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Table 2.1 Growth of cocoa production for major cocoa producers for selected years, 18501997/8.







Dominican Republic


Trinidad & Tobago


Equatorial Guinea


Côte d'Ivoire




Papua New Guinea


World total

Proportion (%) from Central and S. America

West Indies


Asia & Oceania Others

Production (thousand tonnes) in each year 1850 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980

80 9

16 115

47 21 17 1

5 118

27 371

28 18

23 13 241 43 103 5 1

26 5

74 25 440 94 198 10

19 4

70 1

403 258 156 8 8

43 28 77

672 1189 1660

31 2

390 1105 155 2

345 95 30 79 2673

2 66 18

After Gill and Duffus Cocoa Statistics, November 1989; E.D. & F. Man Cocoa Report No. 360 * Forecast

of the world total (see Table 2.1 and Fig. 2.1). From 1973 to 1985, Africa's share of the world market declined, while producers in the Americas (mainly Brazil) and Asia (Indonesia and Malaysia) expanded their shares. The major losers of market share were Ghana and Nigeria, and the expansion of Ivorian production was not sufficient to offset this. After 1985, Côte d'Ivoire's production continued to increase and Ghana's production began to recover, causing a gradual increase in the African share of world cocoa production. During the same period, the Asian share of the world market also increased while American production, especially that of Brazil, declined. In summary, during the last 20 years Asian cocoa producers expanded their market share, mainly at the expense of American, but also African, cocoa producers.

It is estimated that some 80% of world cocoa production is produced by growers with less than 5 ha and 84% by growers with less than 40 ha, though there is an absence of reliable data. Cocoa therefore essentially remains a smallholder

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Page 14

Cocoa Statistics

World cocoa production by region, 18501996. After Gill and Duffus Cocoa Statistics November 1989, ED&F Man Cocoa Report No. 360. Copyright Cadbury Limited.

World cocoa production by region, 18501996. After Gill and Duffus Cocoa Statistics November 1989, ED&F Man Cocoa Report No. 360. Copyright Cadbury Limited.

crop; the often-used 'tag' of cocoa being a 'plantation' or estate crop is actually very misleading.

In South and Central America, cocoa has been, and continues to be, cultivated on plantations and smallholdings with units of about 20 ha being the customary size. In Brazil and Ecuador, there have been some much larger holdings, often planted by individuals or families, rather than by estate companies. It now seems that these are being broken up or are having cocoa removed, largely due to the crop's unprofitability following the devastation caused by witches' broom disease in both countries.

In the 1930s, there were large plantings of cocoa in Costa Rica by the United Fruit Company after earlier problems with bananas due to Panama disease, though these areas seem to have reverted to bananas once more. Production in Brazil increased after the cocoa price boom of the late 1970s as the Brazilian Government provided incentives (mainly subsidized credit) for planting cocoa. This programme ended in the mid-1980s, and new plantings were reduced significantly. Devastation by witches' broom disease, unstable macroeconomic conditions, high cost of credit and high cost of production along with declining world cocoa prices caused significant and dramatic reductions in cocoa production in Brazil in the early 1990s.

In Ecuador, cocoa production has suffered for many decades from a number of devastating diseases (including witches' broom) which have frequently rendered cultivation barely viable and yields are still often very low, though some high yielding fields exist in areas with favourable conditions and good management.

In West Africa, cocoa is grown almost entirely on smallholdings and usually each farm is very small. While individual plantings representing 1 year's clearing

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