How To Prevent Depression Naturally

Destroy Depression

Destroy Depression is written by James Gordon, a former sufferer of depression from the United Kingdom who was unhappy with the treatment he was being given by medical personnell to fight his illness. Apparently, he stopped All of his medication one day and began to search for answers on how to cure himself of depression in a 100% natural way. He spent every waking hour researching all he could on the subject, making notes and changing things along the way until he had totally cured his depression. Three years later, he put all of his findings into an eBook and the Destroy Depression System was born. The Destroy Depression System is a comprehensive system that will guide you to overcome your depression and to prevent it from injuring you mentally and physically. Continue reading...

Destroy Depression Summary

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Antidepressants and breastfeeding

The clinicians of breastfeeding women diagnosed with postpartum depression must consider the different treatment options for their patients including antidepressants, hormonal therapy, or psychotherapy. In situations where the postpartum depression requires antidepressants, the safety of the nursing infant must be considered. Antidepressants taken during breastfeeding can induce adverse symptoms in the infant. The antidepressants that have been particularly problematic are nefazodone 102 , citalo-pram 103 , doxepin 104, 105 , and fluoxetine 106, 107 . Given the negative infant outcomes associated with maternal antidepressant therapies, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not approved any antidepressant for use during lactation 49 . Alternatively, depression during the postpartum period can impair maternal-infant interactions 108 , which in turn negatively affect infant cognitive development 109 , emotional development 109 , anxiety, and self-esteem 110 . In some cases, the...

If you already have depression exercise can have a great impact in

However, it is NOT a cure-all. If you've been diagnosed with clinical depression, BE SURE YOU'RE UNDER YOUR DOCTOR'S CARE. Doctors report that if depressed patients can get moving physically, depression symptoms are alleviated to an extent. The problem is that a depressed person doesn't even want to think of exercising. But if you can somehow start with a program, however moderate, the rewards are tremendous more energy, a clearer mind, and quite possibly a renewed interest in life.

Motives For Consumption

Depression may lead to bad sleep, but stress is not always the causative factor. Chang et al. (1997) followed 1053 men in a prospective study to assess the relationship between self-reported sleep disturbance and subsequent clinical depression and psychiatric distress over a median follow-up period of 34 years. The relative risk for depression was greater for those who reported a bad sleep at the start of the follow-up period. Coffee, however, had no influence. In this case, sleep disturbances reflected a vulnerability for depression, since even after resolution of the depressive period, sleep EEG abnormalities remained. It is unlikely that coffee as a mood enhancer and cognitive stimulant has anything to do with a genetic predisposition to vulnerability for bad sleep and depression.

Have You Ever Wondered 126

. . . if any herbal supplement can replace or enhance medication for depression If your doctor has prescribed medication for depression, follow the guidance don't mix or change antidepressants. Mixing may result in harmful interactions-for example, St. John's wort interacts with antidepressants such as Prozac and amoxa-pine. The combination may be additive. And a herbal treatment may not yield the intended outcome. If you choose to try a herbal, talk to your physician first.

Taking medicine changing your appetite

Some examples of appetite uppers are certain antidepressants (mood elevators), antihistamines (allergy pills), diuretics (drugs that make you urinate more frequently), steroids (drugs that fight inflammation), and tranquilizers (calming drugs). Appetite reducers include some antibiotics, anti-cancer drugs, anti-seizure drugs, blood pressure medications, and cholesterol-lowering drugs. Of course, not every drug in a particular class of drugs (that is, antibiotics or antidepressants) has the same effect on appetite. For example, the antide-pressant drug amitriptyline (Elavil) increases your appetite and may cause weight gain another antidepressant drug, fluoxetine (Prozac) usually does not.

Effect of postpartum depression on breastfeeding success

Given the benefits of breastfeeding for both mother and infant, breastfeeding mothers with postpartum depression may benefit from this choice of feeding. However, the additional demands of breastfeeding could also be overwhelming for women experiencing postpartum depression, and care should be taken to support mothers deciding to formula feed. Those women who decide to breastfeed will likely need additional support to foster the continuation of breastfeeding during this difficult time. Although breastfeeding may reduce depressive symptoms during the postpartum period, mothers with depressive symptoms are more likely to discontinue breastfeeding 111-115 . Referrals to area lactation consultants and breastfeeding support groups such as La Leche League can be extremely helpful to mothers with PPD who are interested in continuing breastfeeding.

