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Do Fat Cells Do More Than Store Energy

For a long time fat tissue and their cells were viewed as somewhat inert containers of energy storage. However, today we know that adipose tissue functions as a gland with the capability to release a variety of factors relative to its size and endowed energy. As mentioned previously, some of these factors may promote the formation of more fat cells. Perhaps some of the most interesting released factors are those that circulate to the brain and provide insight to our energy storage status. One of the most important factors seems to be the hormone leptin. Fat cells release more and more leptin into our circulation when fat cells accumulate more fat. Leptin then signals the brain to reduce appetite. In addition, as fat cells swell due to excessive calorie consumption, some of the chemicals they release can promote the development and worsening of diabetes, high blood pressure and other medical conditions.

How and When Do We Remove Fat from Our Fat Cells

The fat stored in fat cells is available to us when food energy is not being absorbed (fasting) and when we exercise. Just as the hormone insulin promoted the storage of fat when energy was coming into our body, the process of mobilizing fat from fat cells is promoted by the hormones released into our blood when we are fasting and or exercising (Figure 5.8). These hormones are glucagon, epinephrine, and cortisol, and all promote the release of fat from fat stores. In order for fat to be released from fat cells, fat is first broken down to fatty acids and glycerol, which then enter our blood and circulate. However, because of their general water insolubility, the fatty acids will hitch a ride aboard a protein in the blood called albumin. On the contrary, glycerol is fairly water soluble and can dissolve into blood. In fact, researchers will measure the level of glycerol in the blood to estimate how much fat is being broken down. Fat cells (adipose tissue) Fat cells (adipose tissue)

Fat Storage Mobilization and

When we eat a meal containing fat, it is absorbed and circulates within chylomicrons. As it circulates, fat is slowly transferred from chylomi-crons to fat cells as well as skeletal muscle, heart, and other organs (breast tissue, for example) (see Figure 5.7). In order to transfer diet-derived fat to our tissue, an enzyme must be present in that tissue. The enzyme is called lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and just like lingual lipase and pancreatic lipase, LPL also removes fatty acids from glycerol. The fatty acids liberated by LPL move out of the chylomicrons and enter the nearby cells. Scientists have studied LPL for years and it now seems that differing levels of LPL activity in different locations of adipose tissue may partly explain why people seem to accumulate more fat stores in some regions of their bodies and not as much in other areas. While a little bit of dietary fat can be used for energy very early during a meal as the body shifts from a fasting to a fed state, by and large...

What Does Cortisol Do to Help Maintain Blood Glucose Levels During Fasting

Cortisol is often regarded as the stress hormone. It is important to realize that fasting, especially prolonged fasting, is a form of stress and stress results in the release of cortisol from the adrenal glands along with epinephrine mentioned in the previous question. Cortisol also supports the breakdown of glycogen and the conversion of amino acids, lactate, Table 4.5 Actions Of Insulin, Glucagon, Cortisol, and Epinephrine in Carbohydrate Metabolism Insulin Increases the uptake of glucose by our muscle and fat cells Cortisol Increases muscle protein breakdown to amino acids which can and glycerol to glucose in our liver. Because cortisol also promotes the breakdown of our body protein, especially skeletal muscle protein, it ensures a supply of amino acids for conversion to glucose in our liver (Figure 4.5). Adrenal glands Cortisol Figure 4.5 During fasting and endurance exercise (at least moderate intensity) cortisol causes the breakdown of muscle protein and some amino acids can be...

Are We Born with All of the Fat Cells We Will Ever Have

We are not born with a full complement of fat cells as some scientists once thought. The number of fat cells in the body increases at various stages throughout growth, but by the time adulthood is reached the total number of these cells can become fixed. This means that if our body fat mass does not change, we probably would not produce new fat cells as adults. However, if we consume excessive calories, the number of fat cells can increase. In adipose tissue there is a small number of so-called pre-adipocytes or fat stem cells. When these cells are signaled, they will produce new fat cells. As you may have guessed, the signals are chemicals, many of which are released by existing fat cells when they become swollen with an increased bounty of stored fat.

Homeostasis Leptin

Homeostasis Digestive System

A person's body weight is determined by the factors hunger satiation and energy intake energy use. Ever since hereditary forms of obesity were discovered in mice in the 1950s, researchers have investigated the regulation of these factors. About 20 years ago, it was found that the so-called ob mouse (for obese) is missing a satiety factor that would normally circulate in its blood. Finally, in 1994, the ob gene was cloned. The expression product, leptin, consists of 167 amino acids. Administering lep-tin to ob mice normalized their body weight by reducing energy intake and increasing energy use, mainly by increasing body temperature. Leptin and its effects have since been confirmed in humans. Leptin controls energy uptake and use by regulating various satiety factors (A) in the hypothalamus, such as neuropep-tide Y (NPY) or glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). Since leptin is synthesized in white adipocytes, fat mass functions as a sort of central control sensor. The expression of the ob...

Are Certain Nutrients Better for Weight Management Than Others

Research studies have supported the notion that all calories are not equal when it comes to leading to body fat accumulation. For instance, all foods increase our metabolism to some degree, which scientists refer to as the thermal effect of food. However, when people eat different meals containing the same number of calories but with different nutrient compositions, in some cases they burn more calories in the couple of hours that follow. In particular, foods with more calories from protein and unsaturated fat tend to increase calorie burning more than if those same calories came from carbohydrate and saturated fat. So less of the food calories would be available for fat storage.

Treatments and Remedies Benefits and Disadvantages of Each

Scientific investigations have shown that physical activity, including aerobic and muscular strengthening exercises, not only prevent bone mineral loss, they also help alleviate many menopausal symptoms, including the increased percentage of body fat, abdominal-fat storage, hot flashes, fatigue, and sleep disturbances.

What Contributes to Weight Gain During Pregnancy

As a female gains weight during pregnancy, usually about 7 to 8 pounds is attributable to the weight of the infant at birth. The rest of the weight is distributed throughout the mother in various tissues developed during pregnancy. These tissue include the placenta, amniotic fluid, increased breast tissue, expanded blood volume, and fat storage and muscle. These all help support the mother and fetus during pregnancy and after birth. Even the mother's bones will become a little denser during pregnancy.

Are There Essential Fatty Acids

The need for dietary fat is not necessarily for energy purposes. Fat is needed in our diet as a means of providing two essential fatty acids, linoleic acid, an ra-6 PUFA, and a-linolenic acid, an ra-3 PUFA. Since the amount of these fatty acids in fat storage (adipose tissue) is limited, this suggests that their role in our body isn't really to provide calories, although they will be used for energy. Linoleic and a-linolenic acid are used to make longer, more complex fatty acids that have special functions.

Can Fat Help Protect the Body

Fat tissue provides some protection to various tissues in the body. For instance, fat tissue around our internal organs provides some cushioning. This helps protect the organs against external trauma. Furthermore, the subcutaneous layer of fat storage also provides some cushioning, which protects muscle. Subcutaneous fat is not well vasculated, meaning that there aren't a lot of blood vessels in that tissue relative to other tissue. Meanwhile, skeletal muscle is heavily endowed with blood vessels which provide oxygen and energy nutrients during activity and exercise. In the absence of subcutaneous fat it would be easier to rupture smaller blood vessels in skeletal muscle, which then would be evident in bruises. As an example, prior to competition, bodybuilders will be very cautious not to bang into things or play contact sports (rugby, football, roller hockey, etc.). As they attempt to lean out for the competition, they reduce their subcutaneous fat to nadir levels, which would allow...

Body Fat Why Do We Have It

Women store essential fat in their hips, thighs, and breasts. This fat is readily available to nourish a healthy baby if a woman becomes pregnant. If you are a woman fighting the battle of the bulging thighs, you may be fighting a losing battle. The activity of the enzymes that store fat in women's thighs and hips is very high compared with the enzyme activity in other fat storage areas in women and compared with fat storage in the hips and thighs of men. Moreover, the activity of the enzymes that release the fat is low, making it difficult to lose fat in these areas. The easiest time for women to lose fat in this area is during the last trimester of pregnancy and while breastfeeding. At those times, the activity of the fat-storing enzymes drops, and the activity of the fat-releasing enzymes increases. Nature, again, is protective of a woman's ability to care for her offspring.

