Healthy Chocolate Recipes

Chocolate Recipes For A Happy Heart And Soul

Chocolate doesn't just taste amazing, it is great for your whole body, and this eBook shows you how eating plenty of chocolate can help you live longer. This book contains a large variety of recipes to help you get the most out of your chocolate. Chocolate reduces the risk of heart disease, promotes good blood flow, and helps with alertness. You will also learn how chocolate helps to lessen pain and anxiety, and how it has powerful antioxidant properties. You don't have to always eat foods in very small amounts that taste amazing. Chocolate is the best guilt-free indulgence food that is possibly. This book was penned in 1896 by Fannie Farmer, and contains time-tested and proven recipes that are great for your health and even better: they taste amazing. This book has recipes for everything from cakes to bonbons to truffles, and all of them work together to improve your health and well-being. More here...

Chocolate Recipes For A Happy Heart And Soul Overview

Rating:

4.6 stars out of 11 votes

Contents: Ebook
Author: Heidi Walter
Official Website: www.chocolateforahappyheart.com
Price: $9.97

Access Now

My Chocolate Recipes For A Happy Heart And Soul Review

Highly Recommended

The author has done a thorough research even about the obscure and minor details related to the subject area. And also facts weren’t just dumped, but presented in an interesting manner.

I give this ebook my highest rating, 10/10 and personally recommend it.

Is Chocolate a Health Food

Dark chocolate might help reduce blood cholesterol and offer heart-health benefits, specifically improved blood vessel health and lower blood pressure (Taubert et al. 2007). Although you need not eat a perfect diet to have a good diet, you also need not add chocolate to your diet for health benefits (despite what you might see advertised by the candy industry). Chocolate is made from cocoa, a plant food. It contains health-protective compounds called flavonoids that help relax and dilate blood vessels, reduce blood pressure, and increase blood flow to the brain. These flavonoids are also found in other plant foods, such as green tea, red wine, apples, and onions, so think twice before you plan to replace an apple with a chocolate bar. Because pure cocoa is bitter and unpalatable, it needs a lot of added sugar to transform it into a delicious candy bar. Labeling this sugar-coated cocoa a health food is a stretch of the imagination. Yet, if you are destined to eat chocolate, dark...

Case Chocolate Snack Attack

I fight the urge to feed myself chocolate bars for lunch, M& Ms for snacks, and chocolate ice cream for dinner. Some folks simply love sweets. They need no excuse to indulge in sugary goo. They eat sweets daily, three times if not more, starting with chocolate doughnuts for breakfast, cookies for lunch, sweet-and-sour pork for dinner, and then ice cream for dessert. Naturally, this high consumption of sweets results in a poor diet because sugar lacks vitamins and minerals. Sweets abusers are more at risk for nutrition problems than those who enjoy an occasional treat. Eating a little chocolate as a fun food for dessert after a nourishing meal is far different from eating a box of chocolates to replace that meal. Chocoholics commonly skip breakfast because they're not hungry in the morning after eating a whole bag of chocolate chip cookies the night before. They would nourish themselves better by eating one or two cookies for dessert and then waking up...

Coffee Tea Chocolate and the Brain

Coffee, tea, chocolate, and the brain edited by Astrid Nehlig. ISBN 0-415-30691-4 (hardback alk. paper) 1. Caffeine Physiological effect. 2. Coffee Physiological effect. 3. Tea Physiological effect. 4. Chocolate Physiological effect. 5. Neurochemistry. 6. Brain Effect of drugs on.

Marys Chocolate Caramel Bars

6 ounces bittersweet or semisweet chocolate Layer 2 Slowly melt the chocolate with the cream in a microwave on high for 1 minute, stirring until melted, checking at 30-second intervals, or in a double boiler on the stovetop, stirring occasionally. Spread the chocolate over the warm but set caramel sprinkle with the nuts. Refrigerate until chocolate is set, approximately 15-30 minutes. Cut into 1-inch squares. Cover and keep refrigerated until 30 minutes before serving.

Chocolate Brownies Servings

EGG WHITE, CHICKEN, RAW - fresh 2 large HONEY - honey 1 2 cup IsoPure Chocolate 1.5 carb 200 grams We used IsoPure here mostly because I had some. Sub with your favorite chocolate protein powder and adjust the number accordingly.Mix the pb and honey in a bowl, microwave on full for 100 secs. Add the rest and mix together. This is tough to mix and it takes time. If you don't have the tools you may want to cut the oatmeal a bit to make it easier to work.Preheat oven to 320 deg. Smooth into 13x9 tray bake for 20 minutes. Oven times may vary, use the toothpick test. Cut into 20 equal bars and wrap and store in fridge These portions are what we did for portion control but can be modified however.

