkers will develop cirrhosis of the liver, which is characterized by scarring of the liver and causes irreversible damage. If heavy drinkers do not stop drinking, cirrhosis can cause poor health and, ultimately, death. In addition to cirrhosis, heavy drinkers may suffer from chronic liver disease or alcoholic hepatitis.
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