Benefit to Older Adults

In a second study in resistance training elderly subjects, strength gains during the study were similar between the HMB-supple-mented group and the placebo-supplemented group.47 However, HMB supplementation significantly improved functional ability as measured by a get up and go (GUG) test,47 which measures the time to get up out of a chair, walk a set distance, turn around, and return to the chair and sit down again. Decreasing body fat and improving muscle function are both important findings in the elderly. Body fat, and in particular visceral fat storage, is linked to the development of insulin resistance (type II diabetes)48 and cardiovascular disease.49 Additionally, improving functional ability in the elderly should improve the quality of life and may result in decreasing falls, a common cause of injury in the elderly population.

Carb Ranking Glycemic Index

For a number of years, particularly since the 1980s, when rates of overweight and obesity in the United States began to climb rapidly, experts have been concerned by the effects of different foods on appetite and blood sugar regulation. Scientists became interested in how different foods affect blood sugar, insulin release, and, in turn, energy usage and fat storage. In exploring the impact of foods on blood sugar, scientists constructed the glycemic index (GI), a scale for measuring and classifying foods based on how quickly they raise blood sugar. The best foods, according to these scientists, are foods that rank low on the index foods that are digested slowly, cause a gradual rise in blood sugar, and lead to a moderate insulin response. The least favorable foods in terms of glucose response are those that elevate blood sugar levels quickly and lead to a rapid insulin response that results in a burst of energy that drops off rapidly.

Weight Loss and Dieting

Yo-yo dieting may result in a higher risk of heart disease and diabetes. When fat is regained after dieting, it may be stored around the abdomen. Abdominal fat storage, in contrast to fat stored in the leg or hip region, appears to be a risk factor in the development of certain diseases. Yo-yo dieting also may increase your percent of body fat. When you lose weight through dieting, you lose both fat and muscle tissue. However, when you stop dieting, excess calories are stored in the form of fat. Therefore, even if you regain only as many pounds as you lost through dieting, your body is likely to be fattier than it was previously.

Can Different Kinds of Fatty Acids Be Part of the Same Triglyceride Molecule

The presence of certain types of fatty acids in either a plant or an animal largely depends upon the nature of the plant or animal and the purpose of the fat for that life-form. For instance, fish that live in deeper water tend to be better sources of ra-3 PUFA because these fatty acids are found in the cell membranes of these fish and play a protective role against the increased pressure and decreased temperatures at greater depths as well as help regulate their buoyancy. Land animals create storage fat that is largely composed of saturated fatty acid. Since these fat molecules can pack tightly in fat cells it minimizes the necessary space.

Pathophysiology of Normal Pregnancy

During pregnancy, the fetus receives nutrients from across the placenta, including glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids via either active transport or facilitated diffusion. In the first trimester, maternal glycogen storage and endogenous glucose production increase. Pregnancy hormones (human placental lactogen and cortisol), estrogen, progesterone, and the constant fetal demand of glucose lower fasting maternal blood glucose levels 15, 16 . The maternal appetite is stimulated resulting in consumption of additional calories. Fasting and postprandial glucose levels rise in response to the extra glucose required for fetal growth. Elevated hormonal levels increase insulin resistance and the beta-cells produce and secrete additional insulin as glucose is transported across the placenta. Insulin resistance peaks by the latter part of the third trimester, which is characterized by a three-fold increase in insulin production and secretion. After delivery, insulin production returns to...

Can We Discern Hopeful Signs In The Middle Of The Current Difficulties Created By These Disease Stat

Several discoveries over the past 10 years have created opportunities for prevention and or treatment, including discoveries of new genes, molecules, and regulatory pathways. Central, in my opinion, may prove to be developments in the field encompassed by the question How does negative energy balance lead to neuroendocrine abnormalities Recent work, mainly from our laboratory, has demonstrated that levels of an adi-pocyte-secreted hormone, circulating levels of which reflect the amount of energy stored in fat, i.e. leptin, fall in response to negative energy balance and this fall can lead to the neuroendocrine dysfunction that has traditionally been associated with energy, and thus leptin, deficiency states, such as anorexia nervosa and exercise-induced or hypothalamic amenorrhea. Importantly, exogenous administration of leptin, in replacement doses, can correct these neuroendocrine abnormalities in these leptin deficiency states. These novel advances, discussed in the relevant...

Where Would We Like To Be In The Not So Distant Future

In energy deficiency states we clearly need to advance further our understanding of the role of leptin (and other hormones) to improve and or correct the neuroendocrine abnormalities of women with hypothalamic amenorrhea and anorexia nervosa as well as those of obese subjects dieting to lose weight and or having had surgery for obesity. We also need conclusive evidence from randomized trials on whether leptin and or other treatment options could also improve the osteoporosis of subjects with anorexia nervosa or hypothalamic amenorrhea. Importantly, we need to learn whether the effect of leptin in improving neuroendocrine function could facilitate weight maintenance of obese subjects who strive to lose weight. Much needed investigations are underway in this area.

Longterm control of food intake and energy expenditure

In addition to the immediate control of feeding by hunger and satiety, there is also long-term control of food intake and energy expenditure, in response to the state of body fat reserves. In 1994 it was shown that the normal product of the gene that is defective in the homozygous recessive mutant (ob ob) obese mouse is a small peptide that is secreted by adipose tissue. Administration of the synthetic peptide to genetically obese mice caused them to lose weight, and administration of excessive amounts of the peptide to normal mice also caused weight loss. It was called leptin, from the Greek A, TCTOO - lean or thin. Further studies showed that the administration of leptin to the genetically obese diabetic ( fa fa) rat had no effect on body weight, and indeed these rats secreted a normal or greater than normal amount of leptin. The defect in these animals is a mutation in the membrane receptor for leptin. Initially, the leptin receptor was found in the hypothalamus, and because the...

Infertility and Risk of Miscarriage

In overweight women conceiving after in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection, miscarriage rate is also reportedly higher in obese compared with lean or average weight women. A systematic review of the literature by Maheshwari et al. 11 found that when compared with women with a BMI < 25 kg m2, women with a BMI > 25 kg m2 had a 29 lower likelihood of pregnancy and a 33 higher risk of miscarriage following IVF. In this same study, obese women were found to have a reduced number of oocytes retrieved despite requiring higher doses of gonadotropins. Mechanisms for the relationship between obesity and infertility are unknown. Suggested roles of hyper-androgenism, insulin resistance, high leptin levels, and polycystic ovarian syndrome are currently under investigation 12 . Regardless of mechanism, these data suggest that obesity may delay or prevent conception in women who want to become pregnant. Of some consolation, weight loss before infertility therapy may...

Gastrointestinal Peptides

Physiological studies have indicated that ghrelin serves as a peripheral signal for hunger and meal initiation Blood levels increase during fasting, peak sharply just before feeding, and fall rapidly following food intake (95). Prolonged administration of ghrelin in rodents leads to chronic hyperphagia and weight gain, and obese persons typically have high plasma leptin and low ghrelin levels (96). There is a diurnal rhythm in ghrelin secretion, with peak levels in the morning and the nadir at night (95). PYY3-36 appears to exert its anorectic effect through coordinate inhibition of orexigenic NPY neurons and stimulation of POMC neurons in the arcuate nucleus. These molecular changes are observed following peripheral administration of PYY3-36 (99). High-affinity hypothalamic Y receptors are the target of PYY3-36 action. Activation of the Y2 receptor subtype on NPY neurons triggers inhibitory presynaptic signals. Consonant with this mechanism, Y2 receptor knock-out mice lose their...

