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Table 4.1 CMA database values for chocolate liquor for varying fat contents per 100 g. Nutrient page_69

Calories (kcal) Calories from fat (kcal) Fat (g)

Saturated fat (g) Polyunsaturated fat (g)

Monounsaturated fat (g)

Cholesterol (mg) Carbohydrates (g) Dietary fiber (g) Sugars (g) Protein (g) Potassium (mg) Sodium (mg) Vitamin A (IU) Vitamin C (mg) Calcium (mg) Iron (mg) Phosphorus (mg) Magnesium (mg)

50 485.09 418.50 50.00 30.02 1.49 16.36 01 35.61 15.75 1.01 10.82 1023.8 3.24 01 01 91.36 13.52 432.88 314.17

51 492.13

  1. 87 51.00 30.63
  2. 52 16.70 01 34.61 15.75 1.01 10.82 1023.8 3.24 01 01 91.36 13.52
  3. 88 314.17

Percentage fat (%)

52 53 54

  1. 17 506.21 513.25
  2. 24 443.61 451.98
  3. 00 53.00 54.00 31.21 31.82 32.46
  4. 55 1.58 1.62
  5. 01 17.34 17.70 01 01 01
  6. 61 32.61 31.61
  7. 75 15.75 15.75
  8. 01 1.01 1.01
  9. 82 10.82 10.82
  10. 8 1023.8 1023.8
  11. 24 3.24 3.24

01 01 01

01 01 01

  1. 36 91.36 91.36
  2. 52 13.52 13.52
  3. 88 432.88 432.88
  4. 17 314.17 314.17

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55 56 57 58

  1. 29 527.33 534.37 541.41
  2. 35 468.72 477.09 485.46
  3. 00 56.00 57.00 58.00
  4. 10 33.75 34.07 34.71
  5. 65 1.68 1.70 1.73
  6. 05 18.40 18.57 18.92

01 01 01 01

  1. 61 29.61 28.61 27.61
  2. 75 15.75 15.75 15.75
  3. 01 1.01 1.01 1.01
  4. 82 10.82 10.82 10.82
  5. 8 1023.8 1023.8 1023.8
  6. 24 3.24 3.24 3.24

01 01 01 01

01 01 01 01

  1. 36 91.36 91.36 91.36
  2. 52 13.52 13.52 13.52
  3. 88 432.88 432.88 432.88
  4. 17 314.17 314.17 314.17

Copper (mg)

Manganese (mg)

1 These values were taken from the USDA database and are assumed values.

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Table 4.2 CMA database values for cocoa powder for varying fat contents per 100 g. Nutrient page_70

Calories (kcal) Calories from fat (kcal) Fat (g)

Saturated fat (g) Polyunsaturated fat (g) Monounsaturated fat (g) Cholesterol (mg) Carbohydrates (g) Dietary fiber (g) Sugars (g) Protein (g) Potassium (mg) Sodium (mg) Vitamin A (IU) Vitamin C (mg) Calcium (mg) Iron (mg)

203.85 83.70 10.00 5.93 0.30 3.30 01 56.85 27.90 1.66 19.59 1495.5 8.99 01 01 169.45 13.862

  1. 89 92.07 11.00 6.52 0.33 3.62 01
  2. 85 27.90
  3. 66 19.59 1495.5 8.99 01 01 169.45

13.86

217.93

  1. 44 12.00
  2. 11 0.36 3.95 01
  3. 85 27.90
  4. 66 19.59 1495.5 8.99 01 01

169.45

13.86

Percentage fat (%) 14

  1. 97 108.81 13.00 7.69 0.39 4.27 01
  2. 85 27.90
  3. 66 19.59 1495.5 8.99 01 01 169.45

13.86

  1. 01 117.18 14.00 8.29 0.42 4.61 01
  2. 85 27.90
  3. 66 19.59 1495.5 8.99 01 01 169.45

13.86

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15 16 17

  1. 05 246.09 253.13
  2. 55 133.92 142.29
  3. 00 16.00 17.00
  4. 89 9.49 10.08
  5. 45 0.48 0.51
  6. 94 5.27 5.60

01 01 01

  1. 85 50.85 49.85 27.90 27.90 27.90
  2. 66 1.66 1.66
  3. 59 19.59 19.59
  4. 5 1495.5 1495.5
  5. 99 8.99 8.99

01 01 01

01 01 01

  1. 45 169.45 169.45
  2. 86 13.86 13.86

Phosphorus (mg)

795.27 795.27 795.27 795.27 795.27 795.27 795.27 795.27

Magnesium (mg)

593.64 593.64 593.64 593.64 593.64 593.64 593.64 593.64

Copper (mg)

Manganese (mg)

1 These values were taken from the USDA database and are assumed values.

2 USDA Agriculture Handbook No. 819: cocoa powder, unsweetened (2).

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Table 4.3 CMA database for cocoa butter.

