Ultimate Guide to Power Efficiency

Power Efficiency Guide

The Power Efficiency Guide is a step-by-step guide showing the users how to create their own Home Power Plant. The E-book was created just to explain and help people out of the problem they face because of the lack of electricity. The guide was made to help the users use about 90% of the tools they use regularly in their various houses for the creation of a power generator, which will beneficial to them and their family. The device uses the endless power principle used to make the electric cars constantly charge themselves from the wheels when not being accelerated. It is a unique concept that can be used in every home. It was created in such a way that it would be a quick fix for the users' electricity problem. In other words, when the users purchase it during the day, the users will be able to make use of it before night falls. The process is so easy that even a little child can fix it up. The guide is such that comes at a cheap price and would help in the reduction of the amount the users might have to pay for regular electricity bill due to the number of appliances used at home. Read more here...

Power Efficiency Guide Summary


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Low Energy Availability

Energy availability has been defined as the amount of dietary energy remaining for all other physiologic functions after energy has been expended in exercise 3 . Low energy availability results from consuming fewer calories than necessary to cover the additional energy demands of exercise. Although low energy availability can and often does result from disordered eating, it also can occur in the absence of disordered eating. An athlete unwittingly or unknowingly may fail to meet her exercise energy requirements because of time constraints, food availability issues, or lack of appropriate nutritional knowledge.

Prevalence of Low Energy Availability and Disordered Eating in Athletes

To date, no published studies have examined the prevalence of low energy availability among female athletes. Such research likely would prove difficult to conduct because it would necessitate accurately assessing energy intake and exercise energy expenditure. The limitations inherent in self-reported energy intake (eg, food records) and energy expenditure (eg, activity records) are well documented 20 , and the expense or lack of generalizability involved in more direct measures (eg, metabolic feeding studies, doubly labeled water, whole room cal-orimetry) render such assessments impractical. Nonetheless, if it is assumed that most female athletes with disordered eating also are experiencing low energy availability, one can garner an estimate, albeit indirect, of prevalence.

Metabolic Adaptations

King and colleagues 14 reviewed previous studies in which changes in energy efficiency for both weight-bearing (treadmill exercise) and non-weight-bearing (cyclo-ergometer exercise) activities were measured at standard pace and or intensity 38 . The net energy cost of non-weight-bearing activity did not change until the last month of pregnancy, at which time it increased by approximately 10 . During the first two trimesters, the net energy cost of weight-bearing activity remained stable but then increased in the third trimester by about 15 . As most women had already gained an average of 6 kg by the end of the second trimester, when the net energy cost of weight-bearing activities remained stable, the data suggest that those activities were performed with higher efficiency in late pregnancy. The thermic effect of feeding refers to the increase in energy expenditure above basal metabolism after the ingestion of food. This increase is related to the energy costs of digestions,...

Irradiation A Hot Topic

Many scientific organizations, including the 27,000-member Institute of Food Technologists and an international Expert Committee on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Foods (which includes representatives from the United Nations, the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the World Health Organization), believe that irradiation is a safe and important weapon in the fight against food poisoning caused by microbial and parasitic contamination.

Reductions in the fat content of red meat

Twenty years ago red meat and meat products were identified as major contributors to fat intake in the UK. Most of the visible (subcutaneous) fat in the meat was consumed. In the early 1980s the red meat industry began to shift production systems to favour less fat, reflecting more energy-efficient animal husbandry. For many years now there has been emphasis on reducing the fat content of our diets and this continued consumer demand for less fat further prompted the meat industry to consider ways of reducing the fat content of meat. The fat content of the carcase has been reduced in Britain by over 30 for pork, making British pork virtually the leanest in the world, 15 for beef and 10 for lamb, with further reductions anticipated for beef and lamb over the next 5-10 years. The fat content of fully trimmed lamb, beef and pork is now 8 , 5 and 4 respectively (Chan et al, 1995).

Should a Pregnant Women Exercise During Pregnancy

Some caution should be applied, however, to the type of activity a pregnant woman chooses. Contact sports and movements involving rapid directional changes and jarring motions should be avoided. Exercise such as low impact aerobics, walking, and swimming is considered safe during pregnancy. However, a female must pay particular attention to her energy consumption and monitor her body weight and hydration status.