Fetal growth factors and fetal nutrition

Hormones involved in fetal growth are nutritionally regulated in the fetus and also regulate substrate uptake and metabolism. The major fetal growth factors are the insulinlike growth factors (IGF)-I and II, with insulin having a passive role in fetal growth. The roles of other hormones such as growth hormone (GH), placental lactogen, leptin and ghrelin are as yet less clear. The role of other hormones that are involved in postnatal nutrition and growth, such as leptin and ghrelin, are beginning to receive more attention in the fetus.215 Both leptin and ghrelin are expressed in the placenta216-218 and both can be nutritionally regulated.218-221 The precise role of these hormones, and other nutritionally regulated hormones such as placental lactogen, remains to be elucidated, but a recurring theme for hormones that are also expressed in the placenta is the possibility that they may play a role in nutrient partitioning between mother and fetus.

Effects of conjugated linoleic acid on body composition

In addition to reducing adipose tissue mass, the t10c12 CLA isomer has been linked to increased insulin resistance in men who have symptoms of the metabolic syndrome.2627 A CLA mixture also appeared to cause hyperinsulinemia in C57BL 6J mice24 that was accompanied by severe adipose tissue ablation and decreased leptin levels. The effects of the CLA mixture on adipose tissue depletion were reversed by continuous leptin infusion. In a follow-up study, decreasing the amount of a CLA mixture from 1 to 0.1 g 100 g diet, while increasing the amount of total fat in the diet from 4 to 34 g 100 g diet, did not lead to lipodystrophy, while fat mass was modestly reduced.25 Insulin resistance was present in the group fed the 1 g CLA 100 g diet, but not present in the 0.1 g CLA 100 g diet group.

What Causes Type Diabetes

In type 2 diabetes mellitus, muscle and fat cells become less sensitive to insulin. What has become very clear to researchers, physicians, and nutritionists is that there is a strong relationship between obesity and this form of diabetes mellitus. In fact, nearly 90 percent of all individuals diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus are also recognized as obese. In support of this relationship, most obese type 2 diabetics regain the ability to regulate their blood glucose as they reduce their body fat through weight loss and exercise. Although the relationship seems clear enough, the mechanism has been somewhat elusive to scientists. However, today, some evidence suggests that swollen fat cells themselves may release (and or not release) chemicals that contribute to decreased sensitivity to insulin.

Can Carbohydrate from Our Diet Become Body

Since the potential to store carbohydrate as glycogen is somewhat limited, we need another means of storing excessive diet carbohydrate energy. As our liver and skeletal muscle is busy making glycogen, our liver and fat tissue will also begin to convert some of the extra glucose to fat. The fat that is made in our fat cells is stored within those cells. Meanwhile, the fat that is made in the liver is transported in the blood to fat cells and to a lesser degree other tissue such as muscle, breast tissue, etc.

Can We Lose Only Fat During Weight Loss

Nutrients were important to a person before the weight loss. Even though fat tissue is composed of about 86 percent fat, when fat cells expand, more of the other nutrients are needed to support the new size and metabolism of the larger cells and tissue. For instance, cell membranes of fat cells must expand and more enzymes may be needed. Furthermore, new fat cells may have been made during the accumulation of body fat. On the contrary, when fat is mobilized from fat cells, these cells shrink, thereby decreasing the need for the extra supporting nutrients. When the body was heavier, the amount of skeletal muscle and density of the bones may have been a little greater to support and move the larger body. Researchers usually find that heavier people have denser bones. Thus, as body weight decreases, it is only reasonable that these areas will decrease as well. Excessive skin and some connective tissue would be broken down during weight loss as well both of these tissues are protein rich.

Fatty Metabolite and the Ketones

These dudes aren't a forgotten early sixties doo-wop band they're a nasty bunch of chemicals that wind up in your bloodstream, menacingly swinging their carbon chains, as an unavoidable consequence of losing weight. Losing weight means burning fat. Burning fat means individual fat cells tapping their reserves, breaking down the complex fat molecules into the simple molecules you burn. Chemical plants produce waste products, and fat cells are no exception. Instead of pumping nasty stuff into the river at midnight that makes aluminium canoes fizz, fat cells dump their waste into the bloodstream in broad daylight, right along with the useful products of breaking down fat.

Breaking down fat is hard to do

The reason it's so tough to start a diet follows directly from our understanding of the rubber bag, how fat cells store and release calories, and the relationship between calorie intake, weight gain or loss, and hunger as shown by the chart on page 81. Regardless of the shape of your own feedback curve, if you tend to overweight it's certain the left side of the curve, the hunger signal when you eat too little, looks much like the one in that graph. In order to lose weight, you have to reduce your calories sufficiently to move beyond the flat part of the curve where your body compensates by adjusting metabolism into the downslope at the left where you're actually losing weight. This follows from understanding the simple world of a fat cell. There's no central control in your body that tells cells what to do metabolically. You can think all the right thoughts for as long as you want, but the only thing that's going to cause your fat cells to start tapping their reserves is lowering...

Does Obesity Place Us at a Higher Risk for Cancer

Large studies of populations have indicated that obesity is a significant risk factor for almost all types of human cancer including endometrial, colon, breast, and prostate. Quite simply, individuals who eat less energy and maintain body weights closer to their ideal body weight tend to be at a lower risk for most cancers. Whether increased body fat directly causes cancer is doubtful, but research suggests that some of the chemicals that swollen fat cells release can increase the rate of developing cancer. This is because some of these chemicals are associated with the growth of cells and tissue.

What Drugs Are Prescribed to Reduce Blood Cholesterol

The drugs commonly prescribed to treat hypercholesterolemia include those that either decrease cholesterol synthesis in the liver, decrease VLDL production, or decrease dietary cholesterol absorption. Drugs such as lovostatin are known to reduce the manufacturing of cholesterol by the liver, although the benefits of this medication may also include increased LDL removal from the blood. Cholestyramine or colestipol will bind cholesterol in the digestive tract and render it unavailable for absorption. Gram doses of nicotinic acid, a form of niacin, seem to decrease the production of VLDL in the liver. It is believed that nicotinic acid impedes fat mobilization from the fat cells, which ultimately decreases fatty acids returning to the liver. If fewer fatty acids are in the liver, then less VLDL will be made.

Body Fat Energy Source and So Much More Where Is Body Fat Stored

Although some fat can be found in several cell types in our body (such as skeletal and cardiac muscle cells), by and large most of the fat stored in our body is housed in fat cells. Collections of fat cells or adipocytes are commonly referred to as fat tissue or adipose tissue. Because a larger percentage of the fatty acids stored in adipose tissue are monounsaturated and saturated, the fat tissue is more semisolid than liquid. This can contribute to the dimpling appearance in the layer of fat found beneath our skin (subcutaneous fat) that is often referred to as cellulite.

Inside the rubber bag

Fat cells are the body's equivalent of a piggy bank. Fat cells sit on the banks of the bloodstream and, whenever they see excess food, snatch it out and build molecules of fat to stuff in their little cellular storehouse. Each fat cell is, in essence, a little rubber bag when it sees too much food it snarfs it up and expands. As the bloodstream becomes depleted in energy, the fat cells notice this and respond now's the time to draw down the reserves. Perhaps the boss is stalking a mammoth and doesn't have time to scarf up some fruit and berries along the way (or maybe Monday Night Football's gone into overtime and the fridge is forgotten in the heat of the moment the world of the fat cell is a simple one, hardly cognizant of such modern problems). Individual fat cells begin to tap their storehouses and release energy into the bloodstream to ameliorate the shortfall.

Once Monosaccharides Are Absorbed Where Do They Go

The concentration of glucose in the blood is very tightly regulated. When the level of circulating glucose climbs above the normal fasting level, the pancreas releases the hormone insulin (see Figures 4.2 and 4.3). Insulin will interact with receptors on muscle cells and fat cells and promote the movement of glucose into these cells. Because skeletal muscle and fat cells together tend to make up more than half of our total body mass, the net effect is a fairly rapid lowering of the glucose concentration. Insulin increases the movement of glucose in these cells by increasing the number of glucose transport proteins on their plasma membranes. As the level of glucose returns to the normal fasting level, the pancreas responds by releasing less insulin into circulation. All cells in our body will continuously take glucose from our blood throughout the day to help meet their need for energy. However, after a meal, the liver, muscle, and fat cells will take a lot more glucose out of the...