Nutrients

Calories (kcal)

Calories from fat (kcal)

Saturated fat (g) Polyunsaturated fat (g) Monounsaturated fat (g) Carbohydrates (g) Protein (g) Water (g) Ash (g)

Per 100 g

Table 4.4 Nutrient database comparisons of chocolate liquor blends per 100 g. Nutrient

Calories (kcal) Calories from fat (kcal) Fat (g)

Saturated fat (g) Polyunsaturated fat (g) Monounsaturated fat (g) Cholesterol (mg) Carbohydrates (g) Dietary fiber (g) Sugars (g) Protein (g)

CMA2 Database

513.25

451.98

54.00

32.42

1.61

17.67

31.61

15.75

1.01

10.82

USA1

USDA Handbook 8193

522.00

462.86

55.30

32.60

1.76

18.46

28.3

Potassium (mg) Sodium (mg) Vitamin A (IU) Vitamin C (mg) Calcium (mg) Iron (mg) Phosphorus (mg) Magnesium (mg) Zinc (mg) Copper (mg) Manganese (mg) Water (g) Ash (g)

  1. 8 3.24 0 0
  2. 36 13.52 432.88 314.17 4.29 2.36 2.57 0.63 3.22

1 No data available from the UK, the Netherlands or Germany.

2 Mean from analytical data.

3 Mean obtained from published and unpublished sources.

4 These were taken from the USDA database and are assumed values.

833.0 14

74.00

6.32

417.0

310.00

4.01

2.17

1.92

1.30

3.00

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Table 4.5 Nutrient database comparisons on cocoa powders per 100 g. Nutrient USA

Calories (kcal) Calories from fat (kcal) Fat (g)

Saturated fat (g) Polyunsaturated fat (g) Monounsaturated fat (g) Cholesterol (mg) Carbohydrates (g) Dietary fiber (g) Sugars (g) Protein (g) Potassium (mg) Sodium (mg) Vitamin A (IU) Vitamin C (mg) Calcium (mg) Iron (mg) Phosphorus (mg) Magnesium (mg) Zinc (mg) Copper (mg) Manganese (mg) Water (g) Ash (g)

CMA Databasel

228.49 112.99 13.50 8.00 0.41 4.45 06 53.35 27.90 1.66 19.59 1495.50 8.99 06 06 169.45 13.868 795.27 593.64 7.93 4.61 4.73 2.58 6.33

USDA Handbook 8192

  1. 00 114.67 13.70 8.07 0.44 4.57 0
  2. 30 29.80 0.90 19.60 1524.00 21.00 0 0
  3. 00 13.86 734.00 499.00 6.81
  4. 79 3.84 3.00

5.80

Miscellaneous Foods3

312.00

11.507

Trace 18.50 1500.00 950.00 0 0

3.40

Netherlands

NEVO Tables4

315.00

  1. 70 12.90 0.60 7.30 0
  2. 50 34.00 2.20 18.50 4000.00 100.00 0 0
  3. 00 15.00 600.00 525.00 7.00

Germany

Food Composition and Nutrition Tables5

343.06

24.50

  1. 847 30.43 2.10 19.80 1920 17.00
  2. 00 12.50 656.00 414.00 5.73 3.81

1 Mean obtained from analytical data.

2 Mean from published and unpublished sources.

3 Mean obtained from analysis of 12 store-bought samples.

4 Mean obtained from food composition tables and calculation factors.

5 Mean obtained from analysis and literature sources.

6 These were taken from the USDA database and are assumed values.

7 Calculated as available carbohydrate.

8 USDA Agriculture Handbook 819: cocoa powder, unsweetened.

as milk chocolate and baking chocolate rather than the ingredient chocolate liquor.