Pairing Sugars and Chocolate

A love for chocolate can be traced through the centuries. Known as a food of the gods, chocolate was highly prized in the Americas in pre-Columbian times. Native Americans from what is now Mexico served chocolate to European explorers as early as the 1500s. By itself, chocolate has a bitter taste. But sugar, transported from plantations in the American and Caribbean colonies, made chocolate tasty to the European palate. By the mid-1600s, the popularity of chocolate, sweetened with sugar, had spread throughout Europe. In 1847, milk chocolate was created, and it quickly became popular around the world. As an ingredient with a distinctive flavor, chocolate can fit within a healthful eating plan. It may add a flavor spark that makes nutritious foods, such as milk, more appealing. Chocolate, a plant-based ingredient, also contains a category of phytonutrients called polyphenols, which may offer some health benefits. Refer to chapter 4 on phytonutrients. Research is exploring links to heart...

Chocolate Mousse

1 V2 c. chocolate chips or grated chocolate Combine chocolate, butter and 1 4 c. water in a heavy-bottomed saucepan, stirring constantly over medium heat until the mixture is melted and smooth. Lower heat. In a small bowl, mix gelatin with 1 2 c. cold water, then add to chocolate mixture in pan. Stir constantly until gelatin disappears completely. Remove from heat. In a blender or food processor, combine tofu, liqueur, vanilla and salt. Add to chocolate mixture and blend until smooth. Pour into 4 to 6 cups and refrigerate several hours, until set.

Chocolate

Westerners have been fools for chocolate ever since the Spanish conquistadors discovered it at Montezuma's Mexican court. And why not The cocoa bean is a good source of energy, fiber, protein, carbohydrates, B vitamins, and minerals (one ounce of dark sweet chocolate has 12 percent of the iron and 33 percent of the magnesium a healthy woman needs each day). Nutritionwise, the rap on chocolate is that cocoa butter (the fat in chocolate) is 59 percent saturated fat, primarily stearic acid. But nobody seems to have told stearic acid that it's a villain. Unlike other saturated fats, stearic acid neither increases LDLs (bad cholesterol) nor lowers HDLs (good cholesterol). In addition, stearic acid makes blood platelets less likely to clump together into a blood clot, thus lowering you risk of heart attack or stroke. And don't forget the phytosterols, steroidlike compounds in plants that sop up cholesterol in your gut and zip it out of your body before it reaches your bloodstream....

Previous pagepagenext page

The determination of cocoa butter's melting profile is more difficult and requires sophisticated instrumentation. When cocoa butter is a component in a chocolate recipe, its melting characteristics can impact significantly on the downstream processing of chocolate confections. For example, an understanding of this characteristic is important in efficient operation of a high-speed chocolate bar moulding plant or an enrobing line. Should either type of line be operating at full capacity, having a soft cocoa butter as part of the chocolate recipe can cause enrobed products to stick to cooling belts or moulded items not releasing from moulds. One possible solution, depending on the severity of the problem, is slowing of the line but the softness of the cocoa butter can reach a point where nothing can be done on-line to allow production of an acceptable finished product (4). Chocolate Manufacturing The above operations produce two of the major ingredients required to produce the various...

Previous pagepagevinext page

Many myths have grown up around cocoa and chocolate through attempts to explain or temper the long-standing enthusiasm for these products whilst numerous studies and scientific articles have been produced to acclaim their positive effects or warn against their allegedly detrimental consequences. As part of its continuous efforts to keep the world at large informed about cocoa and chocolate, the International Cocoa Organization (ICCO) has decided to undertake the publication of an exhaustive review of the health and nutrition aspects of these products. International co-operation is a keyword for ICCO co-operation between producers and consumers, between the private and public sectors and between trade associations and research institutes, with the ultimate objective of enhancing the well-being and satisfaction derived from cocoa and chocolate by the general public. It is, therefore, with a sense of pride and achievement that the International Cocoa Organization presents this study on...