The Role of DHA in Neurotransmission

Otto and colleagues 73 investigated plasma phospholipid DHA in 112 women at delivery and at 32 weeks postpartum. The EPDS was given to the women at the 32-week time point to assess postpartum depression. There was an inverse relationship between DHA status and depressive symptoms. In a study of 865 Japanese women Miyake and colleagues 75 investigated risk of postpartum depression related to dietary fatty acid intake. Again, the EPDS was used to evaluate postpartum depression and diet history questionnaires were self-administered to measure dietary fatty acid intake. There were no significant relationships between dietary fish consumption or n-3 fatty acid intake and postpartum depression. Likewise, Browne et al. 76 investigated maternal fish consumption and plasma DHA status after birth in relation to postpartum depression diagnosed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. There were no associations between maternal fish consumption during pregnancy or maternal DHA...

Dont Be A Saturated Fathead

So for the next 54 weeks, they ate a diet very low in fat (10-15 of total calories consumed) and took triglyceride-lowering medication. As triglycerides fell, depressive symptoms disappeared. After 54 weeks, 91 of the patients were rated normal. The most significant reduction in triglycerides and depression occurred in the first six weeks of treatment.

Cultural perspectives of postpartum depression

Horowitz and colleagues 22 conducted focus groups with mothers between 2 and 4 months after delivery in nine different countries the United States, Australia, Finland, Guyana, India, Italy, Korea, Sweden, and Taiwan. How mothers described their postpartum depressive symptoms was remarkably similar across these countries. Common cognitive symptoms reported included poor concentration, worry, and indecisiveness. The most frequently cited emotional symptoms were anger, irritability, depression, sadness, guilt, anxiety, loneliness, fear, inadequacy, and tearfulness.

Womens Health Premenstrual Syndrome PMS

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a group of symptoms that generally appear 4 to 10 days before menstruation and end, often abruptly, as menstruation begins. The most common symptoms are irritability, nervous tension, depression, mood swings, craving for sugary foods, breast tenderness, water retention, and weight gain.1 The symptoms of PMS can be mild or severe about one in five women have severe symptoms that interfere with daily activities. In many women, an imbalance of too much estrogen and too little progesterone triggers the symptoms of PMS.

Effects of Neurotransmitters

Wurtman has reported that people are more alert when their brains are producing the neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine, while serotonin production in the brain has been associated with a more calming, anxiety-reducing effect (and even drowsiness in some people). A stable brain serotonin level is associated with a positive mood state. It appears that women have a greater sensitivity than men to changes in this brain chemical. Mood swings during the menstrual cycle and menopause are thought to be caused by hormonal changes that influence the production of serotonin.

How Chemicals Alter Mood

Most of the time, after shifting one way or the other, your mood swings back to center fairly soon. You come down from your high or recover from your disappointment, and life resumes its normal pace some good stuff here, some bad news there, but all in all, a relatively level field. Occasionally, however, your mood may go haywire. Your happiness over your team's victory escalates to the point where you find yourself rushing from store to store buying things you can't afford, or your sadness over your failure at work deepens into a gloom that steals joy from everything else. This unpleasant state of affairs a mood out of control is called a mood disorder. The two most common moods are happiness and sadness. The two most common mood disorders are clinical depression, an elongated period of overly intense sadness, and clinical mania, an elongated period of overly intense elation. Clinical depression alone is called a unipolar (one-part) disorder clinical depression plus clinical mania is...

Ellen A Patient Of Dr Stoll

Eventually, I went for a Pap smear and a nurse practitioner suggested that I read a book called The Yeast Syndrome. It wasn't until I read the book and got Dr. Stoll's name out of it that I even connected my physical ailments with my mental health. I had always been moody and prone to periods of depression and there was a history of depression in my family. I never needed to be hospitalized, but I felt that some of these bouts, especially during my adolescent and college years, were extremely severe. I suffered mood swings and would have described myself as having a very volatile personality. But after going to Dr. Stoll, who started me on oral Nystatin, changed my diet, and used various supplements to correct my nutritional and physiological deficiencies, within about 60 days I felt like a totally different person. In fact, my husband commented that it was like being married to a different person. In hindsight, I can see that as my candidiasis symptoms were eradicated, my mental...

