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Dentists Be Damned

This eBook teaches you all the remedies and tricks that you need to know to Never visit the dentist again, and still have the most perfect mouth full of the teeth that you know of. This book contains a toothache remedy that will treat the root of the problem, how to restore your gums to full health, a supplement that makes plaque fall off your teeth in no time, and a solution that can stop cavities Forever. This book doesn't just teach you how to get rid of some pain, it teaches you how to Eliminate the source of pain once and for all. After taking to heart the information in this book, trips to the dentist will become a thing of the past. Alice Barnes has taken her 15 years of tooth research and compiled it all in this eBook for you. And when you order, you get two free eBooks! You will also receive How to Prevent and Cure Canker Sores, and How to Get Rid of Bad Breath. All of these resources will keep you OUT of dentists' offices as long as you live! More here...

Dentists Be Damned Summary

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Author: Alice Barnes
Official Website: www.dentistbedamned.com
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Fluoride and Oral Health

No discussion of nutrition and oral health would be complete without mentioning the role of the micronutrient fluoride. The addition of fluoride to the public drinking water supply is rated as one of the most effective preventive public health measures ever undertaken. Fluoride reduces dental caries by several different mechanisms. The fluoride ion may be integrated into enamel, making it more resistant to decay. In addition, fluoride may inhibit oral microbial metabolism, lowering the production of organic acids. The relationship of nutrition to oral health includes much more than a simple focus on sugar's relationship to caries. It includes factors such as an individual's overall dietary patterns, exposure to fluoride, and a person's systemic health. see also Baby Bottle Tooth Decay Breastfeeding Fast Foods Obesity. American Dental Association. Oral Health Topics. Available from < http www.ada. org> American Dietetic Association. Position of the American Dietetic Assoication...

Factors Affecting Nutrition and Oral Health

Sugar, particularly the frequent ingestion of sweets (cakes, cookies, candy), is related to both dental caries and periodontal disease. For example, populations with a frequent exposure to sugar, such as agricultural workers in sugar-cane fields (who may chew on sugar cane while they work), have a greater number of decayed, missing, and restored teeth. Sugar (sucrose), has a unique relationship to oral health. Sucrose can supply both the substrate (building blocks) and the energy required for the creation of dental plaque (the mesh-like scaffold of molecules that harbor bacteria on tooth surfaces). Sucrose also releases glucose during digestion, and oral bacteria can metabolize the glucose to produce organic acids. However, oral bacteria can also produce organic acids from foods other than sugar. Oral health may be related to many nutritional factors other than sugar, including the number of times a day a person eats or drinks, the frequent ingestion of drinks with low acidity (such...

Undernutrition and Oral Health

Although oral diseases associated with vitamin deficiencies are rare in the United States and other industrialized countries, they may be common in emerging third-world nations. In these countries, the limited supply of nutrient-dense foods or the lack of specific nutrients in the diet (vitamin C, niacin, etc.) may produce characteristic oral manifestations. In addition, unusual food practices, such as chewing sugar cane throughout the day or other regional or cultural nutritional practices, may decrease the oral health of specific populations. Oral health problems associated with nutritional deficiencies occur not only in populations with a limited food supply. Individuals whose chewing and swallowing abilities have been compromised by oral cancer, radiation treatment, or AIDS may also exhibit signs and symptoms of nutritional deficiencies.

Does Fluoridation of Drinking Water Actually Reduce Cavities

This, obviously, is the most important question, since it is the sole justification for adding fluoride to the public water system. According to conventional academic wisdom, the basis for fluoridating water to prevent cavities hinges on a study conducted in 1933-1934 by the United States Health Service, led by Dr. H. Trendley Dean, in which communities with naturally fluoridated water were compared to communities having low levels of fluoride in their water. Bauxite, Arkansas, was chosen as the study city, since it had a natural level of fluoride of 14 ppm. Researchers claimed that Bauxite had a dental caries (tooth decay) rate of 39 percent compared to unfluoridated communities of 65 percent. This sounds very impressive. Numerous studies have now shown that cities with fluoridated water, when compared to unfluoridated cities, either have no reduction in cavities or the unfluoridated cities have an even lower incidence of caries. If fluoridating the water could reduce the incidence...

Dental Decay

Formation of healthy teeth is supported by proper diet during childhood - ample protein, calcium, phosphate, and vitamins C and D are particularly important. Diet is also important in the prevention of dental caries. Repeated exposure of the teeth to sugar by frequent snacking on sugary foods and drinks will substantially increase risk of dental caries. Resistance to dental caries is increased if the diet contains optimum amounts of fluoride. Fluoride is incorporated into the crystals that form the tooth enamel, making them more resistant to acid. In many areas, fluoridation of the water or salt supply provides children with ample fluoride. In areas where the flu-

Diet Caries

Sucrose is extremely cariogenic, whereas lactose (milk sugar) and fructose are less likely to cause caries. Unlike sugars, fats and protein cannot be used by bacteria to produce acid. Moreover, fats can coat the teeth and form a protective layer, whereas proteins increase the buffering capacity of the saliva. Milk products or cheese rather than sugary foods at the end of meals can reduce acid formation and help prevent tooth decay. Optimum nutrition during childhood can encourage formation of thick, acid-resistant enamel. The teeth gradually form and calcify from birth through the teen years, and a generous dietary supply of protein, calcium, fluoride, and vitamins C and D are important. Fluoride, incorporated into the enamel structure, sharply increases resistance of enamel to acid (see Fig. 5.3). Insufficient fluoride leaves teeth vulnerable to tooth decay. Low-level fluoride supplementation has great benefits adding trace amounts of fluoride to the water or salt supply can reduce...