Previous pagepageiinext page

Overview of the Nutritional Benefits of Cocoa and Chocolate Cacao Bean and Chocolate Processing 9 143 Minerals in Cocoa and Chocolate Obesity Taste Preferences and Chocolate Consumption Chocolate Consumption and Glucose Response in People with Diabetes Chocolate and Dental Health Chocolate and Headache Is There a Relationship The Role of Chocolate in Exercise Performance Louise M. Burke Chocolate Craving Biological or Psychological Phenomenon Cocoa, Chocolate and Acne Ian Knight Consumption of Cocoa and Chocolate Chocolate Consumption Patterns Sensory and Taste Preferences of Chocolate Marcia L. Pelchat and Gary K. Beauchamp Cultural and Psychological Approaches to the Consumption of Chocolate Susan L. Cheney MS Technical and Regulatory Affairs Chocolate Manufacturers Association McLean, VA 22102, USA

Previous pagepage

Products were only moderately cariogenic by comparison with sugar. More recently, Grenby and Mistry (16) reported that caries scores in rats were nearly 30 higher in animals fed plain (dark) chocolate rather than those on a milk chocolate regimen. The early studies by Bibby and Mundorff (17) showed that chocolate products, particularly those containing added ingredients such as nuts, etc., cleared from the mouth quickly. When the foods used in the Vipeholm Study (6) were compared for rates of clearance (Fig. 13.1), it can be seen that the chocolate group of subjects recorded lower clearance times than the toffee and caramel groups in which the higher caries occurred. Chocolate would therefore be classified as a low cariogenic food, as its lower rate of retention would give less opportunity for oral bacteria to ferment and produce less amounts of acid. Studies by Bibby and Mundorff (17) have shown that tooth enamel lost to acid dissolution is not related to acid formed (Table 13.3)....

Previous page 182

From this, it was hypothesized that the methylxanthines may be partially responsible for this effect. Subsequent studies (9, 10) established that the reduced LES pressure did indeed contribute to esophageal reflux, supporting recommendations that patients suffering from reflux esophagitis should avoid chocolate, particularly solid, dark chocolate, as well as caffeine and fats. Although cocoa and chocolate are habitually blamed for many complaints, there is little scientific research on which to base such generalizations. There appears to be no work to support liver problems. In the kidney, there exist some scattered observations in animals, relating to renal pelvic dilatation and the formation of microcalculi however, their causes were by no means defined. The only real effect for which there appears to be solid evidence is that of chocolate on patients who are susceptible to reflux esophagitis, leading to serious heartburn. Such people, when identified,...

Previous page 210

Health profiles for consumers of dark chocolate. Source Manoury-Tomas (34). Health profiles for consumers of dark chocolate. Source Manoury-Tomas (34). The purpose of the rapid presentation of this study is to show the possibility of grasping in both a detailed and a global manner the perception of the product by consumers. It is clear that it would be fully explained if one already had data which would enable one to compare different varieties of chocolate, for example, or again the same product as it may be perceived by subjects from different cultures. This is a methodology for both research and for possible immediate application in the spheres of industrial products. Finally, it has the merit of providing an empirical confirmation of the extent to which chocolate is a 'pleasure product' of which the consumers' perception is very good. Begun at the end of the 15th century, our voyage has brought us to the world of today. Chocolate, a divine product, a royal product, once a medicine...

Previous page 171

Higher sugar intake and a corresponding decrease in the intake of fibre. In particular, the consumption of chocolate increases, although not exclusively. A possibility that has not been systematically considered is that the attraction of chocolate in the premenstrual stage reflects an attempt to increase the intake of magnesium. It has been found that the level of plasma (88) and erythrocyte (89, 90) magnesium is lower in those suffering with PMS. In a double-blind trial, women who suffered with premenstrual problems took either magnesium or a placebo (91). In the second, but not the first, cycle the taking of magnesium was associated with fewer symptoms. Given such evidence, some have suggested that the craving for chocolate is an attempt to self-medicate. Although chocolate is a good source of magnesium, the explanation is not convincing. A 50 g bar of milk chocolate supplies 26 mg of magnesium whereas plain chocolate would offer 50 mg. Those on the trial (91), in contrast, took 360...

Previous page 190

Cedermark, G., Selenius, M. and Tullus, K. (1993) Glycaemic effect and satiating capacity of potato chips and milk chocolate bar as snacks in teenagers with diabetes. Eur. J. Pediatr. 152, 635639. 30. Kris-Etherton, P.M., Derr, J., Mitchell, D.C., et al. (1993) The role of fatty acid saturation on plasma lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins I. Effects of whole food diets high in cocoa butter, olive oil, soybean oil, dairy butter, and milk chocolate on the plasma lipids of young men. Metabolism 42, 121129. 31. Kris-Etherton, P.M., Derr, J., Mustad, V.A., Seligson, F.H. and Pearson, T.A. (1994) Effects of milk chocolate bar per day substituted for a high-carbohydrate snack in young men on an NCEP AHA Step 1 Diet. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 60 (Suppl. 6), 1037S1042S.

