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tions, we examine CSFII, NDS and NVS data on chocolate confectionery consumption, including:

  • Mean intakes per user (on survey days on which reported)
  • Mean per capita daily intakes
  • Percent of survey days on which chocolate confectionery consumption was reported.

Results of the 199496 CSFII survey show a wide range in mean amounts of chocolate confectionery consumed by different US subpopulations (Table 20.2). Intake reported by males in each age range exceeded intake reported by females in the same age range. The highest mean daily intakes of chocolate confectionery by males were reported by teenagers and young adults. Highest mean daily intakes by females were reported by teenagers. In each country, both the quantity of chocolate confectionery consumed and the frequency of consumption declined with age.

Table 20.2 Consumption of chocolate confectionery in the USA.

Population group Percent of survey days on which reported

MF 913 M 1418 M 1930 M 3150 M 5170 M >70 F 1418 F 1930 F 3150 F 5170 F >70 MF (1950) Total (ages 4+)

Source: 199496 USDA CSFII (11).

14 12

10 10

Mean daily intake (g)

Per user 45.7

59.2

56.1

32.3

per capita 6.2

  1. 1 4.8 3.8
  2. 2 1.6 4.7 4.2

Mean intake of chocolate confectionery on days when these products were consumed ranged from 32.3 g for females over 70 to 60.3 g for males 3150, with 53.4 g as the mean consumption on days consumed by males and females 1950.

Consumption of chocolate confectionery was reported in 6% of all 199496 CSFII daily food intake recalls. The mean percentage of CSFII respondents

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consuming chocolate confectionery on a particular day ranged from 5% for females over 70 years of age to 14% for males and females ages 913. Per capita intake of chocolate confectionery in each 199496 CSFII subpopulation reflects the low percentages of consumers; overall mean per capita intake of chocolate confectionery for ages 1950 was 4.7 g and for all ages 4+ was 4.2g.

Chocolate confectionery consumption reported in the 199496 CSFII follows agegender consumption patterns similar to those seen in previous US surveys. However, amounts reported by consumers appear to be lower in the 199496 survey than in previous surveys. This could be due to changing patterns of eating behavior for chocolate confectionery and does not necessarily reflect an actual reduction in consumption. In the 198788 USDA Nationwide Food Consumption Survey, teenage males reported the largest mean daily intake of chocolate confectionery (90 g per day), followed closely by females aged 3039 years old (87 g per day) (24). Males 1219 years of age had the highest consumption of chocolate confectionery (over 60 g per day) in the 198991 CSFII, although men aged 2049 and women 4049 years old also reported mean daily intakes of approximately 55 g (8). Results of the 198788 USDA Nationwide Food Consumption Survey, the 198991 CSFII and 199496 CSFII indicate that mean daily intake of chocolate confectionery, particularly among women of all ages, has declined in the past decade.

Individuals in the 198687 NDS reported an overall mean intake on days consumed of 68.3 g chocolate confectionery per day (Table 20.3). Among adults aged 1950, mean daily intake of chocolate confectionery was 69.7 g on days when consumed.

Table 20.3 Consumption of chocolate confectionery in the UK.

Population group Percent of survey days on which reported Mean daily intake

Table 20.3 Consumption of chocolate confectionery in the UK.

Population group Percent of survey days on which reported Mean daily intake

Consumers only

Per capita

M 1618

29

87.4

25.0

M 1930

21

90.9

19.0

M 3150

16

64.4

10.6

M 5164

12

73.0

9.0

F 1618

27

86.2

22.9

F 1930

24

64.8

15.4

F 3150

18

64.2

11.8

F 5164

17

50.1

8.2

MF 1950

19

69.7

13.4

Total (1664)

18

68.3

12.4

Source: UK National Diet and Nutrition Surveys (7, 14, 17, 18).

Source: UK National Diet and Nutrition Surveys (7, 14, 17, 18).

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Males between the ages of 19 and 30 consumed the largest quantity of chocolate confectionery at a given eating occasion; women of the same age reported smaller quantities of intake although in general a lower percentage of women reported chocolate confectionery consumption. Overall, chocolate confectionery consumption was reported on 18% of adult survey person-days.

Germany

NVS survey data on consumption of chocolate confectionery in the former West Germany (198589) are presented in Table 20.4. Consumption of chocolate confectionery on days consumed ranged from more than 40 g per day for both men and women aged 70 and greater, to 76.2 g per day among 1418-year-old males. Among individuals under the age of 70, men consumed larger quantities than did women. Overall, consumption of chocolate confectionery was reported on 15% of the total survey days and the mean daily intake among all chocolate confectionery consumers was 56.2 g.