Caries and Sugar

Dental caries is a disease created by bacterial plaque on the enamel of teeth. Gradual and progressive demineralization of the enamel, dentine, and cementum occurs. Many studies have suggested that carbohydrates, especially sugars and in particular sucrose, are important carie-promoting components of food. However, despite a huge amount of laboratory and clinical research, the relationship between sugar and caries is still poorly characterized. A major reason for this is the complexity of the problem, for the formation of caries involves multifactorial interactions such as nutrients and food components of diet, plaque bacteria, salivary flow and composition, minerals and fluoride status, genetics, age, and even the race of the individual (see also Chapter66). The most common organism in dental plaque associated with caries is Streptococcus mutans, but other bacteria contribute. Most studies have focused on the acids (lactic and acetic) generated from sugars (sucrose) by the bacteria,...

Oral Health

Caries cavities in the teeth Oral tissues, such as the gingiva (gums), teeth, and muscles of mastication (chewing muscles), are living tissues, and they have the same nutritional requirements as any other living tissue in the body. When adequate, nutritious food is not available, oral health may be compromised by nutrient-deficiency diseases, such as scurvy. In contrast, when food is freely available, as in many industrialized societies, oral health may be compromised by both the continual exposure of the oral environment to food and the presence of chronic diseases, such as diabetes. The diet not only affects the number and kinds of carious lesions (cavities), but also is an important factor in the development of periodontal disease (gum disease). According to the U.S. Surgeon General's report, Healthy People 2010, dental caries have significantly declined in the United States since the early 1970s. However, it remains an important concern, especially in specific subgroups in the...

Strength of evidence

The strength of the evidence linking dietary sugars to the risk of dental caries is in the multiplicity of the studies rather than the power of any individual study. Strong evidence is provided by the intervention studies (50, 51) but the weakness of these studies is that they were conducted in the pre-fluoride era. More recent studies also show an association between sugars intake and dental caries albeit not as strong as in the pre-fluoride era. However, in many developing countries people are not yet exposed to the benefits of fluoride. Cross-sectional studies should be interpreted with caution because dental caries develop over time and therefore simultaneous measurements of disease levels and diet may not give a true reflection of the role of diet in the development of the disease. It is the diet several years earlier that may be responsible for current caries levels. Longitudinal studies (66,67) that have monitored a change in caries experience and related this to dietary...

Use in Prevention and Therapy

Optimum fluoride intake sharply reduces the prevalence and severity of dental caries.2,4 Low-level fluoride supplementation (through water, salt, or supplements) can reduce risk of caries in children by more than two-thirds.4 In areas where water or salt is fluoridated, supplementation by other means, such as fluoride mouthwashes or tablets, is unnecessary.

What Are Noncalorie and Low Calorie Sweeteners and Are They Safe

Sweet and are referred to as natural sweeteners. However, since natural sweeteners come with an energy value, food manufacturers and people often try to substitute an alternative sweetener that does not carry the same energy content. This in turn lowers the calorie level of a food, thereby making it more attractive for weight loss and management. And because simple sugars in food can adhere to our teeth and promote the formation of dental caries, many candies and gums are manufactured with alternative sweeteners to reduce their potential to promote tooth decay. As a food additive, these substances must be approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), who determines the safety.

Diseasespecific recommendations

It is important to set a recommended maximum level for the consumption of free sugars a low free sugars consumption by a population will translate into a low level of dental caries. Population goals enable the oral health risks of populations to be assessed and health promotion goals monitored. The best available evidence indicates that the level of dental caries is low in countries where the consumption of free sugars is below 15-20 kg per person per year. This is equivalent to a daily intake of40-55 g per person and the values equate to 6-10 of energy intake. It is of particular importance that countries which currently have low consumption offree sugars (< 15-20 kg per person per year) do not increase consumption levels. For countries with high consumption levels it is recommended that national health authorities and decision-makers formulate country-specific and community-specific goals for reduction in the amount of free sugars, aiming towards the recommended maximum of no more...

Baby Bottle Tooth Decay

Caries cavities in the teeth periods of time. This often happens when infants or toddlers fall asleep while sucking on a bottle. Breastfed infants are usually not at risk, unless they feed for extended periods. The carbohydrates in the drink (lactose in milk, or fructose in fruit drinks) mix with the normal bacteria in the mouth. This bacteria is found in the plaque on teeth and gums. When plaque mixes with carbohydrates, acids are formed that dissolve tooth enamel, causing tooth decay and dental caries. To prevent baby bottle tooth decay, a child should not be put in bed with a bottle and the bottle should be taken away as soon as mealtime is over. Further, only formula or water should be put in a bottle juices and sweet drinks should be offered in a cup. see also Infant Nutrition Oral Health. American Dietetic Association (1996). Oral Health and Nutrition Position of the American Dietetic Association. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 96 184-189.

