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fat and protein content are advised so that total carbohydrate intake is not displaced (65).


Strategies to match carbohydrate availability to the fuel needs of training and competition form an ongoing cycle for the athlete. Carbohydrate ingestion after exercise aids the resynthesis of muscle and liver glycogen in preparation for subsequent exercise sessions. The pre-exercise meal can assist to 'top up' body carbohydrate stores, while carbohydrate intake during exercise may be needed to provide additional fuel as body stores become depleted. In all cases, the amount of carbohydrate consumed by the athlete is important, and the type of carbohydrate-rich food or drink that might be consumed is dictated more by practical issues than the physiological characteristics of the carbohydrate source. Chocolate bars may be useful in many circumstances, since they provide a compact, portable and well-liked form of carbohydrate. Nevertheless, the athlete is encouraged to choose a variety of carbohydrate-rich foods to meet overall carbohydrate intake goals, and to let individual preference and experience dictate which particular choices are used in specific situations of pre-, during- and post-exercise refuelling.

  1. Burke, L.M. and Read, R.S.D. (1989) Sports nutrition: approaching the nineties. Sports Med. 8, 80100.
  2. Hawley, J.A. and Hopkins, W.G. (1995) Aerobic glycolytic and aerobic lipolytic power systems. A new paradigm with implications for endurance and ultra-endurance events. Sports Med. 19, 240250.
  3. Hawley, J.A., Schabort, E.J., Noakes, T.D. and Dennis, S.C. (1997) Carbohydrate-loading and exercise performance: an update. Sports Med. 24, 7381.
  4. Coyle, E.F. (1992) Timing and method of increased carbohydrate intake to cope with heavy training, competition and recovery. In Food, Nutrition and Sports Performance (Ed. by Williams, C. and Devlin, J.T.), pp. 3562. E. & F. Spon, London.
  5. Bergstrom, J., Hermansen, L., Hultman, E. and Saltin, B. (1967) Diet, muscle glycogen and physical performance. Acta Physiol. Scand. 71, 140150.
  6. Sherman, W.M., Costill, D.L., Fink, W.J. and Miller, J.M. (1981) Effect of diet-exercise manipulation on muscle glycogen and its subsequent utilization during performance. Int. J. Sports Med. 2, 114118.
  7. Costill, D.L., Sherman, W.M., Fink, W.J., Maresh, C., Witten, M. and Miller, J.M. (1981) The role of dietary carbohydrates in muscle glycogen re-synthesis after strenuous running. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 34, 18311836.
  8. Burke, L.M. and Read, R.S.D. (1987) A study of carbohydrate loading techniques used by marathon runners. Can. J. Sports Sci. 12, 610.


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