Linking the energy contributions of fats and proteins

The condition of insufficient energy consumption occurs much more often among female athletes who want a slim body composition low in body fat in order to optimize performance in their sport or activity. Underconsumption may lead to an eating disorder, a far too common occurrence in competitive female athletes. Although the etiology of eating disorders is complex, i.e., female athlete triad,8 prevention of these disorders in athletes requires careful counseling and guidance otherwise, the women will no longer be able to compete. The likelihood of eating disorders among recreational female athletes is far less likely. This situation occurs among some professional football players, sumo wrestlers, and a few other types of power athletes. Excessive energy consumption for greater BMIs is desirable in these sports because of the association of mass and strength. Down-linemen in football have been reported to have BMIs in the obese range (BMI 30).7 The obese body weights and excess fat...

Why Are Sustainable Food Systems Important

Globally, crop production is a highly intensive operation in both inputs and energy consumption. Of the 10 to 20 percent of the fossil-fuel energy that is used by agricultural operations, 40 percent is indirect energy used in the development of chemical pesticides and fertilizers. There is thus a need to work with natural processes to conserve all resources, minimize waste, and lessen the impact on the environment. In theory, this usually means limited use of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, growth regulators, and livestock feed additives. Instead, it means more reliance on methods such as crop rotations, animal manures, legumes, mechanical cultivation, mineral-bearing rocks to maintain soil fertility and productivity and on natural, cultural, and biological controls to manage insects, weeds, and other pests. The emphasis is on prevention of problems and the use of curative interventions, such as pesticides, as last resorts.

Protein Supplementation

In terms of nutritional requirement, it appears that protein supplementation by increasing daily protein intake to a level higher than 12-15 en will be too high for most athletes. Since a higher daily energy intake in endurance athletes will result in higher protein intake, as well, the value of protein supplementation for endurance sport can be questioned. Based on the observed relationship between energy consumption and protein consumption, athletes expending and eating 5000 kcal day will ingest twice as much protein as people not involved in exercise and expending ingesting only 2500 kcal day. Protein intake for any endurance athlete will thus be sufficient as long as the diet is well composed and contains a variety of protein sources such as lean meat, fish, dairy products, eggs and vegetable protein. Supplementation may be warranted for athletes who compete in weight classes and combine intensive training with weight reduction programmes. Also vegetarian athletes, who consume low...

Lipid Differences Between Omnivores And Vegetarian Or Vegans

Oils had approximately 76 oleic acid, but the content of palmitic and linoleic acids and other minor constituents were significantly different. These oils were used as the only culinary fats during two 28-day periods and represented approximately 62 of the total lipid intake (46 of total energy consumption). Other dietary components were very closely matched. Platelet aggregation was significantly lower after the EVOO diet than after HOSO (p 0.05). Here, where every effort was made to have equal amounts of oleic acid between the EVOO and the HOSO diets, there was a significant difference in platelet aggregation values. The authors felt that other phyto-compounds present in the oils, aside from the fatty acids, probably played an important role in modulating platelet aggregation in this study.54,55

Postpartum weight retention

A woman who is lactating has the same physiologic requirements for regulating body weight as one that is not, except that she is producing a continuous supply of milk creating a much higher energy output. As noted above, the total energy cost to a woman who is exclusively breastfeeding an infant 0 to 6 months is estimated to be 500 kcal day theoretically, this output of energy could result in 0.5 kg week (1.1 pound week) of weight loss, provided energy intake and physical activity remain unchanged. While the woman-to-woman variability is tremendous, this rate of postpartum weight loss is seldom achieved as energy intake and or a decrease in physical activity in the early postpartum period compensates, at least in part, for the energy costs of lactation. Higher energy intakes in lactating women versus nonlactating women may be attributed to enhanced appetite due to increased prolactin levels and higher energy demands. Prolactin is a hormone released by the anterior pituitary gland,...

Key Aspects Of Energy Expenditure

The thermic effect of feeding (TEF) is the increase in energy expenditure associated with food ingestion. The TEF represents approximately 10 of the daily energy expenditure and includes the energy costs of food absorption, metabolism, and storage. The magnitude of the TEF depends on several factors, including the caloric content and composition of the meal as well as the antecedent diet of the individual. Following meal ingestion, energy expenditure increases for 4 to 8 hours, its magnitude and duration depending on the quantity and type of macronutrient (i.e., protein, fat, or carbohydrate).