Artificial Sweeteners

Caries cavities in the teeth Artificial sweeteners may assist in weight management, prevention of dental caries, and control of blood glucose for diabetics. It has also been suggested that low-calorie sweeteners may stimulate the appetite, but the bulk of evidence does not support this hypothesis. Conclusive research demonstrates that artificial sweeteners have no effect on carbohydrate metabolism, short- or long-term blood glucose control, or insulin secretion, and they are thus an excellent sugar alternative for diabetics. There have been a number of health concerns related with these products, though the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval process for artificial sweeteners involves a comprehensive analysis of scientific data to satisfy safety requirements. All generally recognized as safe (GRAS) sweeteners have undergone extensive safety testing and have been carefully reviewed by the FDA.

D Home water treatment equipment

To increase the risk of diarrhea (Hockstra et al., 1995). A randomized, double-blind, cross-over study showed less carbohydrate malabsorption with sorbitol-free white grape juice compared to clear apple juice (Smith et al., 1995). Excessive fruit juice intake may also be associated with dental caries and nursing bottle syndrome (Navia, 1994). Sodas, fruit drinks, punches and sport drinks are not recommended for infants because of their high sugar content and lack of nutrients other than carbohydrates. As with fruit juice (see above), intake of these foods may increase the risk of dental caries and nursing bottle syndrome.

Foods To Monitor Closely

Elsewhere I have devoted a whole chapter to sugar, so that you can be convinced once and for all of its evil role in our diet and of its nefarious consequences, not only in terms of excess weight, but also and most importantly because it is implicated in chronic fatigue, diabetes, gastritis, ulcers, dental caries and heart disease.

Keep Smiling Prevent Gum Disease

From an oral health standpoint, a cavity-free mouth doesn't get you home free Gum, or periodontal, disease, which affects about three-quarters of American adults, is the main cause of tooth loss, which, in turn, can affect food choices. As with tooth decay, bacteria in plaque (the gummy film that forms on teeth) and calculus are at the root of gum disease. In fact, these bacteria may thrive right along the gumline.

The Fluoride Connection

Fluoride is not only ingested through the water supply. In areas where water isn't fluoridated, dentists may prescribe fluoride supplements for children. If you're not sure about fluoride in your municipal water system, check with your local water department or public health department. If you have your own well, have it tested for fluoride. For more about healthy teeth, see Your Smile Sugar and Oral Healthin chapter 5 and Caring for Baby Teethin chapter 15.

Problems with the Newburgh Experiment

This famous massive population experiment, which began in 1945, was loudly proclaimed seven or eight years later to have shown that indeed fluoride did reduce cavities in Newburgh. A figure of 60 percent reduction in cavities was reported. In fact, the results were tainted just like the original, but still secret, Atomic Energy Commission report that also showed a 60 percent reduction in cavities. As you will recall, the reduction in tooth decay was because the subjects had 60 percent fewer teeth. The children of Newburgh were found to have fewer teeth and a delay in the appearance of new teeth. In 1995 another comparison was made between the cavity incidence of still-unfluoridated Kingston with fluoridated Newburgh. Researchers found little difference in cavity incidence in seven- to fourteen-year-olds. Statistically, the children in Kingston had slightly fewer cavities than those in Newburgh. But, there was one major difference children in the fluoridated community of Newburgh had...

Carbohydrates and Health

The mean annual consumption of sucrose plus fructose in developed countries is about 25 of the caloric intake. Fructose is more lipogenic than glucose. This high intake of sucrose (approximately 50 kg year person) has been contentiously implicated in influencing the health of humans, apart from caries, because a high consumption of sucrose fructose in experimental animals (often rats) creates, among other things, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, hypertension, and diabetic-like tissue lesions (66). However, while a hyperlipidemic effect of sucrose and fructose has been demonstrated in a number of human studies, firm conclusions cannot be made because of great variations in the type of subjects, duration of intake, background diet, and study conditions ( 66). The general conclusion of an FDA-sponsored survey published in 1986 was that the present voluntary intake of sucrose and fructose is not harmful to humans ( 67). A more recent review, while accepting that the intake of sucrose...

Potential Feeding Problems

Most often seen in children under age three, nursing bottle mouth syndrome (or baby bottle tooth decay) results from extended bottle feeding. It occurs when a child is routinely given a bottle with sweetened beverages (such as milk or juice) at bedtime. As the child sleeps, the liquid pools around the teeth. The result is severe caries on the incisors and cheek surfaces of molars. Parents should avoid giving a bottle at bedtime and begin serving beverages in a cup as early as possible. caries cavities in the teeth

American School Health Association

Over the years it has evolved into a multidisciplinary organization of administrators, counselors, dentists, health educators, physical educators, school nurses, and school physicians that advocates high-quality school environment surroundings health instruction, health services, and a healthful school environment.

