- Allison DB, Fontaine, KR, Manson, JE, Stevens, J, and VanItallie, TB, Annual deaths attributable to obesity in the United States, JAMA, 282(16):1530-1538, 1999.
- Reaven, GM, Banting lecture 1988. Role of insulin resistance in human disease, Diabetes, 37:1595-607, 1988.
- Reaven, GM, Insulin resistance, compensatory hyperinsulinemia, and coronary heart disease: Syndrome X revisited, in Handbook of Physiology, Jefferson, LS and Cher-rington, AD, Eds., Oxford University Press, New York, 2001, Sec. 7, The Endocrine System, Vol 2, The Endocrine Pancreas and Regulation of Metabolism, p. 1169-97.
- Ford, ES, Giles, WH, and Dietz, WH, Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among US adults: findings from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, JAMA, 287:356-9, 2002.
- Olefsky, J, Reaven, GM, and Farquhar, JW, Effects of weight reduction on obesity. Studies of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in normal and hyperlipoproteinemic subjects, J. Clin. Invest., 53:64-76, 1974.
- Ferrannini, E, Natali, A, Bell, P, Cavallo-Perin, P, Lalic, N, and Mingrone, G, Insulin resistance and hypersecretion in obesity. European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance (EGIR), J. Clin. Invest., 100:1166-73, 1997.
- Yip, J, Facchini, FS, and Reaven, GM, Resistance to insulin-mediated glucose disposal as a predictor of cardiovascular disease. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 83:2773-6, 1998.
- Facchini, FS, Hua, N, Abbasi, F, and Reaven, GM, Insulin resistance as a predictor of age-related diseases, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 2001;86:3574-8, 2001.
- Tuomilehto, J, Lindstrom, J, Eriksson, JG, et al., Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance, N. Engl. J. Med., 344(18):1343-1350, 2001.
- Knowler, WC and Nathan, DM, Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group, Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin, N. Engl. J. Med., 346(6):393-403, 2002.
- Serdula, MK, Mokdad, AH, Williamson, DF, Galuska, DA, Mendlein, JM, and Heath, GW, Prevalence of Attempting Weight Loss and Strategies for Controlling Weight, JAMA, 282:1353-1358, 1999.
- McTigue, KM, Harris, R. Hemphill, B, Lux, L, Sutton, S, Bunton, AJ, and Lohr, KN, Screening and interventions for obesity in adults: summary of the evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, Ann. of Intern. Med., 139(11):933-49, 2003.
- Ayyad, C and Anderson, T, Long-term efficacy of dietary treatment of obesity: a systematic review of studies published between 1931 and 1999, Obes. Rev., 1:113-119, 2000.
- Thompson, RL, Summerbell, CD, Hooper, L, et al., Relative efficacy of differential methods of dietary advice: a systematic review, Am J Clin Nutr, 77(Suppl. 4):1052S-1057S, 2003.
- Katan, MB, Grundy, SM, and Willett, WC, Should a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet be recommended for everyone? Beyond low-fat diets, N. Engl. J. Med., 337(8):563-566; discussion 566-567, 1997.
- Foster, GD, Wyatt, HR, Hill, JO, Mcguckin, BG, Brill, C, Mohammed, S, Szapary, PO, Rader, DJ, Edman, JE, Klein, S, A randomized trial of a low-carbohydrate diet for obesity, N. Engl. J. Med, 348:2082-90, 2003.
- Brownell, KD and Cohen, LR, Adherence to dietary regimens. 1: An overview of research, Behav. Med., 20(4):149-154, 1995.
- De Castro, JM and de Castro, ES, Spontaneous meal patterns of humans: influence of the presence of other people, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 50(2):237-247 1989.
- DiClemente, CC and Prochaska, JO, Self-change and therapy change of smoking behavior: a comparison of processes of change in cessation and maintenance, Addict. Behav, 7(2):133-142, 1982.
- Becker, M, The health belief model and personal health behavior, Thorofare, NJ, Stock; 1974.
- Wallston, K and Wallston, B, Development of the multidimensional health locus of control (MHLC) scales. Health Educ. Monogr, 6:160-170, 1978.
- Bandura, A, Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change, Psychol. Rev, 84:191-215, 1977.
- Smith DE, Marcus MD, Lewis CE, Fizgibbon M, Schreiner P, Prevalence of binge eating disorder, obesity, and depression in a biracial cohort of young adults, An. Behav. Med., 20(3):227-232, 1998.
- Wadden, Womble, Stunkard, Anderson, Psychosocial consequences of obesity and weight loss, in Handbook of Obesity Treatment, Wadden, TA and Stunkard, AJ Eds., Guilford Press, New York, 2002.
- Powers, PS, Perez, A, Boyd, F, and Rosemurgy, A, Eating pathology before and after bariatric surgery: a prospective study, Int, J. Eat. Disord., 25:293-300, 1999.
- Rand CS, Macgregor AM, Stunkard AJ. The night eating syndrome in the general population and among post-operative obesity surgery patients, Int. J. Eat. Disord., 22:65-69, 1997.
- Allon, N, The stigma of overweight in everyday life, in Psychological Aspects of Obesity: A Handbook, Wolman, B, Ed., New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1982, p. 130-174.
- Kaminsky, J and Gadaleta, D, A study of discrimination within the medical community as viewed by obese patients, Obes. Surg., 12(1):14-18, 2002.