Lose pounds then stay there

Your internal thermostat is doing its job of regulating your appetite and controlling your weight. Most likely the problem is you're losing muscle, especially if you don't train with weights. When you lose muscle, which starts happening in your 20's and 30's, your fat cells expand to fill up the space.

Does Sugar Cause Diabetes

Individuals that appear to make insulin, but whose muscle and fat cells appear to be less sensitive to its presence (type 2 diabetes). In most cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus, one of the most significant underlying factors is an excessive body weight in the form of fat. So, if a person eats excessive amounts of sugary foods, which by simple excess of energy intake will lead to fat accumulation, obesity, and subsequent diabetes, then perhaps an argument can be made. However, sugar would then be an indirect factor, not a direct factor. On the other hand, high sugar foods such as soda, cookies, cakes, and pies can make it more difficult to manage diabetes because of their glycemic effect described above.

What Is Lactose Intolerance

Figure 4.2 When blood glucose levels become elevated our pancreas releases insulin, which promotes the uptake of glucose in muscle and fat cells. Meanwhile, fructose and galactose are taken up by the liver. Figure 4.2 When blood glucose levels become elevated our pancreas releases insulin, which promotes the uptake of glucose in muscle and fat cells. Meanwhile, fructose and galactose are taken up by the liver.

GLUT Insulin Responsive Glucose Transporter

Glucose is transported across the cell membranes of adipocytes (fat cells), and its rate of transport can be speeded up 20- to 30-fold within 2 or 3 minutes by addition of insulin, without evidence of protein synthesis. Studies showed that this stimulation of glucose transport was due in part to translocation of GLUT 1 from an intracellular pool into the membrane. Careful quantitative measurements showed, however, that this could account for only a 12- to 15-fold increase in glucose transport. It became obvious that another transporter would have to be involved to account for the much larger insulin-stimulated transport. This new transporter, GLUT 4, was first identified in rat adipocytes by use of a monoclonal antibody. Subsequently, it has been cloned from rat, mouse, and human DNA (19). It is a protein with 509 amino acid residues (Tab_Le_3_._4), with 65 identity with GLUT 1, 54 identity with GLUT 2, and 58 identity with GLUT 3. Rat and mouse GLUT 4s have 95 and 96 identity,...

What Are Low Density Lipoproteins and How Do They Function

As mentioned earlier, not only will the liver receive cholesterol and some fat from chylomicrons, but it is also a primary cholesterol- and triglyceride-producing organ in the body. Fat and cholesterol in excess of the liver's needs are packaged up into VLDLs and released into our circulation. As VLDLs circulate throughout our body, they unload a lot of their fat, mostly in fat cells. As a result their lipid to protein ratio decreases, which renders them denser, and they become LDLs (Figure 5.10). Therefore, LDL is derived from circulating VLDL.

How Much Glycogen Is in Our Body

Interestingly, even though carbohydrates contribute approximately one-half of the energy in our diet, our body composition is not reflective. That's because only 1 percent or less of our body weight is composed of carbohydrate. This means that carbohydrate is stored with limitations, most of which is in our liver and skeletal muscle as glycogen. Other tissues, such as fat cells and the heart, contain a little glycogen as well however, the contribution to our total body glycogen stores is very small. Since glycogen stores are relatively small there must be another means of storing the excessive energy from diet derived carbohydrate.

What Do Cells Look Like

Human cells can differ in size and function. Some are bigger and some longer, some will make hormones while others will help our body move. In fact, there are roughly two hundred different types of cells in our body. Although these cells may seem unrelated, most of the general features will be the same from one cell to the next. Therefore, we can discuss cells by describing the features of a single cell. The unique characteristics of different types of cells such red blood cells, muscle cells, and fat cells will be described as they become relevant later in this chapter and book.

How Many Calories Should We Eat During Weight Loss

The golden rule of dieting states that to theoretically lose one pound of body-fat tissue, you need to create an energy imbalance of 3,500 calories in the favor of weight loss. Since 1 pound of fat weighs 454 grams and because fat cells are roughly 86 percent fat, to lose a pound of fat it would require about 3,500 calories

Detoxification In The Body

Many chemical toxins are fat soluble and can settle in the body's fat cells if they are not eliminated. When this happens, it can be difficult to rid the body of these toxins unless fat loss occurs. If the toxins do settle in fat cells, they may contribute to symptoms of toxicity such as headaches, fatigue and muscle aches.

Adipose Tissuetriacylglycerol

Fatty acids are stored in the body as triacylglycerols (triglyceride) in fat cells which make up the adipose tissue. Fat is also stored in muscle tissue in the form of triglyceride, present in small intramuscular fat droplets. After a meal, fat is absorbed and circulates in the blood as triglycerides in the form of circulating lipid particles (HDL, VLDL, LDL, chylomicrons) or as free fatty acids bound to albumin, called non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). As with glycogen, the synthesis of fat or its degradation depend on the concentration of the 'building blocks', in this case fatty acids. This concentration is determined mainly by uptake of free fatty acids in and from triacylglycerols and their rate of utilization for energy metabolism.

How many meals and when

Fat cells will start banking the extra calories and you'll end up packing on weight yet wake up ravenously hungry the next day since all the calories were turned into fat . There's an easy solution don't do it. Eat meals early enough before retiring so your body has a chance to burn the calories.)

Explaining the Case Studies

In addition to getting the amount of food intake all wrong, these athletes were getting the types of food all wrong. This also required a change and the dietary shifts we made with them included a) a reduction in sugar intake and a replacement of this sugar with low glycemic, micronutrient, and fiber rich carbohydrates, b) adding more protein to the diet, and c) balancing out their saturated fats with monounsaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats. These changes likely improved something called nutrient partitioning. By eating the right foods, the energy (calories) you take in are more likely to go toward building muscle vs. building fat. In other words, the nutrients are partitioned toward muscle cells, leaving the fat cells alone.

What Happens to Body Protein When We Exercise

Driven by primarily by cortisol as well as epinephrine, both of which are elevated in circulation during exercise. Cortisol promotes muscle protein breakdown during the exercise while epinephrine promotes the conversion of amino acids to glucose in the liver. Since cortisol is a stress-related hormone, the degree to which this happen depends on how hard you exercising and for how long. Thus for shorter, less intense exercise sessions (for example, walking and casual bicycling) this isn't a consideration however for recreational and competitive endurance athletes and heavyweight trainers it is. We will explore this further in Chapter 11.

Research on ARG and Growth Hormone GH

Eto et al. tested the effects of ARG-glutamate salt (AGs) ingestion on exercise-induced hormonal changes in highly trained cyclists, aged 18 to 22 years. There was no effect on resting plasma GH, insulin, or cortisol levels. However, ingestion of AGs dramatically diminished the elevation of cortisol and hGH during and after exercise. The results, related to the AGs and exercise-induced hormonal changes, led the authors to state the possibility that AGs supplementation may alter energy metabolism during exercise.19 Additional studies related to hormones and ARG supplementation are reviewed with AA blends and GH release in Section

Do We Use Body Protein for Energy During Endurance Exercise

Depending on the duration of exercise, amino acids may be counted on to generate as much as 6 to 10 percent of the fuel with the remainder split between fat and carbohydrate. The use of amino acids for energy is mostly a consideration for higher-level endurance athletes. This would include people who train seriously several times a week for extended periods such as a couple of hours. This is one reason why marathoners often look very lean but not as muscular as sprinters or milers, for example. One of the most significant reasons that more and more amino acids are used for energy is because cortisol levels in the blood are increased as the higher intensity activity is endured. Cortisol can cause the breakdown of muscle protein and the freed amino acids can be used for energy. Some amino acids will be used directly by muscle to make ATP, while others will circulate to the liver and be converted to glucose.