Does Mercury Cause Cancer

It has been established that mercury damages chromosomes,75 and we have known for quite some time that gene mutations are closely correlated to the development of cancer. For example, methylmercury and mercury chloride have been shown to cause kidney tumors in male mice. Studies of those exposed occupationally, such as chloralkali and nuclear weapons workers, dentists, and dental technicians, indicate that exposure to low levels of mercury may increase the risk of lung, kidney, and brain tumors.76 Better studies on these groups of high-risk individuals need to be done. No one has specifically examined the

So What Can I Do to Protect Myself and My Family

Increased risk of mercury poisoning is associated with several occupations and hobbies. Dentists and people involved in the manufacture of dental amalgam, barometers, and thermometers are at increased risk. Certain disinfectants contain mercury. Embalmers, pesticide workers, those who work with wood preservatives, fireworks and explosives, photographers, electroplaters, jewelers, chlorine workers, bronzers, fur processors, taxidermists, farmers, and tannery workers are all at risk. It is interesting to note that in Goldfrank's Textbook of Toxicology one method of exposure is listed as home amalgam extraction.'01

How the ADA Is Covering Up a Medical Disaster

Dentists began using mercury amalgams to fill cavities over 150 years ago. Amalgams are, in fact, mixtures of various substances used to fill cavities, and include 45-52 percent mercury, 30 percent silver, and small amounts of zinc, tin, and copper. Mercury amalgams began to be used because they were so much cheaper than gold and true silver fillings. Use of amalgams eventually became so widespread that the American Society of Dental Surgeons, the first dental society in the United States, attempted to put a stop to its use by requiring its members to sign a pledge that stated It is my opinion and firm conviction that any amalgam whatever is unfit for the plugging (filling) of teeth. So many dentists were removed from the society because of amalgam violations that the society itself finally collapsed by 1850. Profits from using the new amalgams were just too great to resist. As a result, the ousted members formed their own society in 1859 called the American Dental Association. Today,...

Relative Sources of Mercury Exposure

Mercury Natural Sources

While mercolint bibs may be a thing of the past, dentists have been using a special mixture or amalgam, consisting of mercury, tin, zinc, and other metals for filling teeth for over 150 years. This so-called silver filling, composed of approximately 50 percent mercury, constantly releases vapor that is highly absorbed by the tissues of the mouth and nose. Today, Americans get over 180 million amalgam fillings every year.

Antimicrobial Activity

A recent study showed that white tea has better antimicrobial function than green tea. White tea extract (WTE) may have prophylactic applications in retarding growth of bacteria that cause Staphylococcus infections, Streptococcus infections, pneumonia, and dental caries 25 White tea is very effective in inactivating bacterial viruses Results obtained with a bacterial virus suggest that WTE may have an antiviral effect on human pathogenic viruses . Studies have also indicated that WTE has an antifungal effect on Penicillium chrysogenum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae In the presence of WTE, Penicillium spores and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells were totally inactivated . 26 In the commodity market in China and the United States, the white tea extract has now been added into several toothpastes to enhance antiviral and antibacterial effects

Spectrum of Menstrual Function

Dehydration and electrolyte imbalances, constipation, cathartic colon (a condition in which the colon becomes unable to function properly on its own), and steatorrhea (excessive fat in the feces) are common. May be addictive, and athlete can develop resistance, requiring increasingly larger doses to produce the same effect (or even to induce a normal bowel movement) Self-induced vomiting Largely ineffective in promoting weight (body fat) loss. Large body water losses can lead to dehydration and electrolyte imbalances. Gastrointestinal problems, including esophagitis, esophageal perforation, and esophageal and stomach ulcers, are common. May promote erosion of tooth enamel and increase the risk for dental caries. Finger calluses and abrasions are often present

Diet and dental disease

Nutritional status affects the teeth pre-eruptively, although this influence is much less important than the post-eruptive local effect of diet on the teeth (21). Deficiencies of vitamins D and A and protein-energy malnutrition have been associated with enamel hypoplasia and salivary gland atrophy (which reduces the mouth's ability to buffer plaque acids), which render the teeth more susceptible to decay. In developing countries, in the absence of dietary sugars, undernutrition is not associated with dental caries. Undernutrition coupled with a high intake of sugars may exacerbate the risk of caries. Dental caries occur because of demineralization of enamel and dentine by organic acids formed by bacteria in dental plaque through the anaerobic metabolism of sugars derived from the diet (24). Organic acids increase the solubility of calcium hydroxyapatite in the dental hard tissues and demineralization occurs. Saliva is super-saturated with calcium and phosphate at pH 7 which promotes...

The Modern Spartan Warrior is an athlete

1) We are after a physical body that functions perfectly and effortlessly as nature intended. We should have a high degree of physical strength, energy and endurance. With little or no signs of colds, sickness, aches & pains or disease being present. We want strong bones & teeth, clear eyesight & hearing and to never to see the inside of a doctors or dentists office.

