The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey found an incidence of endstage renal disease of 0.23/100 person years, with rates of 0.29 for patients with type 1 diabetes and 0.27 for patients with type 2 diabetes (90). Factors such as African American race, gout, and hypertension more than doubled the risk of endstage renal disease (90). In a study by Klein et al., analyzing 891 patients with type 1 diabetes, the 10-year cumulative incidence of renal failure or serum creatinine > 2.0 mg/dl was 14.9 percent (90). The risk of renal failure almost doubled for every 1 percent increase in HbA1c (36). Hypertension almost tripled the risk (90).
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