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Colorimetric and chromatographic methods have also been developed. Enzymatic gravimetric methods provide specific and precise analysis of carbohydrates and are ideal for the analysis of food carbohydrates however, results can be overestimated if the fiber components remain in the residue. Colorimetric methods can also overestimate fiber content, while chromatographic methods can underestimate fiber content. Collaborative studies have shown that estimates of...

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Table 13.1 Plaque pH scores to assess the acidogenicity of various snack foods and candies in two separate studies. Rock candy Clear mints Sourballs Fruit gums Fruit Lollipops * Candies tested out of 54 different foods. be made on relative cariogenicity. They have not been used to assess the cariogenicity of chocolate. In Vivo in Vitro Methods These seek to combine an intra-oral environment with the effects of foods outside of the mouth. They are therefore known as intraoral cariogenicity tests...

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Table 9.3 Daily intake and total body content of minerals for an adult man. Mineral Daily intake 900 1500 3200 3400 5200 300 14.0 11.4 Source Crown copyright is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of Her Majesty's Stationery Office (1). Table 9.4 US recommended dietary allowances. 1st 6 months 2nd 6 months Source adapted with permission from NAS (3). Table 9.5 Estimated safe and adequate daily dietary intakes (ESADDI) for minerals. Source adapted with permission from NAS (3)....

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Kiefer, B.A. and Martin, R.A. (1987) Determination of theobromine and caffeine in chocolate products by HPLC. Hershey Foods Corporation, unpublished data. 8. Hershey Foods Corporation Technical Center, Analytical Research Laboratory, unpublished data. 9. Blauch, J.L., and Tarka, S.M., Jr. (1983) HPLC determination of caffeine in theobromine in coffee, tea, and instant hot cocoa mixes. J. Food Sci. 48, 745747, 750. 10. Burg, A.W. (1975) How much coffee in the cup. Tea Coffee Trade J. 147, 4042....

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ADHD attention deficit hyperactivity disorder , 224 AOAC Association of Official Analytical Chemists , 64 Aphrodisiac properties, 323, 324, 325, 330 Association Fran aise Cafet Cacao, 31 Atherosclerotic plaques, 120 Athletes, 240 Atwater factors, modified, 65 Atwater factors, specific, 65 Availability data, 299 P-endorphin s , 262 b-galactosidase, 332 Ball Mill, 479 Basophils, 219 Batching, 55 Bingeing, 263 Bitterness, 311 Body Mass Index BMI , 178, 200 BPEA b-phenylethylamine , 230 Brazil, 12,...

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Biological or Psychological Phenomenon David Benton Chocolate is a uniquely attractive substance that has an appeal unmatched by any other food item. Large sections of the population will readily admit to craving chocolate some will even claim to be addicted 1 , although this is lay self-diagnosis rather than an accurate or medically justifiable description. Articles in the media and popular books have speculated that chocolate's appeal can be explained in terms of the influence that it has on...

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Those who crave chocolate tend to do so when they are emotionally distressed. A second consideration is whether feelings of guilt are associated with the consumption of chocolate. There are two major explanations of chocolate craving. First, it results from a pleasant taste. Second, it reflects physiological mechanisms. It has been suggested that these may include increased serotonin production, the release of endorphins, the actions of methylxanthines, phenylethylamine and the supply of...

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Waterhouse, D. 1995 Why Women Need Chocolate. Vermilion, London. 3. Weingarten, H.P. and Elston, D. 1991 Food cravings in a college population. Appetite 17, 167175. 4. Rozin, P., Leveine, E. and Stoess, C. 1991 Chocolate craving and liking. Appetite 17, 199212. 5. Rodin, J., Mancuso, J., Granger, J. and Nelbach, E. 1991 Food craving in relation to body mass index, restraint and estradiol levels a repeated measures study in healthy women. Appetite 17, 177185. 6. Hill, A.J., Weaver, C.F.L. and...