Ellisons Landmark Trial and Other Therapeutic Trials of Vitamin A the Anti Infective Vitamin

Vitamin A became known as the anti-infective vitamin, and from 1920 through 1940, this vitamin underwent considerable evaluation in at least 30 therapeutic trials, from dental caries to pneumonia to measles. These studies were conducted during a period when there was an increased awareness of the problem of infant and child mortality in Europe

Hot Topic Glycemic Index

The Dietary Guidelines advise Reduce the incidence ofdental caries by practicing good oral hygiene and consuming sugar- and starch-containing foods and beverages less frequently. Acids, produced by oral bacteria, can eat away tooth enamel, causing tooth decay, also known as dental caries. Every time you eat sugars and starches, acids begin to bathe your teeth. The cavity-producing action continues for 20 minutes or more after you eat something starchy or sugary. Table sugar, or sucrose, isn't the only sugar that plays a role in oral health, either. Any sugar whether it's added or naturally occurring has the potential to promote cavities. Fructose in fruit and lactose in milk, for example, also cause bacteria to produce plaque acids. So too, fruit juice-sweetened cookies have the same cavity potential as cookies made with table sugar.

Other Things to Remember

The removal of dental amalgam fillings should only be done by a dentist trained in its safe removal. The International Academy of Oral Medicine and Toxicology has a very specific protocol that must be followed to prevent dramatic rises in mercury levels that can follow attempts to remove mercury amalgams by conventional means. I would suggest that you call the IAOMT office for a list of names of dentists in your area using this approved method of filling removal. It is interesting to note that the vapors released during removal of fillings is so toxic that dentists are urged to wear a special mercury filter gas mask during the procedure. The EPA has determined that air levels of mercury above 50ug M3 are definitely toxic. High-speed drilling of the tooth during filling removal has been shown to release mercury concentrations as high as 4,000 ug M3.

Spartan Diet Principle on Fats

Price studied used some kind of animal food as a very important part of their diet. In fact, the healthiest and most physically well developed of all used the most quality animal foods. It was a rarity for him to find ANY dental decay of their teeth. Heart disease and the rest of our modern lifestyle diseases such as cancer were virtually unknown.

Mercury and Neurodegenerative Diseases

The connection between exposure to mercury in its various forms and degenerative diseases of the nervous system is fairly strong. Many of the symptoms of chronic low-level mercury exposure closely resemble the neurobehavioral symptoms seen in many neurodegenerative diseases. For example, the asthetic-vegetative syndrome (micromercurilism) caused by exposure to low levels of mercury, is characterized by decreased productivity, loss of memory, loss of self-confidence, depression, fatigue, and irritability, many of which symptoms are also present in the dementias. Also, the studies done on dentists exposed to mercury vapor demonstrated impaired memory recall. It is also interesting to note that one

Fluoride and the Brain

The concentration of fluoride used in this phase of the experiment was comparable to that already seen in some parts of the country, and as the amount of fluoride increases in our environment due to widespread water fluoridation and contamination of foods, these levels will be increasingly more common. For example, humans ingesting drinking water containing 5-10 ppm fluoride will have similar blood fluoride levels as the animals used in these experiments. Plasma fluoride levels of 1.44 ppm, a level almost six times higher than the toxic levels seen in these experiments, have been found in children treated with fluoride gels in dentists' offices.138

After dietary assessment recommend nutrient supplements for vegan diets which are found to be nutrit

(v) Dental caries. (a) Fluoridation supplementation. Fluorida-tion of the water supply is the most effective, cost efficient means of preventing dental caries. In areas with low fluoride levels in the water source, fluoride supplements are recommended. An increase in the availability of fluoride (fluoridated water, foods or drinks made with fluoridated water, toothpaste, mouthwashes, vitamin and fluoride supplements) has led to an increasing incidence of very mild and mild forms of dental fluorosis in both fluoridated and non-fluoridated communities (Clark, 1993a Levy, 1994). The effect of dental fluorosis is cosmetic only, ranging from white striations or specks to areas of pitting or brown-gray staining. The teeth remain resistant to caries and there are no known associated health risks. This sign of excess fluoride intake has led to modifications in fluoride recommendations such that fluoride supplements are no longer recommended from birth, and doses have been decreased during the...

Background

Oral health is related to diet in many ways, for example, through nutritional influences on cranio-facial development, oral cancer and oral infectious diseases. The purpose of this review, however, is to focus on the nutritional aspects of dental diseases. Dental diseases include dental caries, developmental defects of enamel, dental erosion and periodontal disease. Dental diseases are a costly burden to health care services, accounting for between 5 and 10 of total health care expenditures and exceeding the cost of treating cardiovascular disease, cancer and osteoporosis in industrialized countries (1). In low-income countries, the cost of traditional restorative treatment of dental disease would probably exceed the available resources for health care. Dental health promotion and preventive strategies are clearly more affordable and sustainable. Although not life-threatening, dental diseases have a detrimental effect on quality of life in childhood through to old age, having an...