The Menopausal Transition

Menopause signals the end of child-bearing capacity, and is also associated with changes in susceptibility to various chronic diseases, including breast cancer, heart disease, and osteoporosis.66 Differences in age at menopause between vegetarian and omnivorous women, should they exist, could be associated with differences in chronic disease patterns between these groups. Furthermore, some women experience unpleasant symptoms during menopause (vasomotor symptoms such as night sweats and hot flushes, mood swings, insomnia, weight gain, headaches, and fatigue),67 and these symptoms have been observed to differ among women in different cultures.67,68 Whether dietary variables contribute to these differences in symptom experiences has not been clearly established, but there is speculation that they could.68-70 Some of these dietary differences may also exist between vegetarian and omnivorous women. Accordingly, after defining and describing the menopausal transition, available research on...

Principle Variety of loading parameters is critical to achieve mass gains

Keep in mind that variety of loading parameters is not synonymous with the Joe Weider instinctive training principle or the train-as-your-mood-goes method. There has to be consistency and planned structure to succeed in your bodybuilding program. Variety is useful only in a planned manner.

Mood And Tension Levels

The actual mood lift you get from exercise may only last for a few hours, then tapers down to a more generalized feeling of well-being. By boosting your mood through exercise, you gain better self-control over your moods. You learn what you need to do to control your emotions. And the high you get is completely natural.

Result excess weight and fat

Start slowly and build yourself up gradually, over the course of a few weeks. What you're doing here is forcing your body to increase its energy expenditure. As you start to burn some fat and tighten some muscle, your mood WILL improve. And that will help motivate you to keep at it.

Then one day you take a good look in the mirror

This rude awakening spurs you on to start a fitness program. So you join an exercise class, and start watching what you put in your mouth. The positive results emerge quickly. Your weight begins to drop, and your exercise program is a tremendous stress reducer. As you get lighter, so does your mood. Your community becomes stronger and deeper, and your self-doubt vanishes. You're now in your best shape ever, and it's easy to stay there. Exercise is a fantastic way to relieve depression. Lifting weights and aerobic exercise chemically affects your brain and can reverse the effects of even major depressions.

Have You Ever Wondered

. . . if carbs affect your mood No consistent research supports this. Studies have investigated the link between stress and serotonin, a body brain chemical. Serotonin breaks down to help relieve stress. Although carbohydrates may help replenish the body's serotonin, no conclusive research suggests a calming effect. Does a bowl of ice cream or mug of hot chocolate give you a feeling of comfort or calm Perhaps. It's really a link to pleasant memories.

The rules of good nutrition

I'm not going to soft-pedal it, though. Depending on where you're at right now, this could mean making big changes. But by making those changes to how you eat, you'll also reap the rewards. You'll improve your mood and sense of well-being, the quality of your sleep, they way you perform in day-to-day activities or during athletic events, and of course, the way you look.

Mercury and Alzheimers Disease

A more recent study examined blood levels of mercury in Alzheimer's disease patients compared to patients with major depression and to normal people who were used as controls.90 Blood mercury was found to be two times higher in the Alzheimer patients than in both sets of controls. Mercury levels were three times higher in those with early-onset Alzheimer's dementia than in controls. Furthermore, a significant correlation was found between the high mercury levels and the presence of increased amounts of beta-amyloid in the spinal fluid. Interestingly, beta-amyloid is the principal component found in neuritic plaques.

Eating to Overcome Hypoglycemia And Diabetes

Sunfood Triangle

Hypoglycemia is a condition where too much insulin is secreted into the blood by the pancreas to control blood sugar. Too much insulin in the blood causes blood sugar to drop too rapidly causing mood swings and erratic behavior. Avocados contain a seven-carbon sugar that depresses insulin production, which make them an excellent choice for people with hypoglycemia.