Etiology of Low Bone Mass in Athletes

The most important function of estrogen with respect to bone health is related to estrogen's suppressing effect on osteoclast activity 79 . As mentioned previously, osteoclasts are bone cells that tear down bone in the process of bone resorption. In the hypoestrogenic state, the female athlete likely exhibits accelerated bone resorption through the impact of irregular or absent menstrual cycles. In addition, a direct effect, through low energy availability, may be possible 80 . Some studies have shown that athletes, at risk for disordered eating, present with low BMD in the absence of menstrual dysfunction 74,78 . Studies aimed at correcting the hypoestrogenic state, using estra-diol replacement (without an increase in energy intake), generally have not succeeded in the normalization of BMD after years of treatment 81-84 , indicating that factors other than estrogen also are important for bone. The most convincing evidence that low energy availability may have a direct effect on bone...

Spectrum of Energy Availability

A given disorder category as opposed to the original version, which focused more on the extreme end point of each disorder category 3 . The category of disordered eating is meant to convey a continuum of abnormal eating behaviors, ranging from failing to meet the energy demands of exercise (ie, low energy availability) to the clinical eating disorders, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. Each one of the major categories contained within the spectrum of disordered eating is briefly described.

Amino acids for return to oestrus

The number of days return-to-oestrus is closely related to a sow's body condition at weaning. When sows lose significant tissue proteins through mobilization during lactation, they often show delayed return-to-oestrus or, in extreme cases, shut down the reproduction cycle (Reese et al., 1982 Mullan and Williams, 1989 Jones and Stahly, 1995). King and Dunkin (1986) demonstrated that both low energy and low protein intakes lengthened the number of days return-to-oestrus and, from an extensive review, King (1987) concluded that the primary nutritional factor influencing days return-to-oestrus is maternal protein loss related to low amino acid intake. Low amino acid intake during lactation impaired follicular development and maturation during the pro-oestrus period (Yang et al., 2000). Increasing protein intake during lactation reduced the number of days return-to-oestrus and that improvement was greater when intake was increased during mid-lactation rather than late-lactation (Koketsu et...

Eat Healthy And Often

Instead of 2-3 large meals which your body can't totally digest (with the extra calories stored as FAT) and sending your blood sugar and energy levels on a roller coaster ride, leading to low energy, overeating, and weight gain, spread your calories over 4-6 smaller meals.

General Recommendations

Based on this review, athletes seem to consume inadequate amounts of many mi-cronutrients (and energy) however, not all athletes have impaired nutritional status, which could be a result of study design and not their true status. Maughan 45 stated it well in his review, When talented, motivated and highly trained athletes meet for competition the margin between victory and defeat is usually small. When everything else is equal, nutrition can make the difference between winning and losing.'' Economos and associates 46 published a review article in which they reviewed 22 research studies on the nutritional intake of athletes. Based on their review, they recommend an energy intake of greater than 50 kcal kg d for male athletes who train for more than 90 min d and 45 to 50 kcal kg d for female athletes who train for more than 90 min d. They also recommend that athletes who consume low-energy diets focus on adequate intakes of iron, calcium, magnesium, zinc, and vitamin B12. There is no...

Functions and requirements

Estimations of thiamin requirements have been based on a variety of biochemical methods. The finding that urinary thiamin output falls below 15 mg d in people with beriberi provided the reference point against which other methods such as thiamin loading, glucose loading and transketolase (TKL) activation are all compared (Department of Health and Social Security, 1979). Early studies in men suggested that thiamin intakes of 0.4mg d were near to the minimum at low energy intakes (Williams, 1961). Epidemiological evidence suggested beriberi occurred when the intake of thiamin was 0.2mg 1000kcal or less (Williams et al, 1943). Later studies found that at a thiamin intake of 0.16mg 1000kcal both

Potential side effects of excessive protein intake

Although it is probable that most people can safely maintain very high protein intakes for long periods, there are several caveats that must be considered. First, a high-protein diet can increase urinary calcium excretion (from the sulfur-containing amino acids), which may be a concern for the female athlete with a low energy intake and amenorrhea. Second, high protein intakes in conjunction with preexisting renal disease may accelerate the progression of the disease.149 Third, rodents fed very high protein intakes have been found to exhibit morphological changes in the liver mitochondria, which could be pathological.170 Finally, some problems could theoretically occur if the protein is taken as an amino acid supplement. One possible problem relates to contamination of purified amino acids, as in the case of L-tryp-tophan supplements that were manufactured in Japan and caused a life-threatening

The Top Ten Ways To Get The Scale To Budge

Your body doesn't know it's trying to lose weight, so it starts burning the calories you're taking in more efficiently to MINIMIZE weight loss. If you're eating 1,000 -1,200 calories a day, you're asking for low energy, deprivation followed by overeating, and a weight-gain rebound, most of it fat. Try increasing your caloric intake by 200 calories a day, and see what happens.

Mineral Replacement And Supplementation

Cereals as well as whole grain products, may not be beneficial. But, for a number of reasons, the diet of athletes involved in intensive training is often unbalanced. Many athletes consume up to 40 of daily energy intake as in-between snacks that are rich in energy, but poor in micronutrients (23, 58, 165). Mineral intake largely depends on both the quality of the food selected as well as the quantitative food intake. Thus, only in cases of low energy diets or in periods of inappropriate food intake due to appetite loss when not feeling well is there a reason for supplementation. The addition of minerals to products meals designed to replace normal meals during ultraendurance events such as triathlon, multi-day competition events and long lasting high altitude climbing is recommended. However, the levels should not exceed those of safe daily intake. In this respect it is still an open question whether the RDA established for sedentary people is also adequate for athletes who, due to...

Availability and changes in consumption of animal products

The growing demand for livestock products is likely to have an undesirable impact on the environment. For example, there will be more large-scale, industrial production, often located close to urban centres, which brings with it a range of environmental and public health risks. Attempts have been made to estimate the environmental impact of industrial livestock production. For instance, it has been estimated that the number of people fed in a year per hectare ranges from 22 for potatoes and 19 for rice to 1 and 2, respectively, for beef and lamb (9). The low energy conversion ratio from feed to meat is another concern, since some of the cereal grain food produced is diverted to livestock production. Likewise, land and water requirements for meat production are likely to become a major concern, as the increasing demand for animal products results in more intensive livestock production systems (10).

Other alternate milks

Skim milk is an inappropriate milk choice during the first two years (Fomon, 1997). It provides no essential fatty acids and has a very low energy density. To meet energy needs, an infant would have to drink very large volumes of this milk. With high intakes, protein and solute

Strength of evidence

C Energy-dense and micronutrient-poor foods tend to be processed foods that are high in fat and or sugars. Low energy-dense (or energy-dilute) foods, such as fruit, legumes, vegetables and whole grain cereals, are high in dietary fibre and water. d Associated evidence and expert opinion included.

Diseasespecific Guidelines

The foremost advantage of the vegetarian diet in weight control is the emphasis on consumption of minimally processed foods derived mainly from plant sources. Such unadorned whole plant foods (grains, fruits, vegetables, legumes) can be consumed in relative abundance during weight loss interventions. Such ample quantity and variety is necessary to provide a wide complement of nutrient and non-nutrient substances found in plants and needed by humans. This high-volume, low-energy dietary pattern is vital for achieving fullness and satiety, as recently affirmed in the studies conducted by Bell and colleagues.80

Carb Ranking Glycemic Index

For a number of years, particularly since the 1980s, when rates of overweight and obesity in the United States began to climb rapidly, experts have been concerned by the effects of different foods on appetite and blood sugar regulation. Scientists became interested in how different foods affect blood sugar, insulin release, and, in turn, energy usage and fat storage. In exploring the impact of foods on blood sugar, scientists constructed the glycemic index (GI), a scale for measuring and classifying foods based on how quickly they raise blood sugar. The best foods, according to these scientists, are foods that rank low on the index foods that are digested slowly, cause a gradual rise in blood sugar, and lead to a moderate insulin response. The least favorable foods in terms of glucose response are those that elevate blood sugar levels quickly and lead to a rapid insulin response that results in a burst of energy that drops off rapidly.

Fuel Used During Exercise

Before discussing the various exercise guidelines in the following chapters, here is an overview of the energy systems used during exercise. Your body uses the macronutrients you eat (CHO, fats, and proteins) to make a chemical called adenosine triphosphate (ATP). You need ATP to contract your muscles during exercise. ATP can be made two ways. One way makes ATP without using oxygen and is called the anaerobic energy system. The second way requires oxygen to make ATP and is called the aerobic energy system. Both of these systems (described below) are required during activity but, depending on the activity, there is a greater reliance on one system over the other. During most types of exercise, both the aerobic and anaerobic energy systems are involved. The amount of energy from each system depends on the duration and intensity of the exercise. Figure 4-3 illustrates the percentage of ATP each energy system contributes during exercise of various durations. As shown, when exercise...

Strengthening Defense Qi Wei Qi

In summary, there are three energy systems responsible for good defense First and foremost, lung qi for governing and distributing defense qi, stomach and spleen qi, as well as for reproduction, quantity, and quality of defense qi. Secondly, original qi from the essence of liver yang. Thirdly, defense qi is a fleeting and active yang energy. With its role in the opening and closing of pores, it is closely associated with the secretion of body fluids (sweat). During the day, it circulates mostly in the surface yang channels of greater yang (tai yang) lesser yang (shao yang), and yang ming. At nighttime, it flows back into the bowels (zang organs) kidney, heart, lung, liver, and spleen.

How Does the Brain Know Which Type of Muscle Cells to Use for Different Sports

Versely, successful endurance athletes tend to have a greater percentage of Type I muscle fibers. This allows them to generate more force through aerobic energy systems in muscle cells. They can perform at a higher intensity before they generate critical amounts of lactic acid.

Is Being Overweight and Obese Due to Genetic Reasons

Can genetics pattern an individual's behavior, thereby rendering him or her more inclined to develop obesity For example, people who prefer to be less active or favor energy-dense foods are likely candidates for an energy imbalance. If we apply genetics to the incidence of obesity in this manner, we can certainly attribute obesity in many people to a genetic origin of some form. For others, excessive energy consumption may be a manifestation of psychological disturbances. Here, food may serve more as an instrument of comfort or as a way to cope. The role of genetics in promoting obesity will continue to show that there are hundreds of genes that can play a role in the development of obesity the hard part will be to apply this knowledge to help specific individuals.

Thyroid hormone T to the higheractivity T

You have to combine Thyro Stak with some effort to get the results. If you're consuming 3,000 calories a day or hundreds of grams of carbs, Thyro Stak may not make a difference, as your body is not stressed. It needs to recognize a low-energy state that will cause it to lower the activity of the thyroid before the normalizing action of Thyro Stak will take effect. I wish I could offer you a magic pill. It would make me millions, as few people want to put forth any honest effort. For those of you who do, Thyro Stak will help you keep the fires burning, even when you're pushing yourself to the max.

Methods Of Measurement

Time-motion studies have also been used to estimate the energy expenditure of physical activity in real-life situations. In time-motion studies, detailed records of physical activity are kept by an observer, and energy expenditure is estimated from the duration and intensity of the work performed. The major problem with this method is the marked individual variations in the energy costs of doing a particular task. Physical activity diaries and physical activity recall instruments have been used to quantify the energy costs of different activities over a representative period of time. Record keeping is often inaccurate and may interfere with the subject's normal activities. Furthermore, the subject's recall of physical activity depends on his or her memory, which may not always be reliable. Measuring motion by devices such as a pedometer or an accelerometer may provide an index of physical activity (i.e., counts) but does not quantitate energy expenditure. In summary, measurement of...

Macronutrients Energy

Energy needs during pregnancy vary according to a woman's basal metabolic rate, prepregnancy weight, amount and composition of weight gain, stage of pregnancy, and physical activity level. It is estimated that on average a pregnant woman requires a total of 85,000 additional calories over the course of 40 weeks of pregnancy, which extrapolates to approximately 300 extra calories per day 3 . For most women, however, energy needs in the first trimester of pregnancy are minimal. While the first trimester is characterized by rapid development of fetal organs and tissues, these processes are not very energy intensive. Maternal basal metabolic rate, for example, does not measurably increase until the fourth month of pregnancy when notable increases in growth of the uterus, mammary glands, placenta and fetus, and increases in blood volume and the work of the heart and respiratory system begin. As a woman's weight increases, she also requires more energy to accomplish the same amount of...

Estimated Energy Requirements

The reported energy intakes of lactating women in the literature are generally lower than that recommended by the Institute of Medicine 7 . Under-reporting may be a reason for these low energy intakes or the EER is set too high. Alternatively, mobilization of fat stores may play a greater role in energy balance or energy expenditure is lower than expected. There is little evidence to suggest energy conservation in the lactating woman, i.e., more efficient metabolism due to a change in the hormonal milieu, for example. Most research data do not suggest that an individual's basal

Keys To The Inner Universe

The book starts with a brief autobiography by Pearl, followed by a couple of sections about why weight training is beneficial for everyone and about the psychology of training and success in general. There are also short sections on energy systems, muscle physiology, and nutrition, which are not entirely accurate but are a satisfactory primer for the uninitiated. There is a short section on anabolic steroids and an interesting piece paying homage to Eugene Sandow.