Previous page 211

Perceived imagery surrounding consumption of dark chocolate. Source Manoury-Tomas (34). Perceived imagery surrounding consumption of dark chocolate. Source Manoury-Tomas (34). Finally, despite the fact that it has become commonplace, it still remains a hedonic product, guarantee of a pleasure that anyone can easily obtain for themselves. More than ordinary products, which are available in great variety, chocolate is still the product which, when used by pastry cooks, chocolate makers and great chefs, lends itself to extreme refinements and becomes a work of art, in the real sense and figuratively.

Previous page 200

Most noteworthy was that the addition of sugar, an accepted and well-known taste, was required to temper the bitterness of the cocoa and replace the pimento, thus making chocolate closer to accepted tastes. On the other hand, for a long time after that, spices, such as vanilla, cinnamon, anise, orange flowers, etc. were readily added in Spain. Vestiges of this preparation exist to this day. The consumption of chocolate spread in accordance with this latter model. For example, in France, under Louis XIV, consumption was essentially for aristocrats. In 1659 only one shop had the royal privilege of 'selling and supplying a certain composition called chocolate'. This privilege was renewed in 1666, and a second beneficiary appeared only in 1692 (10). Chocolate was consumed because it was a model copied from the king, but also because it had numerous virtues. The abundant correspondence of Madame de Sevigne, virtual chronicler of the French Court, is proof of this to begin with it was...

Previous page 167

Bar supplies 86240 mg of theobromine and 931 mg of caffeine (52). Shively and Tarka (53) reported that milk chocolate products average about 2 mg g theobromine and 0.2 mg g caffeine (about 88 mg of theobromine and 9 mg of caffeine per 44 g bar). The question that arises with caffeine is whether the small dose in a chocolate bar is high enough to influence neural functioning. The level in chocolate should be compared with brewed coffee that has 85 mg of caffeine 150 ml and tea with 50 mg 150 ml. With theobromine, we need in addition to ask whether there is evidence that it influences psychological functioning at all. Thus, the evidence is that a reliable psychological response to caffeine is most readily observed with doses in excess of 100 mg. Although there have been a few reports that lower doses are active, in no case has a response to a dose of 9 mg of caffeine been reported. It is therefore unlikely that the eating of a typical chocolate bar would offer a dose of caffeine...

Previous page 144

Office vending machine is often used as a meal replacement in individuals who are skipping balanced meals, and are also likely to be experiencing a stressful day. Inadequate nutrition and stress rather than the chocolate bar itself may be responsible for headache onset. From the results of the studies reviewed above, it can certainly be concluded that chocolate probably doesn't cause headaches in the majority of headache sufferers, and certainly not an average candy bar-sized amount of chocolate. It is possible that many of the individuals who believe chocolate triggers their migraines may have experienced a coincidental association between chocolate and another, more reliable headache trigger, such as stress or menstruation. Another possibility that has been suggested is that migraine may be associated with chocolate through a conditioned taste aversion (52). In other words, simply experiencing one migraine after eating chocolate may initiate a conditioned response of migraine after...

Previous page 208

It is on the basis of this observation that the author has developed in the laboratory an integrated approach methodology, which aims to obtain a clearer understanding of the interaction of these three series of factors and, in addition, the consumers' perception of the products (34, 35). Without going into too many technical details here, it should be made clear that this is a series of three measurement scales, each concerning one of the three aspects mentioned above. Several populations have been investigated, each being questioned about several foods. Here only the findings concerning chocolate are presented. The product investigated in this case is Lindt Dark Chocolate (70 cocoa). The study concerned a preliminary population of 41 adults (average age 34 years) a second study was duplicated on a population of 27 adults (same average age). The results presented here concern the second population only, knowing that the series of results from both studies agree. In the case of the...

Previous page 206

Now, to come back to chocolate, a product which has 'succeeded' in the West particularly because of its encounter with sugar. It is this association which has made it acceptable in a large number of cultures in as much as it sweetens the initial bitterness of the cocoa, by adding to it a sugary note. From an organoleptic point of view, chocolate also benefits from another intrinsic quality the presence of fat. In fact, the association of fat and sugar easily confers on it qualities of texture which flatter the palate and make it a desirable product. This has been demonstrated by studies that have yielded a better understanding of the nature of the lubrication, which is so desirable in certain products (30). It is also true that manufacturing procedures, conching in particular, have considerably refined the grain of the product and its texture in the mouth. Chocolate is also, and has long been, a product that is 'good to think about'. Good, first of all, because of its real or supposed...