Are There Different Classes of Hormones

Hormones may be grouped into one of two general categories amino acid-based hormones and steroid hormones. The amino acid-based hormones include hormones that are proteins and those hormones that are derived from the amino acid tyrosine. Examples of protein hormones include insulin, growth hormone (GH), glucagon, and antidiuretic hormone (ADH). Examples of hormones made from the amino acid tyrosine are epinephrine (adrenaline) and thyroid hormone (T3 and T4). Steroid hormones are made from cholesterol and include testosterone, estrogens, cortisol, progesterone, and aldosterone.

Stress and Brain Aging

Two hormones, adrenaline and Cortisol, appear to be responsible for most of the destructive effects. When we experience stress, both hormones are released in large concentrations and as we age, Cortisol release is more prolonged. The physiological events that occur with stress are called allostasis unrelieved stress is known as an allostatic load. Dr. Bruce McEwen, director of the Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology at Rockefeller University, has demonstrated through a series of experiments conducted on animals the importance of the brain's response to the allostatic load. He found that unrelieved stress could destroy stem cells in a portion of the hippocampus of the brain, which is vital to memory storage and which contains more Cortisol receptors than any other part of the brain.466 In addition, stress destroyed synaptic connections and dendrites as well.

Is There a Role for High GI carbs for Bodybuilders and other Athletes

This is the key time to take advantage of the one thing high GI carbs do well raise blood sugar and insulin quickly. Post workout, the catabolic (muscle wasting) hormone cortisol rises. Drinking a post workout drink consisting of high GI carbs and fast acting proteins is perhaps the best way to prevent the post workout effects of cortisol due to the sharp rise in insulin which is known to counter act the effects of cortisol (Kraemer, W.J., et al, 1998). High GI foods can help refill liver and muscle glycogen stores immediately following exercise and may reduce the catabolic effects of cortisol post workout.

DeStress with strength training

More and more research concludes that strength training helps reduce anxiety. Your body's response to stress is to release chemicals to prepare your body for it, like adrenaline, norepinephrine, and cortisol. Also called the fight or flight response. Being anxious about the holidays, your job, getting fit, or money also produces the stress response. But you still have those chemicals floating around in your bloodstream. Being sedentary and anxious is where stress wreaks havoc on your health - heart disease, high cholesterol, hypertension, and aging. Lifting against a resistance is a great way to burn up those lingering stress hormones and help you feel better.

How Is Blood Glucose Maintained InBetween Meals and Overnight

The complete digestion and absorption of a meal can take several hours, depending upon its size and composition. Therefore, carbohydrate or more specifically glucose from that meal may be available for several hours as well. However, once this ends, a new blood glucose scenario begins to take shape. Cells throughout the body will continue to help themselves to glucose in the blood to help meet their energy needs. The net effect is that our blood glucose concentration will begin to decrease. When this happens the pancreas responds again. However, this time it responds by releasing the hormone glucagon into our blood (see Figure 4.3). In addition, epinephrine (adrenaline) and cortisol will promote efforts in different tissue that will help maintain blood glucose levels in-between meals.

What Happens to Body Protein When We Dont Eat Enough Calories

Situations can occur that increase the use of body protein for energy. Eating too few calories or fasting increases the reliance on body protein as an energy source. In these situations the level of circulating glucagon and cortisol increase. Cortisol, the stress hormone, will promote the breakdown of our body proteins to amino acids. Meanwhile, both of these hormones promote the conversion of amino acids to glucose in our liver which is released to serve as fuel. The amount of amino acids used to make glucose is related to the length and degree of caloric restriction and the intensity and duration of exercise. Simply stated, as glycogen stores in the liver and muscle become depleted, as in prolonged fasting and aerobic exercise, the reliance upon amino acids to make glucose increases.

Principle If you are in the longer than one hour you are making friends not training

Since this value is very strongly correlated to strength gains (r 0.86), one may infer that training under depressed androgen levels is counter-productive, since the catabolic effects of the glucocorticoids would negate the anabolic effects of the androgens. Apparently an hour pause is sufficient to allow the testosterone levels to normal. This is why modern strength training has evolved to multiple daily sessions from the traditional two-hour workouts.

Principle Keep accurate records of your training poundages

I could instantly read the anxiety in his eyes indicating a nine-fold increase of cortisol from the perceived screw-up. In my usual diplomatic style, I continued You are pregnant or you are not. There is no in-between. Next time, record just 5 reps please. The poor guy was probably producing more cortisol wondering if he had done 5.2 or 5.3 reps.

Mood And Tension Levels

When you're stressed and anxious, your body produces chemicals in the fight or flight response, like adrenaline and cortisol. But stress hormones can also break down your body and burn you out when the fight or flight response is chronic. These chemicals have nowhere to dissipate, so they keep building up in your body, causing long-term damage. Exercise is another form of stress, which helps to burn up those chemicals.

Effects of postpartum depression on motherinfant interaction

Research is confirming that postpartum depression negatively affects mother-infant interactions during the first year of life. Field's program of research has repeatedly reported that postpartum depression negatively affects maternal-infant interaction. Field 31 , for example, reported a dysregulation profile for infants of mothers suffering from postpar-tum depression. Infants of postpartum depressed mothers have lower responsivity on the Brazelton scale, higher levels of indeterminate sleep, and elevated levels of norepinephrine and cortisol, activation of right frontal electroencephalogram, decreased responsivity to facial expressions, lower vagal tone, neurological delays, decreased play, decreased Bay-ley mental and motor scale scores, and lower weight percentiles 32 . Field 31 reported that postpartum depressed mothers displayed two predominant styles of interaction, withdrawn or intrusive. Mother-infant dyads matched negative behavior states more often and positive states less...

Etiology of Low Bone Mass in Athletes

Disordered eating, present with low BMD in the absence of menstrual dysfunction 74,78 . Studies aimed at correcting the hypoestrogenic state, using estra-diol replacement (without an increase in energy intake), generally have not succeeded in the normalization of BMD after years of treatment 81-84 , indicating that factors other than estrogen also are important for bone. The most convincing evidence that low energy availability may have a direct effect on bone was published in an article by Ihle and Loucks 85 , who showed that markers of bone formation and resorption changed unfavorably within 5 days in sedentary women who were exposed to low energy availability through dietary restriction or increased exercise energy expenditure 85 . Whether this is also the case in athletic women has yet to be determined. Nevertheless, it seems highly plausible that an energy and nutrient deficit affects metabolic substrates and hormones, including insulin, growth hormone, insulin-like growth...

What Is Cholesterol and Can We Make It in Our Body

Cholesterol can be made in many cells, and under normal situations we seem to make all that we need. In fact, we will make about 1 gram of cholesterol each day depending on how much cholesterol is in the diet. The liver is by far the most productive organ when it comes to making cholesterol and one of its jobs is to share with the rest of the body. Cholesterol is a necessary component of cell membranes and many vital substances in the body are made from cholesterol (Figure 5.2). These substances include bile components, vitamin D, testosterone, estrogens, aldosterone, progesterone, and cortisol.

What Causes Changes in Body Weight and Composition

On the other hand, more significant changes in body weight and composition over time are more attributable to regular over-consumption or under-consumption of calories as well as the type of diet we eat and the exercise we perform. In general, the effects of these factors are relegated to specific hormones and other signals. The handling of energy nutrients being absorbed from the digestive tract is primarily influenced by insulin. In contrast, glucagon, cortisol, and epinephrine largely control the handling of stored body nutrients during fasting or exercise. In addition, serious exercise leads to additional signals in muscle to adapt and possibly get bigger (thus influencing body composition).

