Microalbuminuria has been shown to be an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes (51). Meta-analysis has shown that the presence of microalbuminuria doubles the risk of cardiovascular morbidity or mortality and doubles the risk of total mortality (51). In patients with diabetes, the presence of microalbuminuria confers a tenfold higher risk of developing diabetic nephropathy annually, compared to patients without microalbuminuria (51). In a large cross-sectional analysis, when compared to patients with diabetes and normoalbuminuria, patients with diabetes and microalbuminuria had a longer duration of diabetes and higher waist-to-hip ratio, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), ankle-to-arm index, and serum creatinine (51). They were more likely to have a history of retinal laser therapy, hypertension, cerebrovas-cular disease, peripheral vascular disease, require insulin therapy, be smokers, and have electrocardiogram criteria for left-ventricular hypertrophy (51).
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