Previous page 152

Chocolate As a Carbohydrate Source during Exercise In studies and in real life, a variety of carbohydrate-rich foods and drinks have been consumed by athletes during exercise to provide additional fuel during the session. In several studies investigating the effect of carbohydrate intake during exercise on performance and metabolism, chocolate bars were chosen as the carbohydrate feeding. Compared with an artificially sweetened placebo, chocolate bars consumed during prolonged cycling were shown to maintain blood glucose concentrations and enhance performance in a time trial undertaken at the end of the exercise session (44, 45). This effect was seen whether the bars were fed hourly, or consumed in smaller portions at 30 min intervals (45). Several studies have compared the effect of feeding equal amounts of carbohydrate in solid or liquid form during exercise trials have compared a rice-based drink with a rice food bar (46) and a sports drink versus a sports bar (47) or meal...

Previous page 111

Macdonald, H. (1993) Flavour development from cocoa bean to chocolate bar. The Biochemist 15 (2), 35. 5. Nielson, N. (1995) Chocolate. Trevi, Stockholm. 6. Rossner, S. (1997) Chocolate divine food, fattening junk or nutritious supplementation Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 51, 341345.

Previous page 103

Health measure by which to assess the effects of chocolate consumption, to date the literature is inadequate. Total energy intake comes from a range of different foods and in a typical Western culture this may be between 15 and 50 different food and drink items per day, with many more being possible. The energy from a food (or drink) is derived from the different macro-nutrient constituents fat 37 kJ g (9 kcal g) carbohydrate (sugars and starch) 16 kJ g (3.75 kcal g) protein 17 kJ g (4 kcal g) fibre 6 kJ g (1.5 kcal g) alcohol 29 kJ g (7 kcal g). As fat (whether saturated, mono- or polyunsaturated) provides over twice the energy of carbohydrate and protein per given amount, foods which are fat rich are more calorific, or energy dense, than low-fat foods. This is the basis of why fatty foods are considered 'fattening'. If a diet is predominantly made up of fat-rich foods, then there is a strong possibility of excess energy consumption (in relation to expenditure) due to its low satiety...

Previous page

Curzon, M.E.J. (1999) Chocolate and dental health. In Chocolate and Cocoa Health and Nutrition (Ed. by Knight, I.). Blackwell Science, Oxford. 17. Benton, D. (1999) Chocolate craving biological or psychological phenomenon In Chocolate and Cocoa Health and Nutrition (Ed. by Knight, I.). Blackwell Science, Oxford. 18. Chiva, M. (1999) Cultural and psychological approaches to the consumption of chocolate. In Chocolate and Cocoa Health and Nutrition (Ed. by Knight, I.). Blackwell Science, Oxford.

Previous page 188

Tions, we examine CSFII, NDS and NVS data on chocolate confectionery consumption, including Percent of survey days on which chocolate confectionery consumption was reported. Results of the 199496 CSFII survey show a wide range in mean amounts of chocolate confectionery consumed by different US subpopulations (Table 20.2). Intake reported by males in each age range exceeded intake reported by females in the same age range. The highest mean daily intakes of chocolate confectionery by males were reported by teenagers and young adults. Highest mean daily intakes by females were reported by teenagers. In each country, both the quantity of chocolate confectionery consumed and the frequency of consumption declined with age. Table 20.2 Consumption of chocolate confectionery in the USA. Mean intake of chocolate confectionery on days when these products were consumed ranged from 32.3 g for females over 70 to 60.3 g for males 3150, with 53.4 g as the mean consumption on days consumed by males...

Previous page 142

25 migraine sufferers from a pool of advertisement respondents based on their reports that even a small amount of chocolate triggered migraine. Study participants were mailed a chocolate sample and a carob sample (both 44g) 2 weeks apart, and were given questionnaires to complete and return 48 hours after eating the sample. Eleven subjects failed to respond with a headache to either sample. Eight subjects (32 ) reported headaches after the chocolate but not the placebo and five (20 ) reported headaches after the placebo but not the chocolate. The remaining subject reported headaches after both samples. There was no difference in headache occurrence after either sample. In a second study, the researchers repeated the same procedure with 15 of the original 25 subjects and again found no difference in reported headache after chocolate or placebo. A recent study conducted by the authors (18) also demonstrated the lack of a relationship between chocolate and headache in a large sample of...