Stomal Stenosis Stricture

After gastric-bypass surgery, there are psychological changes associated with the change in eating patterns, and these changes can cause significant dysfunction. It is well-established that extreme weight loss results in symptoms of psychopathol-ogy. In the classic Keys' studies in the 1950s, weight loss of 25 percent resulted in the development of lethargy, depression, and other psychopathology.16 Preopera-tively, patients with morbid obesity often use food for emotional reasons, and when they experience a small gastric pouch postoperatively, they often grieve the loss of food. Displaced emotions often result in somatization with symptoms of nausea and vomiting. It is important that physicians recognize the psychological aspect of the loss of food after gastric-bypass surgery, and reassure patients that the symptoms are related to the small gastric-pouch size. Antidepressants often help to decrease the anxiety related to the grieving associated with the loss of food, although the use...

Ten Steps for Successful Fat Loss

Pay careful attention to your mood when eating. Roberta discovered that at times a hug and human comforting could have better nourished her than food did. She acknowledged that eating a tub of popcorn diverted her loneliness or anxiety and distracted her from her problems but did nothing to resolve the problem that triggered her eating.

Micronutrients and postpartum depression Iron

Although the role of iron status remains unclear with respect to postpartum depression, current investigations point to increased risk for postpartum depression in women who have anemia 80, 81 . Corwin and colleagues 80 measured hemoglobin levels at 7, 14, and 28 days postpartum and depressive symptoms using the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depressive Symptomatology Scale (CES-D) at 28 days postpartum. Hemoglobin levels on day 7 were negatively correlated with CES-D scores obtained on day 28 post-partum. Further, Beard et al. 81 demonstrated that iron treatment resulted in a 25 improvement in previously iron deficient mothers' depression and stress scales. Anemic

Post Operative Anastomotic Leak

Patients on antidepressants and other psychiatric medications should have these medications continued in the immediate postoperative period. Dramatic weight loss occurs in the first few months after bariatric surgery, and this can be associated with emotional liability. Emotional stability associated with continuation of antidepres-sants allows smooth transition after surgery, and patients should be urged to continue these medications

Challenges Of Lifestyle Change In The Management Of Obesity

In addition to eating disorders, another psychological disorder that can be a barrier to lifestyle change is depression, especially in obese patients. Obese people are particularly vulnerable to symptoms of low self-esteem and depression, and depression has been linked strongly with nonadherence.35-37 Possible contributors to low self-esteem include repeated unsuccessful weight-loss attempts, failure to measure up to the thin ideal promoted by the media, discrimination, increased physical pain, and decreased physical ability.27 Health-care providers must be aware of the possibility of depressive symptoms in obese patients, and should avoid stereotyping their patients as having personality disorders responsible for their obesity. Health professionals are not immune to discrimination of obese people28 discrimination has even been demonstrated in obesity specialists.29 Therefore, when working with obese patients, it is important for health-care providers to maintain an empathetic...

Betty A Patient Of Dr Ray Wunderlich

Back in 1991, I was injured on the job by some paint fumes and my whole life changed. I developed serious food allergies and sensitivities to everything in my environment. I became allergic to everything in my own home, I reacted to plastics of all kinds, and I couldn't breathe outdoor air. I was literally a captive in my own home for the first year. When I couldn't go out, all the air inside my own home had to be filtered especially for me and I had to wear charcoal face masks to breathe. Also, I began to experience depressions, mood swings, and a lot of confusion and memory loss. I would go into one room and forget why I was there. I know a lot of people have that complaint, but I had it consistently throughout the day. I would lose my memory about what I was doing. I couldn't go out in the car and drive myself to the store because I wouldn't be able to find my way. I lost the ability to read normally. Still now, two years later, I have to read things over and over and give my brain...

