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CONTENTS

Contributors

Foreword vii

Preface ix

Acknowledgements x

Section I Overview

Overview of the Nutritional Benefits of Cocoa and Chocolate

John R. Lupien

Section II

Introduction and Background

Cacao Growing and Harvesting Practices

R. Anthony Lass

Cacao Bean and Chocolate Processing

Ronald G. Bixler and Jeffrey N. Morgan

Section III

Nutrient Information and Nutritional Aspects

Analysis and Nutrient Databases

Susan L. Cheney

Macro-Nutrients

Cocoa Butter and Constituent Fatty Acids

David Kritchevsky

77 79

Cardiovascular Health: Role of Stearic Acid on Atherogenic and Thrombogenic Factors Penny M. Kris-Etherton and Terry D. Etherton

Carbohydrate and Protein

Pierre Würsch and Paul-Andre Finot

Micro-Nutrients v

8 119 Phytochemicals and Phenolics

Nicholas J. Jardine

9 143 Minerals in Cocoa and Chocolate

Ian Knight

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Methylxanthines

Joan L. Apgar and Stanley M. Tarka Jr

Section IV

Physiological Effects and Health Considerations

Obesity: Taste Preferences and Chocolate Consumption

Caroline Bolton-Smith and Marion M. Hetherington

Chocolate Consumption and Glucose Response in People with Diabetes

Janette C. Brand Miller

Chocolate and Dental Health

Martin E.J. Curzon

Food Allergy, Intolerance and Behavioral Reactions Steve L. Taylor and Susan L. Hefle

Chocolate and Headache: Is There a Relationship?

Lisa Scharffand Dawn A. Marcus

The Role of Chocolate in Exercise Performance Louise M. Burke

Chocolate Craving: Biological or Psychological Phenomenon?

David Benton

Miscellaneous Considerations 18

Cocoa, Chocolate and Acne Ian Knight

Liver, Kidney and Gastrointestinal Effects Ian Knight

279 281

Section V

Consumption of Cocoa and Chocolate

Chocolate Consumption Patterns

Judith S. Douglass and Mary M. Amann

Sensory and Taste Preferences of Chocolate Marcia L. Pelchat and Gary K. Beauchamp

Cultural and Psychological Approaches to the Consumption of Chocolate

Matty Chiva

Index

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310 321 339

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CONTRIBUTORS

Mary M. Amann MS, RD TAS-Environ, Arlington VA 22203, USA

Joan L. Apgar BS Hershey Foods Corporation Technical Center Hershey, PA 17033, USA

Gary K. Beauchamp PhD Monell Chemical Senses Center Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA

David Benton PhD Department of Psychology University of Wales Swansea SA2 8PP, Wales, UK

Ronald G. Bixler BS Ex-M&M/Mars Inc. Palmyra, PA 17078, USA

Caroline Bolton-Smith BSc (Hons), PhD, FRSH Nutrition Research Group Cardiovascular Epidemiology Unit Ninewells Hospital and Medical School University of Dundee, Scotland, UK

Janette C. Brand Miller PhD Human Nutrition Unit University of Sydney NSW 2006, Australia

Louise M. Burke PhD Nutrition Programme Department of Sports Nutrition Australian Institute of Sport Bruce, ACT 2617, Australia

Susan L. Cheney MS Technical and Regulatory Affairs Chocolate Manufacturers Association McLean, VA 22102, USA

Matty Chiva PhD Department of Psychology University of Paris X, Nanterre France

Martin E.J. Curzon PhD Department of Paediatric Dentistry University of Leeds W. Yorks, LS2 9LU, UK

Judith S. Douglass MS, RD TAS-Environ, Arlington VA 22203, USA

Terry D. Etherton PhD Dairy and Animal Science Penn State University University Park, PA 16802, USA

Paul-Andre Finot PhD

Nestlé Research Centre, Lausanne

CH-1000, Switzerland

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