Previous page 107

(59) of 764 snacks reported by 1560-year-olds during 7-day food recording, 54 were classified as 'sugars, preserves and confectionery'. Nutritionally, the snacks were higher in sugar and equivalent in fat content to lunch and dinners. There is little direct evidence to support the purported link between excess eating of snacks and obesity and Drummond et al. (60) reported an inverse association in men. In the latter study, when the types of snack foods were categorized as chocolate bars, biscuits, cakes, fruit, crisps, soft drinks and sandwiches, 61 reported eating chocolate bars and 73 reported eating crisps during the 7-day recording period. A comparison of those people who reported more or less than four eating occasions per day showed that 69 of both men and women in the frequent-eaters group consumed chocolate bars, whilst 57 of women and 48 of men in the infrequent-eaters group reported eating chocolate bars (Dr S. Drummond, personal communication). It has been suggested that...

Previous page 172

(4) A bar of white chocolate (5) White chocolate plus capsules containing cocoa powder When the subjects experienced chocolate craving they opened the box, consumed what was offered and rated the extent to which the craving for chocolate was satisfied. Table 17.2 lists various theories of the origin of chocolate craving tested by Michener and Rozin (92). When subjects experienced chocolate craving they consumed one of the items in the left-hand column. The ability to satisfy the craving is presented in the right-hand column ++, full effect +, partial effect 0, no effect. The predictions of the various theories of the origin of chocolate craving are outlined in columns two to four. If it is the sensory experience that is important then chocolate itself, and to a lesser extent white chocolate, should be satisfying. If it is the increase in blood glucose that is important then brown and white chocolate should help cravings. If the pharmacological ingredients or magnesium are important,...

Previous page 184

Similarly, the International Office of Cocoa, Chocolate, and Sugar Confectionery (IOCCC) generates data useful for comparing supplies of confectionery products, including chocolate confectionery, in different countries (4). However, the IOCCC data cannot be used to characterize confectionery consumption by individuals within the countries. Appropriate use of these data is limited primarily because waste is not considered. It must be assumed that a portion of the chocolate available for consumption is discarded by industry after shelf-life expiration or thrown away uneaten by individuals. In addition, a certain proportion of chocolate confectionery counted as available to the consumer may be used by industry or food service facilities for non-confectionery applications. Products included in 'chocolate confectionery' categories differ somewhat in the DOC and IOCCC surveys. Actually, even within the IOCCC system, definitions of chocolate confectionery and other products vary somewhat...

Previous page 143

Avoiding eating chocolate due to that suspicion seems a minor one, but may be vital in terms of the conflicting study findings. Hanington has reported that, although 73 of a sample of 500 headache sufferers implicated chocolate as a trigger for them (7), only 5 of the patients in a headache clinic met the voluntary diet restriction criterion. Thus, the results of all of the studies reviewed here lead to the conclusion that chocolate is not a significant trigger of migraine, and that many migraine sufferers believe chocolate triggers their headache when in fact it does not. Explanations for the Perceived Causal Relationship between Chocolate and Headache If chocolate does indeed cause headaches, it is in a very limited percentage (5 or less) of headache sufferers. Given this finding, it is curious that many times that percentage of headache sufferers believe that chocolate is a trigger for them. Some of these individuals may have encountered educational materials identifying chocolate...

Previous page 161

I feel 'unattractive', 'sick', 'guilty', 'depressed', 'unhealthy' after eating chocolate. It is not surprising that after eating chocolate 'I often wish I hadn't'. The second type of question related to weight and body image 'I often diet', 'I look at the calorific value of a chocolate snack', 'if I ate less chocolate I think I would have a better figure'. Benton et al. (7) asked subjects to press the space bar on a computer to earn chocolate buttons. The number of presses required to earn a chocolate button increased after each reinforcement according to a fixed ratio, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 and so on. The measure was the number of presses made to obtain chocolate. Those with a higher craving score were prepared to press the space bar more frequently to receive more chocolate buttons. When mild depression was induced, by playing miserable music, they pressed the space bar more often to receive more chocolate (10). A third factor reflected a pragmatic approach...

Previous page 117

Glucose and Insulin Responses to Chocolate Products in Diabetic Subjects There is remarkably little information in the literature concerning blood glucose and insulin responses to chocolate products in people with diabetes. Peters et al. (17) compared the responses in type 1 diabetic patients to an isocaloric meal in which chocolate cake was substituted for baked potato. The glucose response and urinary excretion of glucose were no different between the two meals. However, potato has one of the highest GI values (GI 7090) and the chocolate cake appeared to be no better. Gee et al. (18) compared the glucose and insulin responses to conventional sucrose-sweetened chocolate with fructose- and isomalt-based chocolates in people with type 2 diabetes. Isomalt is a sweet disaccharide that has no glycemic effect when consumed as a pure compound. Fructose when consumed alone produces only one-third of the glycemic and insulin effects of sucrose (10). All three chocolates provoked a sustained...

