Diet and Diabetes

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Studies examining effects of total fibers or types of fiber on self-reported incidence of diabetes have shown mixed results, with some showing no association and others showing inverse associations between diabetes risk and fiber intake (49). It has been well-established that carbohydrate intake can produce different glycemic responses, although there is some controversy surrounding the validity of the glycemic index and its use as a predictor of diabetes risk (49).

Several studies have shown that fat intake is associated with impaired glucose metabolism (50), as reviewed in chapter 10 of this book. Glucose levels, insulin resistance, and hyperinsulinemia have been found to correlate with fat intake, particularly saturated fatty acids (50). Increased intake of vegetables and legumes is inversely associated with the development of impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus (50). The intake of vitamin C has been inversely associated with two-hour plasma glucose levels, although not completely understood (50).

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