Schwartz, MB, Chambliss, HO, Brownell, KD, Blair, SN, and Billington, C, Weight bias among health professionals specializing in obesity, Obes. Res., 11(9):1033-1039, 2003.
Wing, RR, Behavioral weight control in Handbook of Obesity Treatment, Wadden, TA and Stunkard, AJ, Eds., Guilford Press, New York, 2002.
Pate, RR, Pratt, SN, Blair, S, et al., Physical activity and public health: a recommendation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine, JAMA, 273:402-407, 1995.
between degree of obesity and in vivo insulin action in man, Am. J. Physiol., 1985:248:E286-91, 1985.
Usui, K, Yamanouchi, K, Asai, K, Yajima, M, Iriyama, A, Okabayashi, N, Sakakibara, H, Kusunoki, M, Kakumu, S, and Sato, Y, The effect of low intensity bicycle exercise on the insulin-induced glucose uptake in obese patients with type 2 diabetes, Diabet. Res. Clin. Pract., 41(1):57-61, 1998.
Perseghin, G, Price, TB, Petersen, KF, Roden, M, Cline, GW, Gerow, K, Rothman, DL, and Shulman, GI, Increased glucose transport-phosphorylation and muscle gly-cogen synthesis after exercise training in insulin-resistant subjects, N. Engl. J. Med., 335(18):1357-62, 1996.
Knowler, WC and Nathan, DM, Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group, Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin, N. Engl. J. Med., 346(6):393-403, 2002.
Jakicic, JM, Wing, RR, Butler, BA, and Robertson, RJ, Prescribing exercise in multiple short bouts versus one continuous bout: effects on adherence, cardiorespi-ratory fitness, and weight loss in overweight women, Int. J. Obes., 1995; 19:893-901, 1995.
McGuire, MT, Wing, RR, Klem, ML, Seagle, HM, and Hill, JO, Long term maintenance of weight loss: Do people who lose weight through various weight loss methods use different behaviors to maintain their weight? Int. J. Obes., 1998; 22(6):572-577, 1998.
Bouchard, C, Individual differences in the response to regular exercise, Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord., 4:5-8, 1995.
Bouchard, CA, Tremblay, A, and Despres, JP, The response to exercise with constant energy intake in identical twins, Obes. Res., 1994; 5:400-410, 1994. Apfelbaum, M, et al., Am. J. Med., 106:179, 1999.
Apfelbaum, M, Vague P, Ziegler O, Hanotin C, Thomas F, Leutenegger E, Long-term maintenance of weight loss after a very low calorie diet: a randomized blinded trial of the efficacy and tolerability of sibutramine. Am. J. Med., 106(2):179-184, 1999. James, WP, Astrup A, Finer N, Hilsted J, Kopelman P, Rossner S, Saris WH, Van Gaal LF, Effect of sibutramine on weight maintenance after weight loss: a randomized trial. STORM Study Group. Sibutramine Trial of Obesity Reduction and Maintenance. Lancet 356(9248):2119-2125, 2000.
SB, Bray, GA, Roberts, WG, Heyman, ER, Stambler, N, Heshka, S, Vicary, C, and Guler, HP, Recombinant variant of ciliary neurotrophic factor for weight loss in obese adults: a randomized, dose-ranging study, JAMA, 289(14):1826-32, 2003. McElroy, SL, Arnold, LM, Shapira, NA, Keck, PE, Jr. Rosenthal, NR, Karim, MR, Kamin, M, and Hudson, JI, Topiramate in the treatment of binge eating disorder associated with obesity: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, Am. J. Psychiat., 160(2):255-61, 2003.
- Gadde, KM, Franciscy, DM, Wagner, HR, 2nd, and Krishnan, KR, Zonisamide for weight loss in obese adults: a randomized controlled trial, JAMA, 289(14):1820-5, 2003.
- Kolterman, OG, Buse, JB, Fineman, MS, Gaines, E, Heintz, S, Bicsak, TA, Taylor, K, Kim, D, Aisporna, M, Wang, Y, and Baron, AD, Synthetic exendin-4 (exenatide) significantly reduces postprandial and fasting plasma glucose in subjects with type 2 diabetes, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 88(7):3082-9, 2003.
- Hildebrandt, AL, Kelly-Sullivan, DM, and Black, SC, Antiobesity effects of chronic cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist treatment in diet-induced obese mice, Eur. J. Pharmacol., 462(1-3):125-32, 2003.
- Black, SC, Cannabinoid receptor antagonists and obesity, Curr. Opin. Invest. Drugs, 5(4):389-94, 2004.
- Perri, MG, McAdoo, WG, and McAllister, DA, Effects of peer support and therapist contact on long-term weight loss, J. Consult. Clin. Psychol., 55:615-617, 1987.
- Wing, RR, Behavioral weight control, in Handbook of Obesity Treatment, Wadden, TA and Stunkard, AJ, Eds., Guilford Press, New York, 2002.
- National Academy of Science, Preventing Childhood Obesity: Health in the Balance Fact Sheet, September 2004.
Was this article helpful?
Everybody wants to lose weight. This is one fact that is supported by the countless weight loss programs on the market along with the numerous weight loss products, ranging from snack bars, powdered juices, shakes and even slimming soaps and lotions.
Get My Free Ebook