Previous page 110

Table 11.1 Trends in obesity prevalence and consumption of chocolate products. Consumption of chocolate products (kg capita) Consumption of chocolate products (kg capita) consuming chocolate + sweets more than three times week consuming chocolate + sweets more than three times week nificantly across low (less than one per week) to high (more than three per week) chocolate confectionery groups. No significant relationships were seen between consumption and BMI group for men, whilst for women the proportion of low consumers was greatest and the proportion of high consumers was lowest in the obese (BMI > 30) group. A similar trend was seen with consumption of sweet biscuits (including chocolate coated), while the opposite trends were seen for consumption of ice cream and yoghurts as a single group. This illustrates the need for care in interpreting cross-sectional data, for while one can conclude that low chocolate confectionery and high ice cream + yoghurt consumption is associated...

Previous page 179

Troversy, yet it is discouraging that this study is widely reported as indicating a positive relationship between chocolate and acne (12). Rasmussen (7) criticized the work of Fulton et al. (13) as not employing sufficiently specific means to evaluate a shift in severity from equal numbers of comedones to pustules. Nevertheless, the work of Fulton et al. is generally recognized as disproving any link between chocolate and acne and is cited positively in a letter to the editor of the Journal of the American Medical Association (14). This letter also pointed out that many erroneous assumptions have been made in relation to chocolate and allergy. It also speaks to the discrepancy between patients' perceptions and clinical symptoms. A study is described in which 500 allergic individuals, of whom 33 have been told to avoid chocolate, were tested. Of the 500, 16 thought that chocolate caused allergic symptoms. In fact, only 10 of the 500 manifested specific allergic symptoms within a...

Previous page 108

Chocolate is often cited as a high-carbohydrate food which obese carbohydrate cravers select in an attempt to reduce depression (66, 67). However, as Drewnowski et al. (35) have suggested, foods which have been targeted by carbohydrate cravers are more accurately described as sugar fat mixtures (e.g. chocolate candies, chocolate bars, cakes, cookies and ice cream). The self-medicating theory of carbohydrate craving suggests that the obese, premenstrual and individuals suffering from seasonal affective disorder select foods high in carbohydrates in order to increase the availability of tryptophan across the bloodbrain barrier, thereby increasing the synthesis of serotonin. However, cravings for foods which are more effective in promoting tryptophan uptake, such as rice, potatoes and pasta, are less likely to be reported than foods which are high in sugar and fat, such as chocolate. Therefore, it remains unclear whether such cravings among obese consumers and others reflects a serotonin...

Previous page 106

One time, been adaptive since fat yields a greater amount of energy by weight than either carbohydrate or protein. Thus, chocolate combines two very powerful and possibly primal taste elements. Taken together, the symbolism of chocolate and the influence of palatability create a potent mix of sensory, socio-cultural and interpersonal appeal. Not surprisingly, chocolate attracts negative comments from some health professionals. Given that the calories from chocolate are almost entirely derived from sugar and fat, the two most demonized elements of Western diets (5052), chocolate is targeted as a foodstuff which should be restricted, reduced or eliminated from the diet. However, as sociologists have observed, food morality can reduce the desirability of foods which are good whilst increasing the desirability of foods which are labelled as bad (53). Indeed in a laboratory study of foods labelled as low- or high-fat, Wardle and Solomons (4) found that yoghurt and cheese labelled as...

Previous page 160

A survey of young Canadian adults found that 97 of women and 68 of men experienced food cravings (3). These cravings were, however, highly selective, chocolate being by far the most commonly and intensely craved item (4, 5, 6). As 85 of the Canadian sample reported that more often than not they gave in to their cravings, they are clearly powerful phenomena. To date the term food craving has been used in a similar way to the lay definition it is a strong desire or urge for a particular food. All research has been limited by the way that cravings have been measured. In the majority of cases, subjects have been asked simply to rate their desire to eat a particular food. A single-item scale is unreliable and there has been an implicit assumption that craving can be explained using a single dimension. To counter these problems, Benton et al. (7) asked 330 people to respond to 80 statements concerning chocolate and statistically established the dimensions that accounted for their reactions....

Previous page 169

In addition, the above discussion concerning the low doses of phenylethylamine and theobromine obtained from eating chocolate makes it extremely unlikely that this is the correct explanation. The significance of the ecstasy finding for the rest of the population is unclear. Although some have suggested that the finding with ecstasy users gives credibility to the suggestion that chocolate craving reflects abnormal neural functioning, it should be remembered that these individuals could well be suffering from brain damage. In contrast, in a sample of students who reported taking ecstasy at least 20 times, there was no greater report of chocolate craving than in those who had not taken the drug (M. Morgan, personal communication). This sample needs to be compared with the patients of Schifano and Magni (77) who reported taking ecstasy as many as 2000 times, although some on as few as 20 occasions. Ecstasy-induced chocolate craving appears to be unusual, or alternatively only...