Treatments

Several clinical trials have shown that supplementation of calcium and magnesium can play a crucial role in the prevention of PMS. Nine hundred to 1,200 milligrams of calcium per day was found to be effective in reducing food cravings and mood swings, and 200 to 500 milligrams of magnesium reduced bloating and breast tenderness. Studies of vitamin B6 and vitamin E intake have had varied results. A daily multivitamin-mineral supplement is believed to be beneficial for all PMS sufferers. A form of pharmacologic treatment that has shown positive results is the suppression of ovulation, which eliminates both the cyclic rhythm of hormone production and eliminating cyclic mood symptoms. The most common medications used for ovulation suppression are gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists. Currently, the use of GnRH agonists is experimental however, studies have shown that 75 percent of women treated with GnRH agonists have experienced reductions in tension, depression, mood swings,...

Treatment

Tricyclic antidepressants An additional option for treating chronic abdominal pain is the use of tricyclic antidepressants (TCA). TCA are used at smaller doses (0.2-0.4 mg kg per day, 5-50mg day) than needed for treatment of clinical depression. The analgesic effects of TCA and other antidepressants are independent of their effects on depression, and this information should be shared with the family and the patient. The beneficial effect of the TCA starts 3-7 days after the beginning of the treatment, while it takes 2-3 weeks for the onset of the anti-depressant effects.130 Relief of chronic pain with the use of antidepressants has been documented in the absence of any measurable antidepressant response, both in depressed patients131 and in patients without clinical depression. In addition to its action on noradrenergic and serotoninergic receptors, the TCA have antimuscarinic and antihistamine effects. Thus, these agents are especially effective in diarrhea-predominant patients132...

Prevalenceincidence

The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) recently conducted a systematic review of studies on the prevalence and incidence of postpartum depression during the first 12 months after delivery 5 . During the postpartum period, the point prevalence of major and minor depressive episodes starts rising and is at its highest in the third month at 12.9 . During the fourth month through the seventh month postpartum, the prevalence decreases slightly to between 9.9 and 10.6 . 5 . When looking at the point prevalence for major depression alone, major depressive episodes peak at 2 months (5.7 ) and 6 months (5.6 ) after delivery. Regarding period prevalence, the AHRQ report revealed that after delivery up to 19.2 of mothers have either major or minor depressive episodes during the first 3 months, with 7.1 having a major depressive episode. Incidence of a new episode of major or minor depression during the period of the first 3 months postpartum can be up to 14.5 of mothers, with 6.5...

Appetite

Nutrition is further influenced negatively by changes in taste, dry mouth, epigastric pain, nausea, sedation and hypersalivation. Specifically, anti-epileptics cause gingival hyperplasia and anorexia antidepressants such as lithium increase thirst and appetite mental stimulants such as Ritalin decrease appetite antacids might cause constipation and aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cause pyrosis and nausea and may lead to ulcerations in the gastrointestinal tract. In the Institutional Tokyo Study it was shown that around 10 of the blind needed assistance with eating, mostly because of some chewing problems, and around 20 had poor appetite. In the mentally retarded, around 25 needed assistance during eating, 2 had swallowing disorders, around 35 had chewing disorders and 20 had poor appetite. In the physically handicapped, around 65 needed assistance with eating, 20 had swallowing disorders, 40 had chewing disorders and 30 had poor appetite. Four per cent of...

Kava Kava

Dosage 140-210 mg divided over 2-3 doses. (Look for standardized extracts of 70 percent lactones.) Long-term consumption might turn the skin and nails yellow temporarily if this occurs, stop taking immediately until the condition clears. This should not be taken with drugs that act on the central nervous system, such as alcohol, benzodiazepines, antidepressants, and barbiturates. Rare side effects include mild gastrointestinal disturbances.

St Johns Wort

Dosage It's based on the hypericin concentration in the extract. The minimal daily dosage recommended is 0.1 mg. Recommended dose is 300 mg of dried leaf and flower extract standardized to .3 percent hypericin three times per day 40-80 drops of tincture three times per day 1-2 cups of tea in the morning and evening made with 1-2 heaping teaspoon of dried herb per cup. It might take several weeks to kick in. Do not use with prescription antidepressants. Note Might cause photosensitivity in those with particularly fair skin.