Previous page

This review examines all major areas of interest from a nutrition and health standpoint and explores many of the popularly held beliefs about cocoa and chocolate. Chocolate has been accused of causing headaches and migraines, promoting heart disease, being addictive, causing dental decay, being a potent allergen, causing outbreaks of acne and unreasonably leading diabetics to abandon dietary common sense, amongst many other things. In most cases, this review of the scientific literature finds that these simply do not stand up to careful scrutiny. The fact that many dietitians tend to recommend their patients to avoid chocolate products seems to have its basis on emotional rather than scientific grounds (6).

Health Issues

Sugar (and starches too) contribute to the development of dental caries, or cavities. The more often sugars and starches even small amounts are eaten and the longer they are in the mouth before the teeth are brushed, the greater is the risk for tooth decay. Dental caries are a major cause of tooth loss. This is so because every time you eat something sweet, the bacteria living on your teeth ferment, or digest, the carbohydrates, and this produces acid. This acid eats away at the teeth for 20 to 30 minutes, and cavities eventually develop. The deposit of bacteria, protein, and polysaccharides that forms on the teeth in the absence of tooth-brushing during a period of 12 to 24 hours is called plaque. Without good tooth-brushing habits, plaque may cover all surfaces of the teeth. Food such as dried fruits, breads, cereals, cookies, crackers, and potato chips increase the chances of dental caries when eaten frequently. Foods that do not seem to cause cavities include...

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The work on chocolate in human observational studies is often associated with sugar. Nonetheless, many studies commenced in the 1930s focusing on retrospective diet diaries of adults or children related to the development of dental caries. The most extensive of these retrospective studies was published by Nizel and Bibby (3) using dental caries data for recruits to the US armed forces during the Civil War (186165), World War I (191718) and World War II (194245). Mapping dental caries by state and relating this data to food consumption and dietary patterns, the authors discovered that caries was not, as expected, related to sugar or confectionery use. The low-caries states of the south-west and south-central USA used far higher levels of soft drinks (soda pop) and confectionery, which would have included chocolate, while the high-caries states used higher levels of white flour. The many human observational studies on diet and dental caries rarely mention chocolate and, if they do, it...

Previous page 122

Chocolate has long been associated in the public's mind, with confectionery, as being a cause of tooth decay (usually known as dental caries). This probably dates back to the 19th century when honey ceased to be the main source of sweetness in the diet and was replaced by sugar, as sucrose. There was also a view that chocolate and confectionery were associated with a hedonistic aspect of life and therefore somewhat reprehensible. Recent research indicates that our use of sucrose is probably at about the same level as our use of honey over many periods of our history (1). Cheap sugar from cane and then beet meant a changeover from honey not easy to store and transport to sugar. This also gave rise to the growth of confectionery at the same time that chocolate gained favour. Hence the association of chocolate with confectionery. The extensive sale of confectioneries and other refined carbohydrates, such as biscuits, cakes and baked goods, was associated with a rapid rise in the...

Fluoride

Fluoride is naturally found in minute amounts in all foods. Although fluoride was once considered an essential nutrient, it is no longer considered essential but rather beneficial for human health. Its benefits are a sharp reduction in prevalence and severity of dental caries in both children and adults when an optimum dose is ingested (about 0.05 mg kg body weight day).1 However, the range of fluoride intake compatible with human health is narrow toxicity may appear at levels of intake only two to five times the dose needed to help prevent dental caries.2,3

Previous page 123

When assessing the cariogenicity of a food, consideration must be given to the cariogenic load of the diet. Each food will add or subtract from this load depending on the properties of the food itself. In the case of chocolate, factors that are likely to increase or decrease caries based on its composition are important. These factors will comprise the chocolate itself (cocoa), milk or dairy products added to make the chocolate, sugar and other chemicals such as casein or fluoride, and further ingredients such as nuts, nougat or fudge, etc. These compositional factors may also affect the retentiveness of the chocolate, as the longer a carbohydrate based food is retained in the mouth the more likely it is to induce caries. It is clear, therefore, that the assessment of the cariogenicity of chocolate is not a simplistic one. Research Methods Used on Chocolate and Dental Caries Research on the relationship of nutrition, food and diet to dental caries is based upon a number of different...

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Products were only moderately cariogenic by comparison with sugar. More recently, Grenby and Mistry (16) reported that caries scores in rats were nearly 30 higher in animals fed plain (dark) chocolate rather than those on a milk chocolate regimen. The early studies by Bibby and Mundorff (17) showed that chocolate products, particularly those containing added ingredients such as nuts, etc., cleared from the mouth quickly. When the foods used in the Vipeholm Study (6) were compared for rates of clearance (Fig. 13.1), it can be seen that the chocolate group of subjects recorded lower clearance times than the toffee and caramel groups in which the higher caries occurred. Chocolate would therefore be classified as a low cariogenic food, as its lower rate of retention would give less opportunity for oral bacteria to ferment and produce less amounts of acid. Cocoa Fractions and Caries Inhibition Stralfors (18) showed that various fractions of cocoa had an inhibitory effect on dental caries...

