The purpose of this chapter is to present an overview of the metabolism of the key nutrients, glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids in the body and how the processes therein involved affect glucose homeostasis. We will pay particular attention to the interplay of the metabolism of fatty acids and glucose, which are the major fuel sources in the postabsorptive state. We will then explore how knowledge of the interrelationships of the metabolism of these nutrients can be used to design effective treatment strategies for type 2 diabetes. The discussion will be focused on human studies, but results from animal experiments will also be discussed where human data are either limited or not available.
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