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(polyunsaturated fat, monounsaturated fat, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, manganese and copper).
Nine listings for chocolate liquor were developed for inclusion in the database (Table 4.1). Each is defined by fat content with an overall range from 5058% fat. When using the database for nutrition labeling, manufacturers are able to select the listing that represents the fat content of the liquor they are adding to their chocolate and confectionery products.
Eight listings for cocoa powder were developed for inclusion in the database (Table 4.2). Each is defined by fat content with an overall range from 1017% fat. The standard of identity for cocoa powder allows up to 22% fat, but it is rarely used at such high fat levels. Again, when using the recipe modeling database to determine label values, manufacturers will select the listing that represents the fat content of the cocoa powder that they are adding to their products.
The database for cocoa butter includes proximates and fatty acids only (Table 4.3). Fat and fatty acids are the only components present at significant levels.
Database values were selected using combined means and compliance calculations. Because of the significant amount of nitrogen-containing alkaloids (caffeine and theobromine) in cacao products, specific calculations were carried out to avoid overestimating or underestimating protein, carbohydrates and calories (11). Based on analytical results, further calculations were done to derive database values applicable to the various levels of fat found in cacao products. No changes were made to water, ash, protein, sugars, dietary fiber, vitamins or minerals, as these components do not show a proportional change with fat content. Fat and carbohydrates were adjusted so that an increase in fat yielded a decrease in carbohydrates and vice versa. Calories and fatty acids were adjusted in proportion to the recalculated levels of fat and carbohydrates.
Laboratory analysis of chocolate liquor, cocoa powder and cocoa butter samples indicate no significant variation due to bean blend, fat content or manufacturer. Due to wide variations in the iron data obtained from analysis of cocoa powder samples, the CMA database used the more conservative value taken from the USDA Handbook 819: cocoa powder, unsweetened. Laboratory results of the cocoa butter samples showed trace amounts of water, protein and carbohydrates, most likely due to the limitations of analytical methodology. In order to arrive at representative database values, the fat content was converted to 100% and fatty acids were adjusted based on their percentage of the total fat. Proximates do not equal 100% because not all fatty acid and carbohydrate components are reported.
Tables 4.4, 4.5 and 4.6 compare CMA database values with those found in the USDA Handbook 819; Miscellaneous Foods and Dairy Ingredient Supplements to McCance and Widdowson's Composition of Foods; the Netherlands' NEVO Tables; and Germany's Food Composition and Nutrient Tables (15, 12).
Chocolate liquor values are not available from any country other than the USA. The above databases provide data for finished chocolate products such
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