Special Concerns For Athletes On Vegetarian Diets

High fiber, low fat vegetarian diets have been associated with reduced blood estrogen levels and increased menstrual irregularity.72-75 Large volumes of exercise have also been related to menstrual irregularity.1,76-78 Approximately 5-20 of women who exercise regularly and vigorously, and up to 50-65 of competitive athletes may develop oligo-amenor-rhea.76,77 The causes are hotly debated, but may include the effect of exercise itself on the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, low energy intake, and depleted fat stores in the female athlete.1,76-78 Amenorrheic athletes typically display reduced levels of estradiol and progesterone and have hormonal profiles more similar to those of postmenopausal women. The reduced levels of endogenous estrogen associated with athletic amen-orrhea may prevent the formation of adequate bone density.1,76,77 The syndrome of amenorrhea, disordered eating (and often excessive exercise), and osteoporosis is called the female athlete triad. 76 Two reports...

Eating Disorders in Athletes

The authors conclude that restrictive eating or obsessive weight control behaviour may be self-defeating because severe energy restriction may cause an increase in energy conservation or energy efficiency, which, in itself, may render further attempts at weight loss or weight control less effective. Nevertheless, these athletes compete at a high performance level, which may suggest that a higher efficiency of the body in energy metabolism has taken place (381). A number of recommendations are given for further research on both physiological and psychological aspects. A sport discipline in which the effects of severe diet restriction on performance have been studied is wrestling and aspects of dieting and eating disorders related to the realization and maintenance of a certain body physique have been studied most among female dancers. Both will be discussed in more detail below.

Energy expenditure

Other people seem to be much more energy efficient, and their body temperature may drop slightly while they are asleep. This means that they are using less metabolic fuel to maintain body temperature, and so are able to store more as adipose tissue. Such people tend to be overweight. (This response, lowering body temperature and metabolic rate to conserve food, is seen in a more extreme form in animals that hibernate. During their long winter sleep these animals have a very low rate of metabolism, and hence a low rate of utilization of the fuel they have stored in adipose tissue reserves.)


The physiologic response to a negative energy balance is to reduce energy consumption. Children who suffer from marasmus display decreased activity, lethargy, behavioral changes, slowed growth, and weight loss. The subsequent effects on the body are wasting and a loss of subcutaneous fat and muscle, resulting in growth retardation. The majority of children who suffer from marasmus never return to age-appropriate growth standards.


Snacking is fast becoming the main eating style among children in America. According to Jans and colleagues, there was a significant increase in snacking among children between the years 1977 to 1996. They found that the number of snacking occasions increased, thus increasing the total energy consumption for these children. They also reported that the proportion of energy consumption from fat increased.

Previous page 103

Total energy intake comes from a range of different foods and in a typical Western culture this may be between 15 and 50 different food and drink items per day, with many more being possible. The energy from a food (or drink) is derived from the different macro-nutrient constituents fat 37 kJ g (9 kcal g) carbohydrate (sugars and starch) 16 kJ g (3.75 kcal g) protein 17 kJ g (4 kcal g) fibre 6 kJ g (1.5 kcal g) alcohol 29 kJ g (7 kcal g). As fat (whether saturated, mono- or polyunsaturated) provides over twice the energy of carbohydrate and protein per given amount, foods which are fat rich are more calorific, or energy dense, than low-fat foods. This is the basis of why fatty foods are considered 'fattening'. If a diet is predominantly made up of fat-rich foods, then there is a strong possibility of excess energy consumption (in relation to expenditure) due to its low satiety quotient (18), i.e. fat produces a poor satiety response (1921). This effect has also been called 'passive...

Protein Intake

Figure 21 (a) Protein intake expressed as 12 en of total daily energy intake. Note that an increase in total energy intake will automatically lead to an increased protein consumption. The latter has been observed to amount to about 12 en in endurance athletes, even during the Tour de France. (b) Protein intake in relation to energy consumption. E, endurance S, strength T, team sports. These data show a clear relationship between energy and protein consumption. Athletes who consume less than 1500 kcal may be prone to a marginal or insufficient protein intake. Some protein supplementation to enhance the protein density of the diet may be advised. Reproduced from Erp-Baart et al., Int J Sports Med 1989, 10, Suppl. 1 S3-S10, with permission from Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart and New York Figure 21 (a) Protein intake expressed as 12 en of total daily energy intake. Note that an increase in total energy intake will automatically lead to an increased protein consumption. The latter has been...