Effects of bcaa ingestion on immune responses to exercise

Prolonged strenuous exercise is associated with a temporary immunodepression that affects macrophages, neutrophils, and lymphocytes.36-38 The mechanisms involved are not fully established and appear to be multifactorial, including the actions of stress hormones (e.g., catecholamines and cortisol), inhibition of macrophage and T-cell cytokine production, altered heat shock protein expression, increased oxidative stress, and a fall in the plasma concentration of glutamine.38,39 BCAAs are nitrogen

Mechanism Of Vitamin A Action

RA and its isomer, 9-ds-retinoic acid (9cRA), serve as ligands that activate ligand-activated transcription factors that belong to a superfamily of nuclear receptors.10 This superfamily of related genes expresses nuclear receptors for steroids (the female sex hormones estrogen and progesterone, the mineralocorticoid aldoster-one, the glucocorticoid cortisol, the male sex hormones testosterone and dihy-drotestosterone), prostanoids, the thyroid hormone, the hormonal form of vitamin D, calcitriol, and peroxisome proliferators. Additionally, more than 50 orphan receptors belong to this family. Two classes of retinoid receptors occur retinoic acid receptors (RAR) and retinoid X receptors (RXR). Each has three different versions (a, p, and y) encoded by distinct genes. Each version also has multiple isoforms resulting from differential promoter use and alternative RNA splicing. Thus, multiple forms of each occur (e.g., RARa1, RARa2, etc.). Moreover, RAR functions as a heterodimer with RXR....

Cholesterol Biosynthesis

Cholesterol may be released directly into the gall bladder by hepatocytes or enzymatically modified into bile acids. Integrated in lipoproteins, it can be transported to hormone-synthesizing gland cells and used to synthesize steroid hormones such as cortisol, progesterone, estradiol, testosterone, and aldosterone.

Transform a sound meal plan into a disaster In addition even the most sensible diets ignore the cruc

Incledon, T. and Bocics, M. (1997). Testosterone and Cortisol in relationship to dietary nutrients and resistance exercise. J Appl Physiol. 82(l) 49-54. Anderson, K., et al. (1987). Diet-hormone interactions protein carbohydrate ratio alters reciprocally the plasma levels of testosterone and Cortisol and their respective binding globulins in man. Life See. 40 1761-1768.

Post Workout Nutrition Secrets to a Hard Lean Body

As you've probably heard before, your post-workout meal may very well be your most important meal of the day. The reason is that when you're finished with an intense workout, you're entering a catabolic state where your muscle glycogen is depleted and increased cortisol levels are beginning to excessively break down muscle tissue. These conditions (if left to go too long) are not good and the only way to reverse this catabolic state (and promote an anabolic state) is to consume a quickly digestible post-workout meal as soon as you can after training. The goal is to choose a meal with quickly digestible carbs to replenish muscle glycogen as well as quickly digestible protein to provide the amino acids needed to jump start muscular repair. The surge of carbohydrates and amino acids from this quickly digested meal promotes an insulin spike from the pancreas, which shuttles nutrients into the muscle cells. The post-workout meal should generally contain between 300-500 calories to get the...

Personalized Medicine

Chronic stress results in chronic elevations in cortisol and eventually abdominal fat and insulin resistance.38,44 The resulting visceral obesity increases the production of inflammatory mediators such as TNF-a and IL-6. Patients caught in this cycle of inflammation and adiposity may need a clinician's help to reverse the unfavorable environment. Nutritional interventions such as improved-quality carbohydrates, vitamin D, magnesium, and chromium, each discussed in later chapters, can improve insulin sensitivity and, eventually, phenotypic expression.

Protein and Amino Acid Needs in Disease

Simple tools have been used to identify the hypermetabolic state indirect calorimetry to measure energy expenditure, and N balance to follow protein loss. These measurements have shown that blunting the N loss in such patients is not as simple as supplying more calories, more amino acids, or different formulations of amino acids. What becomes clear is that although a nutritional problem exists, nutritional replacement will not correct the problem instead, the metabolic factors that cause the condition must be identified and corrected. Wilmore has categorized the factors that produce the hypermetabolic state into three groups stress hormones (cortisol, catecholamines, glucagon), cytokines (tumor necrosis factor, interleukins, etc.), and lipid mediators (prostaglandins, thromboxanes, etc.) ( 182). Strategies have been developed to address these various components. For example, insulin and growth hormone have been administered to provide anabolic hormonal stimuli to improve N balance....

Variable Body Composition

The human body is made up of several distinct components, which differ in their chemical and structural characteristics. The extracellular compartment consists of support structures like bone lamellae, tendons and ligaments, and the extracellular fluid systems, blood plasma, and lymph. The totality of cells can be viewed as distinct from fatty tissue, which serves either as energy reserve (fat deposits), or as structural support or building material, as in cheeks or in the soles of the feet. The latter will be broken down only in extreme cases of nutritional deficiency or during illnesses accompanied by consumption. The fat deposits, however, may be subject to rather extreme fluctuations.

Enhance Your Fat Burning Ability With Water

When you're fully hydrated, the bloodstream has all the fluid it needs to transport fatty acids from place to place. Drinking water also enhances your body's ability to release fatty acids from within cells into the bloodstream to go to the muscles for burning.

Is Being Overweight and Obese Due to Genetic Reasons

An argument can easily be made that nearly all aspects of our being have a genetic basis. Thus genetic disposition must be involved in determining body weight and composition. But how Although faulty genes can certainly play a role in establishing a sluggish metabolism in some people, scientists estimate that this may account for only a small percentage of obese individuals. Here the problem may lie in hormonal imbalances, such as lowered thyroid hormone. Scientists also believe that some people are genetically inclined to store body fat and hold on to it once it is stored. In this situation the cause is not hormonal as much as altered activity of the enzymes and other factors involved in storing fat.

Anabolic Anticatabolic QA

Q You ve done a lot of research on insulin. Is it a bodybuilder's friend or foe Should hardgain -ers try to get insulin surges throughout the day via high-glycemic-index carb intake to kick-start anabolism and blunt Cortisol release, or will that have negative effects A Insulin is a storage hormone that has the capacity to increase fat deposition, foster carb storage as glycogen and help increase muscle protein synthesis by promoting amino acid uptake in muscle while blunting Cortisol's catabolic effects. One study attributes 30 percent of muscle protein synthesis to insulin activity. I think it's beneficial to have an insulin spike as soon as possible after training, since many studies show that increased insulin at that time promotes increased muscle glycogen synthesis, greater amino acid uptake into muscle and decreased Cortisol. The best way to do that is to consume half a gram of simple carbs per pound of body weight along with enough protein to equal 40 percent of the carb dose....

Biochemistry And Bioavailability Of Carvocrol

Established risk factors, 35-41 possible risk factors, 41 -43 Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), 234 Cortisol, elevated levels of, 126 Coumarins, herbal source of, 353 Cowherd, William, 528 Creatine supplementation, 288, 290 Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CjD), 145 Creutzfeldt-Jakob variant, 139 CRH, see Corticotropin-releasing hormone Crop(s)

Postprandial Lipid Distribution

Postprandial Lipid Metabolism

With other lipoproteins, it can be considered a key substance in the complex lipid transport system. During the early absorption phase, levels of enzymes involved in fat storage rise. These are mainly acetyl-CoA car-boxylase, fatty acid synthase, the malate enzymes, and a series of pentose phosphate cycle enzymes. Extracellular lipoprotein lipase activity in fatty tissues increases as well, which is necessary for fatty acid uptake from VLDL coming from the liver. At the same time, the activity of hormone-sensitive lipase, catalyzing the release of fatty acids from adipocytes, is reduced. All these events are subject to hormonal control (insulin and thyroid hormones), regulating necessary enzyme levels by up- or down-regulating transcription and translation.