Previous page 126

Adults were given controlled diets in which the refined carbohydrate was either sugar, fructose or a sugar substitute, xylitol. The total diet for these people was controlled and therefore the sugar component was either kept standard or substituted, which would have included chocolate as well. The results showed a reduction in caries increment in the xylitol group. However, chocolate does not appear to be a factor in this study. These involve the measurement of pH (acidity) in plaque (the accumulated adhesive mass of bacteria, food debris and mucins that collects on teeth) on or in between the teeth. The ability of a food to encourage or create an acid plaque (acidogenicity) is related to a food's ability to initiate or encourage the development of dental caries. The tests commonly use a pH microelectrode which can be touched on the plaque in situ (touch method), placed within a dental appliance (indwelling method), or where plaque samples are scraped off and tested outside of the...

Previous page 179

There are two other papers seeking to draw a correlation between chocolate consumption and acne (as well as, in one case, dental caries). The first describes Eskimos leaving their native habitat to thereafter enjoy chocolate consumption and at the same time suffer acne vulgaris (6, 12) the second attempts to connect the availability of dietary fats in certain regions to acne prevalence (12). Both are papers relying upon inductive reasoning without providing evidence and without adding new data to the presumed controversy.

Previous page 120

Sugars play a unique role in human diets. They satisfy our instinctual desire for sweetness and contribute 2022 of the energy in modern Western diets. Revised estimates of honey intake in prehistoric times indicate that amounts eaten may have approached the current levels of added sugars (33). Added sugars have many functional roles in foods, which extend beyond their sweetness, including preservative, textural and flavour-modifying qualities. Unfortunately, sugars have a 'bad reputation' especially in respect of dental caries, which is no longer deserved. Since it is now clear that neither sugary foods in general nor chocolate itself produce exceptionally high glucose responses, other arguments are often raised to justify a restriction on sugar. However, even in these areas, new research dispels much of the old dietary dogma.

Previous page 121

While dental caries are still associated with high sucrose consumption in non-industrialised countries, refined starch is also implicated (39). The use of fluoridated water supplies and toothpastes in Western countries has dramatically reduced the problem of tooth decay and made sugar intake less important.

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Nizel, A. and Bibby, B.G. (1944) Geographic variations in caries prevalence in soldiers. J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 31, 16181626. 5. Rugg-Gunn, A.J. and Hackett, O. (1987) Relative cariogenicity of starches and sugars in a 2-year longitudinal study of 405 English school children. Caries Res. 21, 464473. 6. Gustaffsson, B.E., Quesnel, C.E., Lanke, L.S., et al. (1952) The Viepholm Dental Caries Study. Acta Odont. Scand. 11, 232264. 10. Imfeld, T., Schmid, R., Lutz, F. and Guggenheim, B. (1991) Cariogenicity of Milchsnitte and apple in program-fed rats. Caries Res. 25, 352358. 13. Reynolds, E.C. and Black, C.L. (1987) Reduction of chocolate's cariogenicity by supplementation with sodium caseinate. Caries Res. 21, 445451. 14. Mundorff, S.A., Featherstone, J.D., Bibby, B.G., Curzon, M.E.J., Eisenberg, A.D. and Espeland, M.A. (1990) Cariogenic potential of foods. Caries in the rat model. Caries Res. 24, 344355. 15. Navia, J.M. and Lopez, H. (1983) Rat caries assay of reference foods and...

Weight Lossor Gain

Weight loss may be a health problem, especially if you haven't tried to lose weight. If that happens, first and foremost, find out why Perhaps the reason is poor oral health or immobility that makes grocery shopping or food preparation difficult. Weight loss may signal an emotional problem, perhaps depression and or bereavement, or social isolation. Unexpected weight loss also is a symptom for some serious health problems, including cancer. Talk to your doctor

Assessment

Upon clinical assessment, signs and symptoms of AN or BN will be present (see Sect. 9.2 and Table 9.1). Bleeding gums or sensitive teeth may present as new symptoms or worsened conditions. Assessment instruments such as the Eating Disorders Examination 68 may also be useful when evaluating the full clinical picture and relate to the functional and behavioral aspects of AN or BN.

Protective Measures

When you tell your dentist that you do not want fluoride treatments, he will jump up and down, turn red in the face, and while pointing toward his or her ADA certificate, tell you how all the scare stories are lies. You must understand that he or she is most likely mercury toxic and it makes him or her irritable. Just stick to your guns. Fluoride treatments are big business, and there are a lots of dentists in competition. The main problem is that most dentists do not realize that they have been lied to by the ADA.

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Vipeholm Study

These are the classic type of studies used in the pharmaceutical industry in which a group(s) of people are observed closely over a period of time under controlled circumstances to determine the development or absence of disease, and whether a drug is effective or not. While they are carried out every day in medicine, for many years they have not been allowed in dental research on foods and diets. One cannot deliberately instigate dental caries, purely for experimental purposes. For this reason, there has been only one proper study. Known as the Vipeholm Study (6), it remains the only intervention study involving chocolate in a human population. It plays a major role in any consideration of diet and dental caries. The Vipeholm project involved over 436 inmates of an institution for the mentally retarded. Over a study period of several years, groups of adult subjects were given dietary supplements, either as between-meals snacks or added to meals. The caries incidence was monitored and...

