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century. Historical time is often forgotten and measured in subjective terms rather than in real time.

• On the other hand, because even if it results in general acceptability, as in the case of chocolate, acceptance of dietary innovation experiences local adaptations. As a general assertion, chocolate is loved everywhere; but it is not exactly the same chocolate, from an organoleptic point of view, that people in different countries like. And this warrants consideration.


Individuals and Their Diet

One cannot live without eating. The act of eating is a result of biological and physiological determinants prescribed in the body. Can one then consider that eating is an act which occurs of its own, in view of the determinants which have just been mentioned? The answer is no. Eating in fact is learnt and this learning roughly depends on two inherited traits, the biological and the cultural.

The biological inheritance consists in particular of the genetic information, inscribed in each of our cells, from conception. This inheritance determines each of us in two ways: as a member of the species on the one hand, and as a unique, specific individual on the other.

The genetic inheritance of the species thus determines certain traits shared by all human beings: the omnivorous nature, the digestive and metabolic systems, and the very structure of the body. But it is also as a function of genetic information that differences between individuals appear: certain characteristics such as height, weight, bodily morphology, the colour of the eyes, the specific individual metabolism and also the major differences from one person to another in the sphere of sensory discrimination.

The cultural inheritance includes beliefs, behaviours, attitudes and practices established by human groups, a whole that can only be described by the term culture. Culture, which in its most advanced form is a specifically human concept, has emerged from a prolonged progression of accumulation and transmission of knowledge, opinions and attitudes. Culture, which is also evolving over time, is transmitted solely by learning, unlike biological information, transmitted by the genes and inscribed in the body.

The nature of these two inheritances is that they are given to us at the start, outside of any possible individual choice. They interact in programming feeding behaviour which is original and it is not possible later to decide which specific share is due to each (14, 15). The construction in this case is identical to what happens in spoken language: every human being is in fact genetically programmed to learn to speak. But this initial programming does not in any way predict which language he or she will speak. Paradoxically then, one can assert that speech is totally determined by genetics which lay the neurological and morphological foundations of the mechanisms of speech. But it is equally totally

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