Treatment Modalities

Medication is increasingly becoming a routine part of treatment for eating disorders. Antidepressants, particularly the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are the most effective and most commonly used medication in treating this spectrum of illnesses. They are found to be of greatest benefit when used in combination with therapy, and are of little value if offered on their own. In the case of anorexia, these medications are most effective if employed after successful weight restoration is achieved, at which time they can be useful for relapse prevention and the treatment of coexisting psychiatric conditions. SSRIs are also used in preventing binge relapses among bulimics, although their effectiveness ceases once the medication is discontinued. Although antidepressants have also been employed in the treatment of binge eating disorder, outcomes have not been sufficiently positive to warrant recommendations for their use.

Toxicity

Supplemental phenylalanine and tyrosine may cause headache, anxiety, or high blood pressure in rare individuals. They should not be used by pregnant or lactating women, in severe liver disease or PKU. PA and tyrosine supplements should be avoided by patients receiving MAO inhibitor-type antidepressants. PA and tyrosine supplements should also be avoided by schizophrenics, particularly those with high dopamine levels, as supplements may further increase brain dopamine and worsen the condition. 7. Kravitz HM, et al. Dietary supplements of phenyla-lanine and other amino acid precursors of brain neuroamines in the treatment of depressive disorders. J Am Osteo Assoc. 1984 84 119.

Future trends

Problems and challenges in the design of irritable bowel syndrome clinical trials experience from published trials. Am J Med 1999 107 91S-97S. Hameroff SR, Weiss JL, Lerman JC et al. Doxepin effects on chronic pain and depression a controlled study. J Clin Psychiatry 1984 45 45-52. Fishbain D. Evidence-based data on pain relief with antidepressants. Ann Med 2000 32 305-316. Greenbaum DS, Mayle JE, Vanegeren LE et al. Effects of desipramine on irritable bowel syndrome compared with atropine and placebo. Dig Dis Sci 1987 32 257-266.

Breastfeeding

Breastfeeding is known to be very beneficial to both mother and infant, and recent reports suggest that it may reduce risk for postpartum depression in women by reducing stress 92-97 . Although the majority of investigations point to breastfeeding as protective in postpartum depression, results are equivocal, as other investigations have reported no relationship between depressive symptoms and breastfeeding 98-100 . As earlier described, Infants of mothers with postpartum depression are at risk for cognitive and emotional impairments 37-41 , and breastfeeding can help protect infants against these negative outcomes. Breastfed infants of depressed mothers exhibited decreased depressive symptoms compared to those who were bottle fed 101 .

Pyridoxine Vitamin B

Few investigations have been conducted investigating the role of B6 in depression however, an inverse association between plasma B6 levels and depressive symptoms has been reported 91 . With respect to postpartum depression, only one investigation has included the assessment of the association with B6 and reported no measurable association with postpartum depression 88 . Further work is necessary to determine if a definitive relationship exists between B6 status and postpartum depression.

Screening

The Postpartum Depression Screening Scale (PDSS) is a survey available to clinicians for screening 8 . This self-report scale consists of 35 items that assess the presence, severity, and type of postpartum depressive symptoms. It has a five-point Likert response format in which women are asked to respond to statements about how they have been feeling since delivery. The response options range from 1 strongly disagree, to 5 strongly agree (Table 19.1). Agreement with a statement indicates the mother is experiencing that depressive symptom. The PDSS consists of seven symptoms content scales Sleeping Eating Disturbances, Loss of Self, Anxiety Insecurity, Guilt Shame, Emotional Lability, Mental Confusion, and Suicidal Thoughts. The range of possible scores is 35-175. A cutoff score of 80 or above indicates a positive screen for postpartum depression and the need to refer the mother for a formal diagnostic evaluation by a mental health clinician. Using this cutoff score of 80, Beck and...

Previous page 162

Those suffering with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) typically eat more in the winter and put on weight. From the Wurtmans' perspective, this is an attempt to decrease depressive symptoms by eating carbohydrate-rich foods. It has been reported that the eating of carbohydrate-rich, protein-poor meals was associated with improved mood in those suffering with SAD (13). In this type of study, the prediction was that the consumption of a high-carbohydrate low-protein meal should have a differential impact on those who were, and were not, depressed. However, as is discussed later, there is evidence that carbohydrate does not selectively influence the depressed. The extent to which such a response reflects carbohydrate intake selectively is unclear. Often a high intake of carbohydrate is taken as part of a high-fat or high-protein meal.