Both the USDA Handbook 819 and the CMA database calculate energy values using the general food factors method. In both databases, carbohydrates are calculated by difference and protein values were calculated after adjustments were made for non-protein nitrogenous compounds. Differences between reported nutrient data in the two sources may be a result of the USDA obtaining analytical data from analysis, government agencies, literature reviews and manufacturers, where the CMA database relied solely on analytical data. The

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Table 4.6 Nutrient database comparisons on cocoa butter blends per 100 g. Nutrient USA

Calories (kcal) Calories from fat (kcal) Total fat (g) Saturated fat (g) Polyunsaturated fat (g)

Monounsaturated fat (g)

Cholesterol (mg) Total carbohydrate (g) Protein (g)

CMA Databasel

USDA Handbook 8192

1 Mean obtained from analytical data.

2 Mean obtained from published and unpublished sources.

3 Mean obtained from analysis and literature sources.

4 Mean obtained from analysis and literature.

5 These were taken from the USDA database and were assumed values.

Miscellaneous Foods3

896.00

Netherlands

NEVO Tables

No data

Germany

Food Composition and Nutrition Tables4

900.00

100.00

2.70

USDA database has been criticized as not accurately reporting the nutrient content of food. Concerns have also been raised regarding the accuracy of the data, the adequacy of analytical methods used to produce the data, the sufficiency of documentation related to the data and the adequacy of documentation on the criteria for acceptance of data (13). With this in mind, the USDA Handbook 819 values should not be used for nutrition labeling purposes if analytical data are available.

Nutrient values for cocoa powder are reported in numerous databases. Table 4.5 compares five data sources: CMA, USDA, the UK, the Netherlands and Germany. Of these, the UK, Netherlands, Germany, and USDA all report energy values using the general food factors method. The UK and Germany calculate 'available' carbohydrates rather than reporting carbohydrates by difference. The differences in total fat are most likely due to methodology, but methods of analysis are not listed for the USDA, UK, Dutch, or German nutrient data. Another possible source of the variation is reliance on industry and published sources as several of the databases do. The quality of data obtained from industry and published sources is difficult, if not impossible, to evaluate.

The Netherlands data for cocoa powder was obtained almost exclusively from food composition tables, estimation or by calculation. The UK obtained nutrient data after analyzing ten samples obtained from two store-bought cocoa powders. Due to the extremely high levels of potassium and sodium reported by these two countries, one must assume that the reported nutrient values are for alkalized

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cocoa powders, since the alkalization process results in variable levels of these nutrients.

Comparisons of cocoa butters do not show any significant variation as expected since cocoa butter is 100% fat. Furthermore, since cocoa butter is of plant origin, it is expected that the concentration of cholesterol would be negligible and this was generally borne out by earlier analysis. Nonetheless, the UK and Germany do report small concentrations of cholesterol; however, this is thought to be most likely due to analytical methodology.

Ingredient databases provide significant benefits to both the industry and the consuming public by making accurate nutrient values readily available to the chocolate manufacturer and confectioner at a reasonable cost and with rapid timing. Before choosing a database, one must carefully look at the analytical methodology, validation procedures and reporting methods used in developing the database to ensure that the database provides a credible source of nutrient information. Reported nutrient data can vary due to the type of food examined, the nutrients analyzed and the method used to report data. Before using any nutrient data, it is important to understand these variables as they can result in large differences in reportable data.

Currently, the CMA database is the only non-manufacturer database devoted to providing nutrient composition data for all three of the cacao-based ingredients chocolate liquor, cocoa powder and cocoa butter based on direct analysis of the raw products. Other databases are generally constructed from industry data, printed material or from analysis of store-bought finished products. Consequently, when making use of these databases, their origins should be carefully considered against their purpose, as they can affect the quality of the data supplied.

  1. National Confectioners Association (NCA) and CMA (1997) Nutrient Database for Three Selected Major Ingredients Used in the NCA/CMA Recipe Modeling Database: Chocolate Liquor, Cocoa Powder, and Cocoa Butter. Chocolate Manufacturers Association, McLean, VA.
  2. USDA (1991) Composition of Foods: Snacks and Sweets. Agriculture Handbook No. 819. US Department of Agriculture, Hyattsville, MD.
  3. Chan, W., Brown, J. and Buss, D.H. (1994) Miscellaneous Foods: Supplement toMcCance and Widdowson's Composition of Foods. Royal Society of Chemistry and Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, London.

Summary

References

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