Table 20.4 Consumption of chocolate confectionery in former West Germany.

Population group (sex/age (years))

MF 913 M 1418 M 1930 M 3150 M 5170 M >70 F 1418 F 1930 F 3150 F 5170 F >70 MF 1950 Total (4+) Source: NVS (15).

Percent of survey days on which reported

24 22 15 11

22 18

13 10

Mean daily intake (g)

Consumers only 55.6

76.2

Per capita 13.6 16.6 10.8 6.8 4.6 3.6 13.1 9.9 6.2 4.5 3.3 8.2 8.3

Consumption of Chocolate Confectionery as Snacks

The CSFII, NDS and NVS surveys each allow the characterization of consumption of specific foods per eating occasion, but differences in reporting conventions make comparison of results of analyses difficult. In the NDS, food consumption was recorded in consecutively numbered eating occasions, but respondents did not identify these occasions by name. Foods consumed by NVS

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respondents, on the other hand, were recorded as being consumed at one of six specific eating occasions, each essentially treated as a meal.

Food consumption by CSFII respondents was recorded by occasions self-described as breakfast, brunch, lunch, supper, dinner or one of any number of snack periods. While common use of descriptors for specific meals varies regionally throughout the USA, distinctions between meal and snacking occasions are more uniform.

US CSFII respondents reported consumption of chocolate confectionery at self-described snacks more often than at meals, with snacks accounting for 79% of eating occasions at which chocolate confectionery was consumed and 82% of total chocolate confectionery intake (Table 20.5).

Table 20.5 Consumption of chocolate confectionery at meals and snacks in the USA by the total population.

Meal

Breakfast

Brunch

Lunch

Dinner

Supper

Snacks

Mean consumption per occasion (g)

49.9

Percent of eating occasions

Percent of chocolate confectionery consumption

Source: 199496 USDA CSFII (11).

These results indicate a possible increase in the proportion of chocolate consumed at snacking periods, reported at only 66% of total intake in 1990 (1). Results from the 199496 survey indicate that lunch was the second most popular eating occasion for chocolate confectionery, accounting for over 10% of eating occasions at which chocolate confectionery was consumed and 8% of total chocolate confectionery intake. The mean amount of chocolate confectionery consumed at lunch was somewhat lower than that consumed as snacks (35.5 versus 47.7 g).

CSFII data indicate that most chocolate confectionery is consumed as a snack (79% of eating occasions) by individuals with relatively low body mass index (Table 20.6). It must be noted, however, that body mass indices for CSFII respondents were calculated by the USDA based upon weights and heights reported by respondents rather than upon measured values. It must also be noted that, as discussed previously, dietary under-reporting by obese individuals has been documented in a number of studies (2123).

In a British study (25) of the relative contributions of meals and snacks to total energy intake, adolescents were seen to obtain a greater proportion of total energy intake from snacks than were older age groups, and the contribution of chocolate confectionery to total energy intake at snacking periods was sig-

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Table 20.6 Chocolate confectionery consumed as snacks: percentage of total consumption by respondents within different body mass index ranges.

Adult consumers (M, F, 1970 years)

M 1930 F 1930 M 3150 F 3150

61 63 30 52

Body mass index (kg/m2)

>25 and <30 >30 and <35 >35 and <40

(% of consumption by subpopulation)*

27 25 34 22

28 10

Source: 199496 USDA CSFII (11).

* Figures have not been rounded, hence sums of some rows do not equal 100%.

nificantly greater for adolescents than for the older age groups. A previous British study (26) attributes the high proportion of snack-based energy intake by children and adolescents to use of pocket money to purchase snacks on the way to, at, and on the way home from, school.

In a study conducted to evaluate the belief, commonly held by Australians, that consumption of snack foods is characteristic of people of low socio-economic status, 1984 and 1988/9 Household Expenditure Survey data on chocolate confectionery and other snack foods were examined (27). Findings indicated that chocolate confectionery expenditures by households of low and average/high socio-economic status were about equal for households consisting of one or two individuals. For households including children, chocolate confectionery expenditures by those with average/high socio-economic status were over 50% higher than expenditures by those with low socio-economic status.

Discussion and Conclusions

Availability data from the IOCCC and the US DOC are useful for identifying international patterns and trends related to chocolate confectionery. However, as noted previously, these data must be regarded as overestimates of consumption.

The ratio of chocolate confectionery availability to consumption at comparable time periods varies from country to country (Table 20.7).

In the 1980s when survey data was collected in the UK, over 20 g of chocolate confectionery were available per day per capita based upon balance sheet data. Estimates of consumption show that on a per capita basis, individuals 1664 years of age consumed an average of 8.3 g per day, suggesting a greater than twofold overestimate of consumption. Similarly, in Germany in the late 1980s, slightly less than 20 g of chocolate confectionery was available daily on a per capita basis.