The Busy Bs

Folic acid helps maintain normal levels of serotonin. Deficiencies contribute to depression, dementia, and schizophrenia. In a study of depressed patients taking lithium, those also given folic acid supplements for a year showed dramatic relief of depression, compared to those given no supplements.

Previous page 166

Although the level of phenylethylamine in chocolate is high compared with most food (47), the levels are exceeded in some cheeses and sausage, foods that are rarely craved. It is instructive to consider the dose that influences behaviour. The behaviour of rats, trained to press a lever to obtain electrical stimulation of the hypothalamus, was influenced by doses of 25 and 50 mg kg phenylethylamine (48). Barr et al. (49) reported that doses of 16 and 32 mg kg inhibited mouse killing by rats. Goudie and Buckland (50) reported that 2060 mg kg influenced food-rewarded responding. These studies used doses typical of the animal literature. If the doses of phenylethylamine that were effective in rats were administered to humans at the same level, they would be taking 2 or 3 g. In fact, there is a report that a dose of 26 g day enhanced the mood of depressed patients (51). Clearly, the most extensive chocolate binge could not offer anything approaching this dose. The rapid rate at which...

Symptoms

A woman is diagnosed with premenstrual syndrome if she has at least one emotional and one physical symptom during the five days before the onset of her period for three consecutive menstrual cycles. The specific symptom is not as important for diagnosis as is the cyclic fashion in which it appears. Emotional symptoms include minor fatigue, depression, angry outbursts, irritability, anxiety, confusion, social withdrawal, mood swings, and crying spells. Physical symptoms include headaches, bloating, acne, appetite changes and cravings, breast tenderness, and swelling of extremities.

Menopause

Menopause is the permanent cessation of the menstrual periods that occurs around age 50 in most women. As a woman moves into her late 40s, her body's estrogen production slows down, and she gradually stops ovulating. Symptoms of the menopause include hot flashes, headaches, fatigue, vaginal irritation, mood swings, and depression. These symptoms can range from mild to severe about one in five women seek medical attention for symptoms of the menopause. A major concern at the menopause is the loss of bone mineral (mainly calcium) from the skeleton due to the loss of estrogens.21 Up to 20 of the bone mineral density can be lost at menopause, which can sharply increase risk of osteoporosis and bone fractures. The loss of estrogen at menopause also causes LDL cholesterol levels in the blood to rise and levels of HDLcho-

Vitamin B

PLP participates in amino acid synthesis and the interconversion of some amino acids. It catalyzes a step in the synthesis of hemoglobin, which is needed to transport oxygen in blood. PLP helps maintain blood glucose levels by facilitating the release of glucose from liver and muscle glycogen. It also plays a role in the synthesis of many neurotransmitters important for brain function. This has led some physicians to prescribe megadoses of B6 to patients with psychological problems such as depression and mood swings, and to some women for premenstrual syndrome (PMS). It is unclear, however, whether this therapy is effective. PLP participates in the conversion of the amino acid tryptophan to niacin and helps avoid niacin deficiency. Pyridoxine affects immune function, as it is essential for the formation of a type of white blood cell.

Dear Diary

For the record, keep track of the amounts and kinds of foods and beverages you eat. To get a handle on any eating triggers, write your mood and rate your hunger level each time you eat. Put down the time and place, too. List the amount of time you spend in physical activity, along with what you do. Keep your food and activity record for at least a week or two. Then review it for a close look at your eating and physical activity habits.

Functional Beverages

Improve your memory Lift your mood Relieve tension Fight fat Give you energy A growing market of functional beverages-juice, tea, soft drinks, flavored water, isotonic drinks, enhanced with herbs, phytonutrients, and other functional ingredients-are marketed with promises to improve health. Do they offer benefits

Previous page 168

Chocolate is a chemically complex substance, rich with many pharmacologically active compounds including histamine, tryptophan, serotonin, phenylethylamine and octopamine. As these are all found in higher levels in other food items, lacking the appeal of chocolate, it is improbable that they play a major part in chocolate craving. Chocolate is a major source of certain minerals including copper, magnesium and iron. A 50 g bar of plain chocolate offers 1.2 mg of iron and milk chocolate 0.8 mg. These levels compare with the US recommended daily amount of 15 mg day for an adult female and 10 mg day for an adult male. In a sample of young British adults, Fordy and Benton (76) found that 52 of females and 11 of males had levels of ferritin, the storage protein for iron, below the recommended level. Given the widespread instance of iron-deficiency anaemia, both in industrialized and developing countries, any source of iron is likely to be valuable. Although there is no reason to believe...

