Aerobic exercise contributes to the energy deficit, improves cardiovascular fitness and lipid profiles, and also enhances the preservation of LBM and bone-mineral density. This benefit accrues for individuals with type 2 diabetes, as well as the general OW/OB population.
Before embarking on an exercise program, OW/OB individuals with type 2 diabetes should be assessed as to the need for exercise stress testing (46), according to the discretion of their primary-care physician. Once readiness for training has been confirmed, a program of 30-45 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity (40 percent to 60 percent maximum oxygen uptake or 50 percent to 70 percent maximum heart rate) three to five days per week is typically recommended with a gradual increase in duration and frequency of the activity (8, 47). For sedentary individuals who are quite inactive at the onset, the initial exercise should be of short duration and allow for a gradual progression to the target duration and intensity.
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