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operation producing a uniform product at a low cost per kilogram, though the produce is often of a flavour which is not especially sought after.

Storage of cocoa in the tropics for over 23 months, even of fully dry cocoa (at 7.5% moisture) under good storage conditions, risks the development of mould and the spread of stored product pests and is not to be recommended.

Storage at these tropical temperatures and/or in damp humid conditions will lead to a rise in the free fatty acid levels after only a few weeks. All cocoa stores should be purpose built, designed to minimize these risks, while being cleaned and fumigated regularly. Bags should always be stored on pallets, never directly on the ground, and there should be free air movement around the stacks. Finally, storing cocoa in the tropics should be kept to the minimum duration possible.

Vessels, but in particular containers, used to transport cocoa beans should normally only be used for the transport of foodstuffs and never be used for the transport of toxic or noxious substances. They must be scrupulously cleaned prior to filling and treated to ensure they are free from infestations. Substances which might impart a flavour taint to cocoa beans should not be transported in the same hold.

Fine or Flavour Cocoas

The cocoa market distinguishes two main types of cocoa beans: the great majority being of the Forastero type, or so-called bulk cocoas comprising 93.5% of world cocoa production; the minority being the so-called fine or flavour cocoas the specialist growths, often originating from white-seeded Criollo planting materials (see Table 2.2). Other than by reputation, there is no universally accepted criterion for distinguishing between fine or flavour cocoas and the bulk (or ordinary cocoas), though as sensory evaluation techniques advance, this may become possible. Planting material is important, though it cannot alone be used to distinguish between fine or flavour cocoas and bulk types

The global demand for fine or flavour cocoas is static or falling gradually, but they are sold, often as particular estate marks, on the basis of specific flavour characters to specific buyers for speciality chocolates. If well prepared they can attract considerable premia over bulk cocoas, though fine or flavour trees (i.e. of Criollo planting material) tend to yield fewer beans, be more susceptible to pests and diseases and their preparation requires more care; in addition, they are more difficult and expensive to market (as they are usually sold on the basis that the buyer can examine a pre-shipment sample) and this all means that the premia



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