Pancreatic Signals

Behavioral and Metabolic Effects of Leptin evidence strongly disputes that claim. Insulin fulfills the role (shared by leptin) of serving as a marker of adipose tissue mass and is secreted in direct proportion to fat mass. Insulin secretion also serves as an acute response to caloric influx Increased secretion begins within minutes of initiation of feeding, is maintained for the duration of food intake, and returns to basal secretory rate in the postabsorptive period. If insulin were an appetite stimulant (like ghrelin), its secretion would have preceded, not followed, ingestion of food. The timing and pattern of postprandial insulin secretion suggest a role in the regulation of satiety and meal termination. Indeed, direct administration of insulin to the central nervous system suppresses food intake in rodents (88). Since circulating insulin reaches the central nervous system via receptor-mediated transport across the blood-brain barrier, it is possible that peak insulin levels...

Peripheral Signals In The Regulation Of Food Intake

Regulation Food Intake

The peripheral hormones that regulate food intake include several gastrointestinal, pancreatic, and adipocyte-derived peptides (Table 1.2). Based on extensive studies in rodents and limited human data, these peptides can be classified as having orexigenic (e.g., ghrelin) or anorexigenic (e.g., insulin, peptide YY, glucagon-like polypeptide, cholecystokinin, leptin) effects. Leptin Peptide YY There is a mature and growing literature on the roles of several adipocyte products (including nonesterified fatty acids, adipocytokines, and leptin) in the regulation of metabolic fuel economy, energy balance, glucoregulation, food intake, and body weight. Products such as nonesterified fatty acids have long been proposed as mediators of obesity-associated insulin resistance and glucose dysregulation (33-35), as discussed elsewhere in this book. The adipocytokine TNF-alpha (also known as cachectin, for its association with cachexia or wasting) is a mediator of insulin resistance and is secreted...

Hormonal Wars The Conflict From Within

While you may not be aware of it, a struggle for biochemical domination is occurring within you. The victor of this war ultimately determines whether you make muscular gains or lose muscle and even get fat. The two combating armies are collectively called anabolic and catabolic hormones. The most familiar of them from a bodybuilding perspective are testosterone (anabolic), growth hormone (anabolic), insulin (anabolic) and Cortisol (catabolic). Anabolic refers to the metabolic building processes. The actions of anabolic hormones involve either an increase in muscle protein synthesis or a decreased breakdown of muscle protein. Increased breakdown of muscle is the chief characteristic of catabolic reactions. You would think that since Cortisol, the body's primary catabolic hormone, is so outnumbered by the anabolic forces, it would be more or less an ineffectual player in the hormonal battle between anabolic and catabolic reactions, but that isn't the case. Since Cortisol, a product of...

Health Benefits and Risks Associated with Specific Practices

The structure and outward appearance of each person's body is, in part, a reflection of the food and drink he or she consumes. All the organs of the body, as well as the skin, bones, muscles, and nerves, need nutrition to survive, regenerate, maintain function, and develop structural foundations. The vital organs, such as the liver, heart, brain, and kidneys, depend upon essential nutrients from food and drink to sustain life, increase strength, and improve health. Throughout life, the body constantly breaks down the food products that are ingested, using some components to rebuild the tissues that contribute to good health. Similarly, the body also disposes of the waste products of food through excretory processes or in storage centers (fat deposits, for instance) in the body.

Simple and Complex Carbohydrates

Fructose, in the form of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), has come under scrutiny as a possible culprit contributing to the obesity epidemic (Wylie-Rosett, Segal-Isaacson, and Segal-Isaacson 2004). HFCS is made using chemical processes that first convert cornstarch to corn syrup and then convert 42 to 55 percent of the glucose in the corn syrup to fructose as a way to make it taste sweeter. Animal research suggests that fructose can lead to weight gain because of changes in insulin and leptin, two hormones that influence appetite. Whether or not HFCS promotes obesity in humans requires more study. Some research hints that fructose is digested, absorbed, and metabolized differently than glucose in ways that favor fat production (Bray, Nielsen, and Popkin 2004 Vertanian, Schwartz, and Brownell 2007).

Omega Fish Oil Capsules

Omega 3 Fish Oil Capsules are rich in a specific group of fatty acids (omega 3 fatty acids) that are commonly missing the North American diet. When added to the diet, these fats (especially the DHA and EPA components) have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity in muscle cells while decreasing it in fat cells. As a result, nutrients are more likely to be shunted toward muscle instead of adipose tissue. In addition to improved carbohydrate storage, fish oil may improve the efficiency of protein storage, increase metabolic rate, and increase lean mass.

Individual Vitamins And Influence Of Exercise

There are indications that vitamin E supplementation elevates the testosterone cortisol ratio suggesting that vitamin E has a stress reducing effect on the body. It is able to reduce lipid peroxidation in both animals and humans as measured by an enhanced appearance of penthane in exhaled air. Studies at high altitude indicate that vitamin E can influence metabolic performance parameters and reduce penthane (an indirect marker of free radical induced cell damage) exhalation, suggesting that vitamin E may have a protective effect. However, it is not known which tissues undergo lipid peroxidation most during exercise. It may be that the most important site is tissue that is prone to some ischaemia during exercise, such as the gastrointestinal system, but not muscle.

Women Weight and Menopause

Sleep deprivation itself is also associated with weight gain. Adults who sleep less than seven hours per night tend to be heavier than their well-rested counterparts. When you are sleep deprived, your appetite grows. The hormone that curbs your appetite (leptin) is reduced, and the hormone that increases your appetite (grehlin) become more active (Taheri et al. 2004). Hence, you can have a hard time differentiating between being hungry or tired. In either case, cookies and chocolate can be very tempting.

Endocrine Effects of MSG

A fairly recent series of studies found that infant animals treated with MSG have higher cortisone levels than normal mice, and following stress it takes longer for the high levels to normalize.255 This same process occurs in the elderly, and is known to endanger the brain. High levels of cortisone, especially over a long period of time, can destroy neurons in the hippocampus, a part of the brain damaged in Alzheimer's disease. Some have proposed that the elevated levels of Cortisol and slow clearance following stress eventually lead to Alzheimer's dementia. That our children may be constantly exposed to high cortisone levels from early childhood is a frightening prospect.

Beef pork lamb and vealTotal fat grams

It is this set-point that explains why dieters return to pre-diet weight once they stop restricting food intake. People may have different set-points throughout their lifetime, perhaps 125 pounds in their 20's, 150 pounds in their 40's, etc. It is believed many factors contribute to determining one's set-point. Factors such as metabolism and the number of fat cells may work together to set a level of weight that is normal for that person. Scientists have long recognized that some forms of obesity are hereditary, but the links between fat and genes remained a mystery until December 1994. That is when the obesity gene was discovered in mice. From that, a human obese gene was cloned. Found in fat cells, the obese gene makes a protein message that travels via the bloodstream to the brain and says I've had enough food, stop eating. In the strain of obese mice that were studied, the protein message is mutated and the message never gets to the brain. Since the principle action of this...

Anorexigenic Neuropeptides

The melanocortins are derived from site-specific, posttranslational cleavage of the precursor parent molecule proopiomelanocortin (POMC). Cleavage of POMC within the anterior pituitary gives rise to Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), which acts through the MC2 receptor to stimulate adrenal steroidogenesis. Elsewhere in the brain, POMC is cleaved to another melanocortin, alpha-MSH, which is an agonist for the MC3 and MC4 receptors. Administration of alpha-MSH (i.c.v.) in rodents results in weight loss through inhibition of food intake and stimulation of energy expenditure (22). These actions are mediated through activation of two neuronal melanocortin receptor subtypes (MC3r and MC4r) and antagonized by an adjacent subset of hypothalamic neurons that express AgRP and NPY. The NPY AgRP neurons that inhibit MC3r and MC4r are themselves inhibited by leptin and insulin. The integrated physiology of the interactions of these opposing neuropeptides is evident from their weight-related...

