1. Kiefer, B.A. and Martin, R.A. (1987) Determination of theobromine and caffeine in chocolate products by HPLC. Hershey Foods Corporation, unpublished data.
  2. Hershey Foods Corporation Technical Center, Analytical Research Laboratory, unpublished data.
  3. Blauch, J.L., and Tarka, S.M., Jr. (1983) HPLC determination of caffeine in theobromine in coffee, tea, and instant hot cocoa mixes. J. Food Sci. 48, 745747, 750.
  4. Burg, A.W. (1975) How much coffee in the cup. Tea Coffee Trade J. 147, 4042.
  5. Graham, D. (1978) Caffeine its identity, dietary sources, intake and biological effects. Nutr. Rev. 36, 97102.
  6. Lundsberg, L.S. (1998) Caffeine consumption. In Caffeine (Ed. by Spiller, G.A.), pp. 199224. CRC Press, New York.
  7. Barone, J.J. and Roberts, H.R. (1996) Caffeine consumption. FoodChem. Toxicol. 34, 119129.
  8. Morgan, K., Stults, V. and Zabik, M. (1982) Amount and dietary sources of caffeine and saccharin intake by individuals ages 5 to 18 years. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 2, 296307.
  9. Arbeit, M.L., Nicklas, T.A., Frank, G.C., Webber, L.S., Miner, M.H. and Berenson, G.S. (1988) Caffeine intakes of children from a biracial population: the Bogalusa Heart Study. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 88, 466471.
  10. Ellison, R.C., Singer, M.R., Moore, L.L., Nguyen, U.D.T., Garrahie, E.J. and Marmor, J.K. (1995). Current caffeine intake of young children: amount and sources. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 95, 802804.
  11. Cornish, H.G. and Christman, A.A. (1957) A study of the metabolism of theobromine, theophylline, and caffeine in man. J. Biol. Chem. 228, 315323.
  12. Arnaud, M.J. and Welsch, C. (1979) Metabolic pathway of theobromine in the rat and identification of two new metabolites in human urine. J. Agric. Food Chem. 27, 524527.
  13. Tarka, S.M. Jr (1982) The toxicology of cocoa and methylxanthines: a review of the literature. CRC Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 9, 275312.
  14. Arnaud, M.J. (1984) Products of metabolism of caffeine. In Caffeine (Ed. by Dews, P.), pp. 338. SpringerVerlag, New York.
  15. Arnaud, M.J. (1987) The pharmacology of caffeine. Prog. Drug Res. 31, 273313.
  16. Shively, C.A., Tarka, S.M., Jr, Arnaud, M.J., Dvorchik, B.H., Passananti, G.T. and Vesell, E.S. (1985) High levels of methylxanthines in chocolate do not alter theobromine disposition. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 37, 415424.
  17. Tarka, S.M., Jr and Shively, C.A. (1987) Methylxanthines. In Toxicological Aspects of Food (Ed. by Miller, K.), pp. 373423, Elsevier, New York.
  18. Drouillard, D.D., Vesell, E.S. and Dvorchik, B.H. (1978) Studies on theobromine disposition in normal subjects. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 23, 296302.
  19. Czok, G. (1974) Concerning the question of the biological effectiveness of methylxanthines in cocoa products. Z. Ernaehrungswiss. 13, 165171.
  20. Mumford, G.K., Benowitz, N.L., Evans, S.M., et al. (1996) Absorption rate of methylxanthines following capsules, cola, and chocolate. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 51, 319325.
  21. Aldridge, A., Aranda, J.V. and Neims, A.H. (1979) Caffeine metabolism in the newborn. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 25, 447453.
  22. Rall, T.W. (1980) Central nervous system stimulants: the xanthines. In The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 6th edn (Ed. by Goodman, L.S. and Gilman, A.), pp. 592607. Macmillan, New York.
  23. Dorfman, L.J. and Jarvik, M.E. (1970) Comparative stimulant and diuretic actions of caffeine and theobromine in man. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 11, 869872.
  24. Goldstein, A., Warren, R. and Kaizer, S. (1965) Psychotropic effects of caffeine in man. I. Individual differences in sensitivity to caffeine-induced wakefulness. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 149, 156159.
  25. Colton, T., Gosselin, R.E. and Smith, R.P. (1968) The tolerance of coffee drinkers to caffeine. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 9, 3139.
  26. Goldstein, A., Kaizer, S. and Whitby, O. (1969) Psychotropic effects of caffeine in man. IV. Quantitative and qualitative differences associated with habituation to coffee. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 10, 489497.
  27. Fernstrom J.D. and Fernstrom, M.H. (1984) Effects of caffeine on monoamine neurotransmitters in the central and peripheral nervous system. In Caffeine (Ed. by Dews, P.), pp. 107118. Springer-Verlag, New York.
  28. Spiller, G.A. (1998) Metabolism and physiological effects of methylxanthines. In Caffeine (Ed. by Spiller, G. A.), pp. 225231. CRC Press, New York.
  29. Robertson, D., Frolich J.C., Carr, R.K., et al. (1978) Effects of caffeine on plasma renin activity, catecholamines and blood pressure. N. Engl. J. Med. 298, 181186.
  30. Spindel, E.R. and Wurtman, R.J. (1984) Neuroendocrine effects of caffeine in rat and man. In Caffeine (Ed. by Dews, P.), pp. 119128. Springer-Verlag, New York.
  31. Lamarine, R.J. (1994) Selected health and behavioral effects related to the use of caffeine. J. Comm. Health 19, 449466.