Dr Helen Schleagle

I also give my depressed patients a basic multivitamin with minerals. Many depressed people are magnesium-deficient, so I've been using a relatively large amount of magnesium in my practice. I've also incorporated a fair amount of potassium use for chronic fatigue syndrome patients. Many of them have potassium problems that are not necessarily picked up by a standard blood test. I do cellular potassium rather than the regular blood tests and I use some homeopathic cortisone with certain people with auto-immune disease.

Dr Alan Spreen

Once they get past that hump, which I call withdrawal--we witness true withdrawal when people are sensitive to whatever they were ingesting--they tend to feel much better afterwards and everything seems to improve. Their peace of mind improves they are less fatigued their depression tends to decrease, if it's not true clinical depression from some other cause their energy level increases sleep improves and their relationships are better. Their state of mind This combination is not nearly as good as tryptophane, which was removed from the market a few years ago. There was a really shameful campaign to have it removed by people who claimed tryptophane caused a toxicity reaction. But the toxic reactions had nothing to do with pure tryptophane at all. Tryptophane produced wonderful results. It was the best help for depression, sleep disorders, and mood swings. But I understand that tryptophane is still available out of this country.

Dr William Goldwag

When we have patients who are depressed and we can get them moving, the depression is greatly alleviated. Of course, drugs have changed the whole treatment of depression greatly, but the impact exercise can have on depression has often been overlooked, and it needs to be re-emphasized. People who are on antidepressants may improve, but the way for them to really get back to functioning well--back in touch with their environment, back to work, back in relationships with their family--is to get them moving. And there's no better way to get people moving than through exercise, which has no limits.

Complications

Colonic Dilatation

Precipitating factors, including narcotic agents for pain or antidiarrheal effects, anticholinergic agents, drugs that decrease motility, or antidepressants with significant anticholinergic effects.121,128,129 A barium enema or colonoscopy may cause distension that can further impair the colonic wall blood supply and may increase the mucosal uptake of bacterial products.122 Barium enema examinations have been reported in proximity to the development of toxic megacolon.83,129 The early discontinuation or rapid tapering of steroids or 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) may contribute to the development of toxic mega-colon.121,122 Electrolyte abnormalities, such as hypokalemia, have been observed in the setting of toxic megacolon, although it is not clear whether this finding is a causative factor or secondary to the illness itself.121 Along with colonic dilatation, patients with toxic megacolon present with systemic findings, including fever, tachycardia, leukocytosis and anemia.124 A...

Dr Alfred Zamm

In the case of mercury poisoning, there may be enough oxygen, but the person's body can't burn it because the burning mechanism has shut down. In every case of depression, physical deficiencies and toxic poisoning should first be considered before resorting to therapy and psychotropic medications such as antidepressants. I have seen hundreds of these cases.

Dr Hyla Cass

Some time ago, a psychologist who specializes in eating disorders began to send her clients to me because she had heard that antidepressant medications worked for these patients. I had shifted to a more holistic way of looking at things, so I said before I did anything with antidepressants I would try some other things. With certain eating disorders, such as food cravings, the underlying problem is a food allergy. We crave the foods that we are allergic to. Often, it's the very things we want to eat that are the most damaging, that create the symptoms. In fact, it's like an addiction to alcohol As you withdraw from the foods you're addicted to, you begin to have withdrawal symptoms and so you want to have more of those foods. In order to break the cycle, which is the same as breaking the cycle with drinking (alcoholics are actually allergic to alcohol), you need to supply the body with the appropriate nutrients. It's not just a matter of willpower, of staying off these foods. In...

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