Fat metabolism in the healing wound

The healing process for most wounds requires an increase in caloric intake over basal levels. This is especially true in severely injured, burned, or critical patients in whom the stress response has placed them in a hypermetabolic state.82,83 Induction of the stress response via the hypothalamus is initiated by proinflammatory cytokines and results in increased levels of the stress hormones (e.g., glucagon, cortisol, and catecholamines). These hormones then result in a protein-catabolic state as well as The previously mentioned endocrine function of WAT may also play a role in wound metabolism during the early stages of wound healing. Leptin production increases during inflammation.47 Interestingly, leptin activity has been detected in the fluids of experimental wounds in pigs during the first few days following injury,105 and it was suggested by the authors that this hormone may function in an autocrine and paracrine manner during wound healing. The significance and role of leptin...

Hypothalamic Neuropeptides That Stimulate Food Intake

Interestingly, NPY expression in the arcuate nucleus is potently antagonized by the anorexigenic hormone leptin. Furthermore, activation of the Y2 receptor subtype on NPY neurons triggers inhibitory presynaptic signals. Central administration of PYY3-36 (a Y2 receptor agonist secreted by intestinal endocrine L cells) into the AgRP is expressed exclusively in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and colocalizes to the same neurons that secrete NPY (10). Several reports have confirmed the status of AgRP as a potent orexigenic factor A single i.c.v. injection of AgRP increases food intake for several days in rodents (11). In contrast to the shortlived effect of NPY, chronic treatment with AgRP leads to sustained hyperphagia and obesity (12). The orexigenic effect of AgRP is mediated through antagonism of MC3 and MC4 receptors. Such antagonism effectively reverses the inhibition of food intake induced by alpha-MSH. The arcuate neurones that cosecrete NPY AgRP are potently inhibited by...

Lipid metabolism Digestion and Transport

Fatty acids introduced to the tissues are either utilized for energy or stored for later use, depending on the energy state of the body. In a fed state, fatty acids are primarily used for the synthesis of triglycerides in subcutaneous and deep visceral adipose tissue. While only approximately 450 g of glycogen can be stored in the body at one time, a nearly unlimited capacity for fat storage exists. Fat storage depends on the individual. For nonobese males, average triglyceride storage ranges between 9 and 15 kg, translating into a total energy storage of 80,000 to 140,000 kcal.9 While trained athletes have less fat reserves, ample amounts remain to provide energy in times of prolonged periods of insufficient energy intake. Not only in caloric deprivation, but in states of high energy expenditure, carbohydrate availability may be limited and utilization of fat stores may be warranted. In addition to the fat storage in adipose tissue, a small amount of fat is present as lipid droplets...

Influences of Nutrient Partitioning Hormones

The influence of hormones on amino acid partition to the skin and wool growth appears to be indirect. This could be attributed to passive changes in the skin that result from hormone-induced alteration of amino acid metabolism in the body. Adams et al. (2000) reviewed the effects of hormones, including IGF-1, insulin, growth hormone, androgens, p-adrenergic agonist, thyroxine and Cortisol on wool growth and follicle activities, and pointed out 'there are no hormones with a homeorrhoetic function to direct nutrients to the skin. However, hormones do affect wool growth through their effects on whole body protein synthesis, or by affecting protein metabolism in other organs'.

Did You Know

Rapid rise in glucose may contribute to the development of diabetes, but it also causes more of the glucose to be converted to fats for storage. This fat storage contributes to obesity, if the energy is not used in exercise. The original pyramid did not differentiate between these types of carbohydrates.

Tracer Methods

Because of the limitations in the NBAL method, Young and Bier have been instrumental in devising a conceptual framework from which to determine optimal protein intakes using stable isotopic tracers. They have coined the terms nutrient deficiency, accommodation, adaptation, and nutrient excess.147 148 In a state of protein deficiency, there would be a maximal reduction in amino acid oxidation and a reduction in protein synthesis to all but the essential organs (e.g., brain) that ultimately would result in muscle wasting (negative NBAL). The state of accommodation would be the state where NBAL is achieved with a decrease in a physiologically relevant process. The state of adaptation would be the dietary intake that provided for optimal rates of protein synthesis for growth, interorgan amino acid exchange, and immune function. Finally, the state of protein excess would be defined as that intake where amino acids are oxidized for energy or used in fat storage, and protein synthesis is not...

Back to the TDEE

However, as mentioned throughout this chapter, the effects fats have on bodyfat is a complicated issue as certain fats are helpful for reducing bodyfat, blocking fat storage, increasing beta oxidation, etc. Though the effect of fat on TEM is important to know, it's even more important in my view to remember not all fats are created equal in this regard or their effects on metabolism.

Control of appetite

Their weight is more or less constant. As discussed in section 1.3.2, leptin is central to the control of both food intake and energy expenditure, and there are a number of mechanisms involved in short-term control of food intake, with regulation of both hunger and satiety.

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Estimates of the likely genetic component to obesity are in the order of 2040 depending on the type of study (13). Polymorphisms in the leptin gene may be one of the important genetic variables which regulate appetite. Leptin protein levels have been clearly related to the obese state in animals but less clearly so in humans (14). Despite genetic factors, the important principles are that increasing weight (adiposity) results in movement towards the obese state, and that gain in adiposity (fat mass) results from a long-term imbalance between energy intake (energy from food and drink) and energy expenditure (basal metabolic rate + thermic effect of eating + involuntary muscle activity (shivering) + voluntary activity (day-to-day living and specific 'exercise')). A review of the intricacies of food intake, energy balance and body weight control is provided by Doucet and Tremblay (15) (Fig. 11.1).


An elaborate network of central and peripheral neurohormonal signals has evolved to regulate feeding, one of the primal activities necessary for survival and self-preservation. Despite decades of animal and human research, the full extent of the processes and humors involved in the regulation of food intake remains to be elucidated. Current understanding indicates that energy homeostasis in health is predicated upon a balance between orexigenic and anorexigenic factors, both centrally and peripherally. Virtually all of the peripheral signals (e.g., insulin, PYY, leptin, CCK) are triggered by food ingestion and attenuated by fasting or starvation, indicating a response system that is tailored at satiety and meal termination. Ghrelin, the only peripheral signal activated preprandially, may be unique in its role as a rare peripheral signal for hunger and meal initiation.

Energy expenditure

Lean people can increase their energy expenditure to match their food intake leptin (section 1.3.2) increases the activity of mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (section The result of this is an increased rate of metabolism of metabolic fuels and increased heat output from the body, especially after meals and while asleep.

The Role Of Drugs

Several new drugs show promise for future treatment of obesity. Axokine, a genetically engineered recombinant human variant ciliary neurotrophic factor that signals through leptinlike pathways in the hypothalamus, has been shown to bypass leptin resistance.43 Topiramate is a broad-spectrum anticonvulsant that stimulates gamma -aminobutyric acid activity. In a 14-week, double-blind trial comparing

Polygenic Obesity

In humans, studies of polygenic obesity are based on the analysis of single nucle-otide polymorphisms (SNPs) or repetition of bases (polyCAs or microsatellites) located within or near a candidate gene. These studies are carried out in family members (family study) or unrelated individuals (case-control study), and their objective is to determine a potential association between a gene's allelic variant and obesity-related traits (70). However, unlike monogenic obesity, many genes and chromosomal regions contribute to the common obese phenotype (7,71). For this purpose, large DNA banks have been established from different populations throughout the world and are used for the extensive investigation of large number of genes and chromosomal regions. The findings of these genetic studies are reported every year by the Human Obesity Gene Map consortium. According to their latest report, 253 QTL have been identified, in 61 genome-wide scans (7). All chromosomes, except the Y chromosome, have...

What Are Hormones

Cortisol Increases glucose production in the liver and release into blood stimulates muscle protein breakdown, promotes inflammation increases fat release from fat cells Epinephrine Increases heart rate and stroke increases blood, increases fat release from fat cells tissue increases storage of glucose as glycogen decreases fat release from fat cells and increases fat production increases net protein production Glucagon Increases fat release from fat cells increases

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Download Instructions for The Beta Switch Weight Loss Program

You can safely download your risk free copy of The Beta Switch Weight Loss Program from the special discount link below.

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