  32. Green, P.J., Kirby, R. and Suls, J. (1996) The effects of caffeine on blood pressure and heart rate: a review. Ann. Behav. Med. 18, 201216.
  33. Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program (1972) Coffee drinking and acute myocardial infarction. Lancet 2, 12781281.
  34. Jick, H., Miettinen, O.S., Neff, R.K., Shapiro, S., Heinonen, O P. and Slone, D. (1973) Coffee and myocardial infarction. N. Engl. J. Med. 289, 6367.
  35. Akinyanju, P. and Yudkin, J. (1967) Effect of coffee and tea on serum lipids in the rat. Nature 214, 426427.
  36. Dawber, T.R., Kannel, W.B. and Gordon, T. (1974) Coffee and cardiovascular disease: observations from the Framingham study. N. Engl. J. Med. 291, 871874.
  37. Yano, K., Rhoads, G.G. and Kagan, A. (1977) Coffee, alcohol, and risk of coronary heart disease among Japanese men living in Hawaii. N. Engl. J. Med. 297, 405409.
  38. Heyden, S., Tyroler, H.A., Heiss, G., Hames, C.G. and Bartel, A. (1978) Coffee consumption and mortality, total mortality, stroke mortality, and coronary heart disease mortality. Arch. Intern. Med. 138, 14721475.
  39. Bergman, J. and Dews, P.B. (1987) Dietary caffeine and its toxicity. In Nutritional Toxicology (Ed. by Hathcock, J.), pp. 199221. Academic Press, New York.
  40. Chou, T.M. and Benowitz, N.L. (1994) Caffeine and coffee: effects on health and cardiovascular disease. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 190C, 173189.
  41. Gardner, C., Bruce, B. and Spiller, G.A. (1998) Coffee, caffeine, and serum cholesterol. In Caffeine (Ed. by Spiller, G.A ), pp. 301323. CRC Press, New York.
  42. Curatolo, P.W. and Robertson, D. (1983) The health consequences of caffeine. Ann. Intern. Med. 98, 641653.
  43. Brouard, C., Moriette, G., Murat, I., et al. (1985) Comparative efficacy of theophylline and caffeine in the treatment of idiopathic apnea of premature infants. Am. J. Dis. Child. 139, 698700.
  44. Fredholm, B.B. (1984) Effects of methylxanthines on skeletal muscle and on respiration. In The Methylxanthine Beverages and Foods (Ed. by Spiller, G.A.), pp. 365375. Alan R. Liss, New York.
  45. Huang, K.C., King, N.B. and Genazzani, E. (1958) Effect of xanthine diuretics on renal tubular transport of PABA. Am. J. Physiol. 192, 373378.
  46. Heaney, R.P. and Recker, R.R. (1982) Effects of nitrogen, phosphorus and caffeine on calcium balance in women. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 99, 4655.
  47. Massey, L.K. and Wise, K.J. (1984) The effect of dietary caffeine on urinary excretion of calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium in healthy young females. Nutr. Res. 4, 4351.
  48. Massey, L.K. and Whiting, S.J. (1993) Caffeine, urinary calcium, calcium metabolism and bone. J. Nutr. 123,
  49. Hollingbery, P.W., Bergman, E.A. and Massey, L.K. (1985) Effect of dietary caffeine and aspirin on urinary calcium and hydroxyproline excretion in pre- and post-menopausal women. Fed. Proc. 44, 1149.
  50. Massey, L.K. and Berg, T. (1985) Effect of dietary caffeine on urinary mineral excretion in healthy males. Fed. Proc. 44, 1149.
  51. Bruce, B. and Spiller, G.A. (1998) Caffeine, calcium, and bone health. In Caffeine (Ed. by Spiller, G.A.), pp. 345356. CRC Press, New York.
  52. Lloyd, T., Rollings, N., Eggli, D.F., Kieselhorst, K. and Chinchilli, V.M. (1997) Dietary caffeine intake and bone status of postmenopausal women. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 65, 18261830.
  53. Astrup, A., Toubro, S., Cannon, S., Hein, P., Breum, L. and Madsen, J. (1990) Caffeine: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of its thermogenic, metabolic, and cardiovascular effects in healthy volunteers. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 51, 759767.
  54. Cohen, S. and Booth, G.H. (1975) Gastric acid secretion and lower-esophageal-sphincter pressure in response to coffee and caffeine. N. Engl. J. Med. 293, 897899.
  55. Smith, B.D. and Tola, K. (1998) Caffeine: effects on psychological functioning and performance. In Caffeine (Ed. by Spiller, G.A.), pp. 251299. CRC Press, New York.
  56. Evans, S.M. and Griffiths, R.R. (1992) Caffeine tolerance and choice in humans. Psychopharmacol. 108, 5159.
  57. Mumford, G.K., Evans, S.M., Kaminiski, B.J., et al. (1994) Discriminative stimulus and subjective effects of theobromine and caffeine in humans. Psychopharmacol. 115, 18.
  58. Rapoport, J.L., Berg, C.J., Ismond, D.R., Zahn, T.P. and Neims, A. (1984) Behavioral effects of caffeine in children. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 41, 10731079.
  59. Stein, M.A., Krasowski, M., Leventhal, B.L., Phillips, W. and Bender, B.G. (1996) Behavioral and cognitive effects of methylxanthines. Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. 150, 284288.


Was this article helpful?

0 0
Peripheral Neuropathy Natural Treatment Options

Peripheral Neuropathy Natural Treatment Options

This guide will help millions of people understand this condition so that they can take control of their lives and make informed decisions. The ebook covers information on a vast number of different types of neuropathy. In addition, it will be a useful resource for their families, caregivers, and health care providers.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment