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being grown throughout Central America, in many of the Caribbean Islands and in areas adjacent to the Andes in South America, but it still remained a great luxury.
Early in the 1800s, duties were reduced and consumption increased, though only as a chocolate drink high in fat, being still made from the whole cocoa bean. In 1828, Van Houten designed a press to remove some of the fat and opened up a vast range of new products including chocolates as we know them today! This was the first of many major technical advances that have led to the wide variety of products based on the cocoa bean now available. Very modest quantities of cocoa are used in cosmetics, the rest being as chocolate and other foodstuffs.
There was considerable trade between Brazil and West Africa in the 19th century and so the introduction of cocoa into Africa could be seen as inevitable, and 1822 seems to be the date generally given for the movement of cocoa to Principe, a small volcanic island just off the West African coast, then under Portuguese control. Plants were then soon moved to all the other islands off that coast, but large-scale cultivation in West Africa only started in Nigeria in 1874 and Ghana in 1879. However, from 1857 missionary groups had been attempting introductions into Ghana although with almost no success. Some data on cocoa production over the last 150 years are presented in Table 2.1.
In 1876, Daniel Peter mixed milk solids with cocoa and sugar to make milk chocolate and this led to very rapid growth in chocolate popularity from the start of the 20th century. With this, cocoa plantings on a significant scale began and there was a shift in the balance of production from South America and the Caribbean to West Africa (see Table 2.1 and Fig. 2.1). The other great change then was the move from plantings of the Criollo types to the Forastero types, because of their higher yield potential and greater resistance to pests and diseases. In the 1850s, beans from Criollo types accounted for almost 80% of total global production of cocoa, by 1900 it had fallen to 4045% and since then it has continued to fall steadily to perhaps only 1 or 2% in 1998.
On a global level, cocoa is one of the smaller commodities, with only an estimated 2.7 million tonnes being produced in 1996/97, in comparison to current estimates of global wheat production at 6000 million tonnes, rice at 380 million, oilseeds at 260 million, cotton at 90 million and coffee at 6.15 million tonnes (2). Cocoa is a classic example of an agricultural commodity that, whilst being produced almost totally by developing countries in the tropics, is largely consumed in the (cooler) industrialized economies. Seven countries Brazil, Cameroon, Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Nigeria, Indonesia and Malaysia presently account for about 86% of world production, with the four West African countries amounting to over 55%
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