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Table 20.7 Chocolate confectionery consumption (g per capita/day) as estimated using availability data and individual food consumption survey data.

Country Time period Chocolate confectionery consumption

(g per capita/day)

Based on availability Based on individual food data consumption survey data

USA 199496 14.5

UK 198687 20.0

Germany 198589 19.0

12.4

Sources: Apgar and Seligson (6), 199496 USDA CSFII (11), UK National Diet and Nutrition Surveys (7, 14, 17, 18), NVS (15).

Analyses of food intake data indicate that individuals 4 years of age and above consumed 12.4 g per capita per day.

The greatest difference between chocolate confectionery availability and intake estimates, however, is seen for the USA. At the time of the most recent CSFII data collection in the USA, 14.5 g of chocolate confectionery were estimated to be available for each individual, while survey data indicate that on a per capita basis, Americans consumed 4.2 g per day.

Country-to-country and time-related differences in the relationship between chocolate confectionery availability and consumption are to be expected. Economic factors and cultural differences in food production, wastage, industrial reuse and shelf-life affect the extent to which products counted as 'available' for consumption actually are consumed.

Data from the IOCCC indicate that the quantities of chocolate confectionery available in Germany, Switzerland, and Belgium are greater than those available to American, Asian, African, Oceanic and other European populations. This evidence for high per capita chocolate confectionery consumption by European populations relative to other populations is supported by results of food consumption surveys of individuals, which indicate that daily consumption in the USA is lower than that in the UK and Germany on both the per user and per capita basis.

Although the mean amounts of chocolate confectionery consumed by survey respondents in the USA, UK and former West Germany differed, patterns of consumption by agegender groups within the populations are similar. In each survey, intake reported by males in each age range exceeded intake reported by females in the same age range. The highest mean daily intakes of chocolate confectionery by males were reported by teenagers and young adults. Highest mean daily intakes by females were reported by teenagers. In each country, both the quantity of chocolate confectionery consumed and the frequency of consumption declined with age.

National survey data on chocolate confectionery consumption by school-aged

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children in the UK are available only for children aged 1011 and 1415, making comparisons with US and German data somewhat difficult. However, data obtained from a survey of British and German primary school children in 1994 (28) indicate that chocolate confectionery consumption may be lower in Germany than in England.

Chocolate confectionery intake per consumer appears to be lower in the 199496 CSFII survey than in previous US surveys. This may reflect increased volume sales of smaller 'snack-size' bars, as noted by Apgar and Seligson in 1994 (6). However, decreases in intake per consumer do not necessarily reflect an actual reduction in consumption on a population basis.

US 199496 CSFII data indicate that Americans view chocolate confectionery as 'snack food'. The American Dietetic Association recommends frequent snacking for people with diabetes and for the population at large, as this pattern of food consumption is thought to provide more constant blood glucose levels and to be more healthful in general than the three-meals-a-day pattern traditional in the USA. Chocolate confectionery contains substantial amounts of sugar and saturated fat, and previously was not thought of as a healthful snack. However, opinion on this matter is changing. Cedermark et al. (29) found that isocaloric substitution of a milk chocolate bar for the regular afternoon snack consumed by teenagers with diabetes had no effect on the postprandial blood glucose curve. Most of the fat in chocolate is in the form of stearic, oleic and palmitic acids. Stearic and oleic acids are saturated fatty acids thought to have neutral effects on serum cholesterol. Kris-Etherton et al. (3031) demonstrated that milk chocolate consumed as a snack actually may have hypocholesterolemic effects, and theorized that stearic acid in the cocoa butter is responsible for these effects.

  1. Rossner, S. (1997) Chocolate divine food, fattening junk or nutritious supplementation? Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 51,
  2. Trager, J. (1995) A Food Chronology. Henry Holt, New York.
  3. Food and Agriculture Organization (1994) AGROSTAT; Food Balance Sheets 196193 (computer version). FAO, Rome.
  4. IOCCC (1997) International Statistical Review of the Biscuit, Chocolate and Sugar Confectionery Industries. International Office of Cocoa, Chocolate and Sugar Confectionery, Brussels.
  5. Bureau of the Census, US Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration (1997) Current Industrial Reports, Confectionery 1996. GPO, Washington, DC.
  6. Apgar, J.L. and Seligson, F.H. (1995) Consumer consumption patterns of chocolate and confectionery. The Manufacturing Confectioner 31, 3136.
  7. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Foods (1997) National Food Survey 1996:

References

341345.

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