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Mechanism of esophageal reflux resulting from weak lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure valve, or inappropriate relaxation of the LES.
having a low fat content (1%). From this, it was hypothesized that the methylxanthines may be partially responsible for this effect. Subsequent studies (9, 10) established that the reduced LES pressure did indeed contribute to esophageal reflux, supporting recommendations that patients suffering from reflux esophagitis should avoid chocolate, particularly solid, dark chocolate, as well as caffeine and fats.
Although cocoa and chocolate are habitually blamed for many complaints, there is little scientific research on which to base such generalizations. There appears to be no work to support liver problems. In the kidney, there exist some scattered observations in animals, relating to renal pelvic dilatation and the formation of microcalculi; however, their causes were by no means defined. The only real effect for which there appears to be solid evidence is that of chocolate on patients who are susceptible to reflux esophagitis, leading to serious heartburn. Such people, when identified, are recommended to avoid chocolate, particularly solid, dark chocolate, but equally smoking, alcohol, caffeine and high-fat products generally.
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