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References

  1. MAFF (1995) Minerals. In Manual of Nutrition Reference Book 342, 10th edn. HMSO, London.
  2. CMA (1997) Nutrient Database for Three Selected Major Ingredients Used in the NCA/CMA Recipe Modeling Database: Chocolate Liquor, Cocoa Powder and Cocoa Butter. National Confectioners Association and Chocolate Manufacturers Association, McLean, VA.
  3. National Academy of Sciences (1989) Recommended Dietary Intakes, 10th edn. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
  4. Aremu, C.Y. and Abara, A.E. (1992) Hydrocyanate, oxalate, phytate, calcium and zinc in selected brands of Nigerian cocoa beverage. Plant Foods Hum. Nutr. 42, 231237.
  5. Joo, S.-J. and Betts, N.M. (1996) Copper intakes and consumption patterns of chocolate foods as sources of copper for individuals in the 198788 nationwide food consumption survey. Nutr. Res. 16 (1), 4152.
  6. Cook, L.R. and Muersing, E.H. (1982) Nutrition and physiology. In Chocolate Production and Use. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, New York.
  7. Planells, E., Monserrat, R., Carbonell, J., Mataix, J. and Llopis, J. (1997) Ability of a cocoa product to prevent chronic Mg deficiency in rats. J. Agric. Food Chem. 45, 40174022.
  8. Prugarova, A. and Kovac, M. (1987) Lead and cadmium content in cocoa beans. Nahrung 31 (56), 635636.
  9. Lagemann, M., Anders, D., Graef, V. and Bodeker, R.H. (1985) Effect of cocoa on excretion of oxalate, citrate, magnesium and calcium in the urine of children. Monatsschr. Kinderheilkd. 133 (10), 754759.
  10. Kasidas, G.P. and Rose, G.A. (1980) Oxalate content of some common foods: determination by an enzymatic method. J. Hum. Nutr. 34, 255266.
  11. ADA (1996) Vitamins and minerals. In The American Dietetic Association's Complete Food and Nutrition Guide (Ed. by Duyff, R.L.). Chronimed Publishing, Minneapolis.
  12. Nguyen, N.U., Henriet, M.T., Dumoulin, G., Widmer, A. and Regnard, J. (1994) Increase in calciuria and oxaluria after a single chocolate bar load. Horm. Metab. Res. 26, 383386.
  13. Balcke, P., Zazgornik, J., Sunder-Plassmann, G., et al. (1989) Transient hyperoxaluria after ingestion of chocolate as a high risk factor for calcium oxalate calculi. Nephron 51 (1), 3234.
  14. Turnland, J.R., King, J.C., Keyes, W.R., Gong, B. and Michel, M.C. (1984) A stable isotope study of zinc absorption in young men: effects of phytate and a-cellulose. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 40, 10711077.
  15. Wise, A. (1983) Dietary factors determining the biological activities of phytate. Rev. Clin. Nutr. 53, 791806.
  16. Brown, R.C., Klein, A., Simmons, W.K. and Hurrell, R.F. (1990) The influence of Jamaican herb teas and other polyphenol-containing beverages on iron absorption in the rat. Nutr. Res. 10, 343353.
  17. Fairweather-Tait, S.J., Minski, M.J. and Richardson, D.P. (1983) Iron absorption from a malted cocoa drink fortified with ferric orthophosphate using the stable isotope 58Fe as an extrinsic label. Br. J. Nutr. 50, 5160.

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