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Tarka, S.M., Jr., Morrissey, R.B., Apgar, J.L., Hostetler, K.A. and Shively, C.A. 1991 Chronic toxicity carcinogenicity studies of cocoa powder in rats. Food Chem. Toxicol. 29, 719. 86. Hostetler, K.A., Morrissey, R.B., Tarka, S.M., Jr, Apgar, J.L. and Shively, C.A. 1990 Three-generation reproductive study of cocoa powder in rats. Food Chem. Toxicol. 28, 483490. 87. Dimaio, V.J.M. and Garriott, J.C. 1974 Lethal caffeine poisoning in a child. Forensic Science 3, 275278. 88. Stavric, B. 1988...

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Fat and protein content are advised so that total carbohydrate intake is not displaced 65 . Strategies to match carbohydrate availability to the fuel needs of training and competition form an ongoing cycle for the athlete. Carbohydrate ingestion after exercise aids the resynthesis of muscle and liver glycogen in preparation for subsequent exercise sessions. The pre-exercise meal can assist to 'top up' body carbohydrate stores, while carbohydrate intake during exercise may be needed to provide...

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Direccion General de Prevencion y Promocion de Salut 1994 Encuesta de Nutricion de la Communidadde Madrid. Documento Tecnico de Salud Publica No. 18. Spanish Government Publication, Madrid. 80. INDI 1990 Irish National Nutrition Survey. Irish Nutrition and Dietetic Institute, Sligo. 81. Laurier, D., Guiguet, M., Chau, N.P., Wells, J.A. and Valleron, A.-J. 1992 Prevalence of obesity a comparative survey in France, the United Kingdom and the United States. Int. J. Obes. 16, 565572. 82....

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Table 12.2 The composition, normal serving size and weight of the 50 g carbohydrate portion of the test foods based on manufacturers' data. Candy-coated chocolate peanut pieces Chocolate-covered caramel and nougat bar Chocolate-covered caramel and nougat bar1 'lite' formulation Chocolate-covered caramel cookie bar Chocolate-covered peanut and caramel bar Energy Protein Fat Carbohydrate Normal 244 507 460 382 477 477 432 354 353 88 542 26.3 18.0 11.2 23.9 23.8 16.2 3.1 4.6 2.5 32.5 Weight of 50...

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Gical point of view, change with time in those who eat or do not eat different cuisines. What changes is the perception, that is to say the interpretation of the signal for those who do not eat pimento, its detection always means pain and avoidance, while for those who have learnt to like it, it is the satisfaction of recognizing what characterizes 'my cuisine'. In approaching the cultural aspects, another fact directly related to our condition as omnivores should be pointed out food is not...

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Vipeholm Study

These are the classic type of studies used in the pharmaceutical industry in which a group s of people are observed closely over a period of time under controlled circumstances to determine the development or absence of disease, and whether a drug is effective or not. While they are carried out every day in medicine, for many years they have not been allowed in dental research on foods and diets. One cannot deliberately instigate dental caries, purely for experimental purposes. For this reason,...

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Relationship between perception and hedonic rating for organoleptic properties for dark chocolate. Source Manoury-Tomas 34 . Relationship between perception and hedonic rating for organoleptic properties for dark chocolate. Source Manoury-Tomas 34 . between the two series of scores. We know from previous studies 19 that acceptance of a product requires its 'hedonization' the higher this score, the more the product is accepted and consumed. This is the case here. The analysis of the ideational...

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Consumption of even trace amounts of the offending food. Thus, the food industry must be alert to the avoidance of allergen cross-contact and the proper labeling of allergenic ingredients. Highly specific and sensitive tests are being developed for the detection of allergen cross-contact that will be useful in the establishment of hazard analysis of critical control points HACCP approaches to the control of allergen cross-contact. 1. Anderson, J.A. 1986 The establishment of a common language....

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Overview of the Nutritional Benefits of Cocoa and Chocolate Cacao Growing and Harvesting Practices Ronald G. Bixler and Jeffrey N. Morgan Nutrient Information and Nutritional Aspects Cocoa Butter and Constituent Fatty Acids Cardiovascular Health Role of Stearic Acid on Atherogenic and Thrombogenic Factors Penny M. Kris-Etherton and Terry D. Etherton 8 119 Phytochemicals and Phenolics 9 143 Minerals in Cocoa and Chocolate lt previous page page_iii next page gt Joan L. Apgar and Stanley M. Tarka...