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soluble and insoluble components. Colorimetric and chromatographic methods have also been developed. Enzymatic gravimetric methods provide specific and precise analysis of carbohydrates and are ideal for the analysis of food carbohydrates; however, results can be overestimated if the fiber components remain in the residue. Colorimetric methods can also overestimate fiber content, while chromatographic methods can underestimate fiber content. Collaborative studies have shown that estimates of total dietary fiber using either enzymatic gravimetric methods or chromatographic methods are not significantly different (10).

Before adding analytical data to a database, it should be manipulated using statistical software to determine, at a minimum, means, standard deviations and prediction intervals. Separation of means should occur at P < 0.05, and one-sided 95% prediction intervals are calculated to ensure label values will have a high probability of being in compliance with nutrition labeling regulations, and accurately report the nutrient content of cacao-based ingredients.

The CMA database employed labeling statistics such as means, standard deviations, coefficients of variation and prediction intervals to test results. The final summarized numbers were rounded for the purposes of nutrition labeling only for use on final products, such as retail bakers' chocolate and retail cocoa butter.

All data contained in nutrient databases should be validated to provide evidence of a functional database that effectively supplies nutrient information for its intended use. Validation requires reviewing the data for consistency and verifying any numbers that appear incorrect.

CMA validates its database by comparing the analytical values of nine cacao-based products to database-generated values. Currently, the CMA database is undergoing another validation so it will continue to receive FDA acceptance as an approved ingredient database.

The CMA database provides nutrient composition data for chocolate liquor (5058% fat), natural cocoa powder (1017% fat) and cocoa butter for use in a recipe modeling system. Because these items are strictly ingredients and are not sold at retail, serving size considerations were not addressed.

Comparison of Databases

Data tables for chocolate liquor and cocoa powder were developed for the nutrition labeling of all mandatory nutrients (i.e. calories, calories from fat, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, total carbohydrate, dietary fiber, sugars, protein, vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium and iron) plus eight optional nutrients


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