Nutritional Adequacy

The main shortcoming of the American diet is the surplus of energy (calories). Over one third of adult Americans are obese (and many more are overweight), and a growing number of children are overweight. The reason for this increasing trend is two-fold energy consumption is up, and activity levels are down.


Activity level, age, height, and weight prior to pregnancy are all factors that are considered when determining an individual's energy requirements. Although energy requirements vary from woman to woman, most women's energy needs range from approximately 2,500 to 2,700 kcal daily 4 . Caloric requirements during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy are estimated to be 300 kcal day (500 kcal day for adolescents

Very lowenergy diets

Many of the problems associated with total starvation can be avoided by feeding a very low energy intake, commonly 1 1.5 MJ day, in specially formulated meal replacements that provide adequate intakes of vitamins and minerals. Such regimes have shown excellent results in the treatment of severe obesity. There is very much less loss of tissue protein than in total starvation, and with this small intake people feel less hungry than those who are starved completely. If very low-energy diets are used together with a programme of exercise, the rate of weight loss can be close to the theoretical maximum of 2 2.5 kg week. Such diets should probably be regarded as a treatment of last resort, for people with a serious problem of obesity which does not respond to more conventional diet therapy.

Post Detox

To retain the benefits of your detox, very gradually re-introduce foods to your diet. After your first detox we suggest you keep a food diary for a fortnight or so to record reactions to foods or drinks. Begin by re-introducing single foods to your diet so that you can monitor any reactions. This is especially useful if you have been suffering with chronic symptoms or low energy

Energy Intake

Energy is a classical determinant of protein metabolism, with suboptimal energy intake leading to a relative increase in protein oxidation.80,81 For example, in starvation there is a clear net negative protein balance that results in cachexia. Conversely, an increase in total energy intake was associated with an improvement in protein balance in young women who performed endurance exercise on a daily basis.82 Most men and women consume enough energy and protein to accommodate any possible increase in protein requirements however, the goal of the sport nutritionist is to identify and work with athletes who have unique and special needs. Over the years, our group and others have expressed concern that a varying number of female athletes appear to report very low energy intakes.41'64'65'7483-88 Unfortunately, energy restriction is on a continuum from dieting to severe cases of anorexia, and these disordered eating patterns are not uncommon among various types of female athletes.89 It is...


Molasses is a by-product of the sugar refining industry, where either sugar beet or sugar cane are used as raw materials. Because of a high water content and concomitantly low energy value, it is only used extensively in poultry diets in areas close to sugar refineries. The molasses usually available for animal feeding is so called final or blackstrap molasses, which is the product remaining after most of the sugar has been extracted for human consumption. Depending upon local conditions, high-test and type A and B molasses are sometimes available. The high-test product is basically unrefined cane or beet juice that has had its sugars inverted to prevent crystallization. Type A and B molasses are intermediate to final molasses. As expected, the energy level of molasses decreases as more and more sugar is extracted. Molasses is usually quantitated with a Brix number, measured in degrees, and these numbers relate very closely to the sucrose concentration in the product. Both cane and...

What Are Toxins

The result of all of this is an overloaded body that may not be able to keep up with the detoxification demands placed upon it. As the liver struggles to play its role in detoxification, some toxins recirculate through the body, essentially affecting most of the body systems by damaging cells and setting off inflammation which may eventually develop into chronic disease. When overload happens you are mostly likely to experience all kinds of niggly symptoms. Allergies, hayfever, hormonal imbalance, low energy, susceptibility to colds, fatigue, poor alcohol or caffeine tolerance, digestive disturbances and headaches are just a few initial complaints that may occur.


Protein is an important component of the diet and is involved in almost every structural and functional component of the human body. In general, endurance exercise may impact on the need for dietary protein by increasing the oxidation of amino acids. Resistance exercise may also have an impact through the need for amino acids to support muscle hypertrophy. At the onset of an endurance exercise program there is a negative effect on NBAL, yet with time the body adapts to the stress and NBAL and leucine oxidation are attenuated. After endurance exercise training, the amount of amino acid oxidized at the same absolute exercise intensity is reduced, yet the capacity of the body to oxidize amino acids is increased. However, only in the elite athlete (who is training very hard every day) is there a significant impact upon dietary protein requirements, with a maximal requirement of 1.6 g kg day. For the resistance-trained athlete, there also appears to be a homeostatic adaptation to the...