Dr Alfred Zamm

How is it possible that, in the 1990s, dentists are continuing to put a toxic substance in our mouths We need some historical perspective on the issue. In 1826, a Parisian named Taveau discovered that if you took silver coins and filed them into dust and mixed it with mercury, and then squeezed the mercury out, this putty would harden quickly. Then you could take this puttylike material, push it into a cavity in someone's mouth, and it would harden like concrete. Other people realized that this wasn't such a good idea and there were arguments back and forth. Then, in 1833 in New York, two brothers went into the business of doing this process on a mass scale. It's a cheap filling. You don't have to be a good dentist to make a mercury filling.

Trends

The amount of dental decay is measured using the dmf DMF index, a count of the number of teeth or surfaces in a person's mouth that are decayed, missing or filled as a result of caries in primary dentition permanent dentition. An additional dental status indicator is the proportion of the population who are edentulous (have no natural teeth). In most low-income countries, the prevalence rate of dental caries is relatively low and more than 90 of caries are untreated. Available data (7) show that the mean number of decayed, missing or filled permanent teeth (DMFT) at age 12 years in low-income countries is 1.9, 3.3 in middle-income countries and 2.1 in high-income countries (Table 12). Data on the level of dental caries in the permanent dentition of 12-year-olds show two distinct trends. First, a fall in the prevalence of dental caries in developed countries, and second an increase in the prevalence of the disease in some developing countries that have increased their consumption of...

Fluorine F

Earlier in this century it was recognized that people living in regions of the United States where the fluoride content in their water supply was relatively high had a much lower incidence of dental caries. From this it was realized that fluoride is important to protect the teeth against the development of cavities. Fluoride may function in part by associating with hydroxyapatite in teeth and, to a lesser degree, bone. The most obvious concern with getting too little fluoride in the diet is an increased likelihood of dental caries. This has led to the widespread fluoridation of drinking water and in doing so the incidence of dental caries in those regions tends to decrease.

Bulimia Nervosa

Individuals with BN engage in binge eating episodes, followed by compensatory behaviors to prevent any increases in body weight. Purging behaviors include self-induced vomiting or self-prescribed use of enemas, laxatives, or diuretics. Nonpurging behaviors include fasting and excessive exercise. While clinically diagnosed BN occurs in approximately 5 of the female population, up to 20 of women have reported bulimic behaviors in their lifetimes 6, 7 . Clinical features of BN include Russell's sign, dental enamel erosion, dental caries, and enlargement of the parotid glands in those who use self-induced vomiting as a purging behavior. Use of enemas, laxatives, and diuretics as well as vomiting can lead to electrolyte imbalances, cardiac dysfunction, and other neurologic disorders. Gastrointestinal symptoms may range from constipation to esophageal or gastric rupture. In those who engage in nonpurging behaviors, electrolyte imbalances, renal and cardiac dysfunction, and gastrointestinal...

Acknowledgements

The Consultation also recognized the valuable contributions made by the following individuals who provided comments on the background documents Dr Franca Bianchini, Unit of Chemoprevention, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France Mr G. Boedeker, Economic and Social Department, FAO, Rome, Italy Professor G.A. Bray, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA Mr J. Bruinsma, Economic and Social Department, FAO, Rome, Italy Dr L.K. Cohen, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA Professor A. Ferro-Luzzi, National Institute for Food and Nutrition Research, Rome, Italy Dr R. Francis, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England Dr Ghafoor-unissa, Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, India Dr K. Hardwick, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA Dr H. King, Department of Management of Noncommunicable Diseases, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland Dr J. King, University of California, Davis, CA, USA Dr L.N....

Trace Minerals

Caries cavities in the teeth Role in disease prevention and treatment. In addition to clinical deficiency diseases such as anemia and goiter, research indicates that trace minerals play a role in the development, prevention, and treatment of chronic diseases. A marginal status of several trace minerals has been found to be associated with infectious diseases, disorders of the stomach, intestine, bone, heart, and liver, and cancer, although further research is necessary in many cases to understand the effect of supplementation. Iron, zinc, copper, and selenium have been associated with immune response conditions. Copper, chromium and selenium have been linked to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Excess iron in the body, on the other hand, can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, liver and colorectal cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Chromium supplementation has been found to be beneficial in many studies of impaired glucose tolerance, a...

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These seek to combine an intra-oral environment with the effects of foods outside of the mouth. They are therefore known as intraoral cariogenicity tests (ICT). Slabs of human sterile enamel are placed into an intra-oral, denture-like device. These become colonized by oral bacteria and plaque. The device(s) can be removed from the mouth and immersed in a food slurry, such as chocolate, at various times during the day. Over a period of several weeks, caries-like lesions develop in the enamel slabs, which can be measured for an index of cariogenicity. As with artificial mouths, the ICT method has not been used to assess chocolate, although it could readily do so. These use an animal model, usually the laboratory rat, to produce in vivo dental caries. By controlled feeding experiments, groups of rats can be fed a nutritional diet as well as varying numbers of snacks as experimental foods. After a suitable period of time, 35 days in the case of rats, the animals are sacrificed and the...

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