Endurance Training

To date, human data have not yielded consistent findings on the effects of chronic exercise training on protein metabolism. Following endurance exercise training, whole-body protein synthesis at rest is increased.69 143 There is also a greater proportion of leucine flux at rest diverted toward oxidation in the untrained vs. trained athlete.69 However, differences in leucine turnover between trained and untrained subjects disappeared when the data were expressed relative to lean mass.42 These findings are not consistent with the hypothesis that endurance exercise training attenuates glycogen use and spares protein oxidation. For this reason we designed an experiment to train sedentary individuals for 38 days and to measure their leucine oxidation and BCOAD activation during exercise, before and after the training.40 We found that leucine oxidation during exercise was lower after training, as was BCOAD activation.40 However, consequent to the increase in total mitochondrial content, the...


The available evidence does not support either a beneficial or detrimental effect of a vegetarian diet upon physical performance capacity, especially when carbohydrate intake is controlled. Concerns have been raised that an emphasis on plant foods to enhance carbohydrate intake to optimize body glycogen stores may increase dietary fiber and phytic acid intake to levels that reduce the bioavailability of several nutrients, including zinc, iron, and some other trace minerals. There are no convincing data, however, that vegetarian athletes suffer impaired nutrient status from the interactive effect of their heavy exertion and plant-food-based dietary practices, at least enough to impair performance or health. Although there has been some concern about protein intake for vegetarian athletes, data indicate that all essential and nonessential amino acids can be supplied by plant food sources alone, as long as a variety of foods is consumed and the energy intake is adequate to meet needs....

Calcium Intake

Athletes with low daily energy intake or those who follow a weight reduction programme may therefore have a marginal calcium intake. Females, especially long distance runners, have often been found to have calcium intakes that are lower than the RDA, probably as a result of relatively low energy intakes (37, 59, 84,131, 206). It has been reported (87) that a calcium intake of 1500 mg day is required to achieve calcium balance in postmenopausal women not receiving oestrogen replacement therapy. Barr (9) concluded from these data that female athletes who are amenorrhoeic and have low oestrogen levels should ingest 1500 mg

Vegetarian Diets

For thousands of years humans were hunters and gatherers who consumed mainly fruits, leaves, roots, and seeds, supplemented occasionally with meat when it was available. Plant foods have a low energy density-they contain few calories for their bulk-so to obtain 2500kcals day eating only fruits, leaves, and roots, around 7-8 kg of these foods would need to be eaten each day. Therefore, consumption of some meat, which is a concentrated form of energy, minerals, and protein, had obvious advantages.

Riboflavin Vitamin B

Based on the many roles of niacin in energy processes, poor niacin status can reduce the efficiency of energy systems. Some of the earlier symptoms of a niacin deficiency include a decreased appetite, weight loss, and a general feeling of weakness. More severe niacin deficiency can result in a severe disease syndrome called pellagra, which is characterized by the three D's (dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia) possibly leading to the fourth D (death).

B Proximate analysis

Proximate analysis gives some indication of the nutritive value of an ingredient. For example, a material very high in crude fiber is likely to have a low energy value, while feedstuffs low in crude fiber and high in ether extract are likely to be of high energy value. The crude protein content of material is a good indicator of its potential value as a protein source. Unless the amino acid composition is known, however, the actual quality of the protein cannot be determined. Certain ingredients such as meat meal normally contain a high quantity of ash. In meat meal and fish meal, calcium and phosphorus may be estimated from the ash value since it consists mainly of bone ash. Thus a determination of the ash of these materials may be very useful.

Homeostasis Leptin

Homeostasis Digestive System

Leptin controls energy uptake and use by regulating various satiety factors (A) in the hypothalamus, such as neuropep-tide Y (NPY) or glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). Since leptin is synthesized in white adipocytes, fat mass functions as a sort of central control sensor. The expression of the ob gene is greatly enhanced by glucocorticoids and insulin. Consequently, high insulin levels should result in low body weight, contrary to what actually happens. These contradictory findings can only be explained by assuming problems with various receptors. The CNS receptors for leptin, neuropeptide Y and other transmitters are now known. However, until recently, the connection between leptin and cellular energy consumption through thermogenesis had not been established.

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