Previous page 187

Table 20.1 Availability of chocolate confectionery in the USA. Table 20.1 Availability of chocolate confectionery in the USA. Chocolate and chocolate-type confectionery Types of chocolate confectionery ( ) All chocolate and chocolate types Trends in chocolate confectionery availability in the USA. Source IOCCC (4). Trends in chocolate confectionery availability in the USA. Source IOCCC (4). Availability of Chocolate Confectionery Internationally Chocolate confectionery availability varies widely from country to country (Fig. 20.6). European countries, where production of chocolate and chocolate confectionery as we know it today originated, tend to have the highest availability, while countries in Asia and tropical climates tend to have very low availability. IOCCC data on international chocolate confectionery supplies reveal that overall availability generally increased throughout the world from 198696, though there were slight changes in rank among the countries (Fig. 20.6). Trends...

Previous page 123

Published research for a cariogenic role of chocolate under a number of headings related to the different experimental methods used in cariogenicity testing. When assessing the cariogenicity of a food, consideration must be given to the cariogenic load of the diet. Each food will add or subtract from this load depending on the properties of the food itself. In the case of chocolate, factors that are likely to increase or decrease caries based on its composition are important. These factors will comprise the chocolate itself (cocoa), milk or dairy products added to make the chocolate, sugar and other chemicals such as casein or fluoride, and further ingredients such as nuts, nougat or fudge, etc. These compositional factors may also affect the retentiveness of the chocolate, as the longer a carbohydrate based food is retained in the mouth the more likely it is to induce caries. It is clear, therefore, that the assessment of the cariogenicity of chocolate is not a simplistic one....

Previous page 122

Chocolate and Dental Health Martin E.J. Curzon Chocolate has long been associated in the public's mind, with confectionery, as being a cause of tooth decay (usually known as dental caries). This probably dates back to the 19th century when honey ceased to be the main source of sweetness in the diet and was replaced by sugar, as sucrose. There was also a view that chocolate and confectionery were associated with a hedonistic aspect of life and therefore somewhat reprehensible. Recent research indicates that our use of sucrose is probably at about the same level as our use of honey over many periods of our history (1). Cheap sugar from cane and then beet meant a changeover from honey not easy to store and transport to sugar. This also gave rise to the growth of confectionery at the same time that chocolate gained favour. Hence the association of chocolate with confectionery. The extensive sale of confectioneries and other refined carbohydrates, such as biscuits, cakes and baked goods,...

Previous page 195

The aroma of chocolate is extremely complex and difficult to duplicate. Indeed, no single compound has been found that mimics this odor (51). Many of the components of chocolate flavor develop during two crucial stages of processing of the bean fermentation and roasting (7, 51). Outside of the context of chocolate candy, aroma is the sensory characteristic that conveys chocolate flavor in products such as chocolate ice cream, or cookies or cake. So an individual with a bad cold would not be able to distinguish chocolate ice cream from coffee ice cream with eyes closed (both would have a bitter-sweet taste and the aroma cue would be blocked by the congestion). There is evidence that olfactory loss is associated with poor dietary selection in community-dwelling elderly women (58) and that elderly subjects are unable to discriminate soup containing a standard amount of marjoram from soup without the herb (59). It has also been reported that elderly people with poor olfaction prefer foods...

Previous page 126

Adults were given controlled diets in which the refined carbohydrate was either sugar, fructose or a sugar substitute, xylitol. The total diet for these people was controlled and therefore the sugar component was either kept standard or substituted, which would have included chocolate as well. The results showed a reduction in caries increment in the xylitol group. However, chocolate does not appear to be a factor in this study. This is an area of study in which chocolate, or chocolate products, have been more widely tested. The method lends itself very well to the evaluation of specific foods but, of course, cannot test diets. In these studies, a group of volunteers is used to sequentially test various foods for their ability to promote an acidogenic plaque. The maximum drop in pH is recorded as well as the time taken for the plaque to be buffered by the saliva and return to normal. By always using a set of two foods, sucrose and sorbitol (10 solutions), as positive and negative...

Previous page 168

Chocolate is a chemically complex substance, rich with many pharmacologically active compounds including histamine, tryptophan, serotonin, phenylethylamine and octopamine. As these are all found in higher levels in other food items, lacking the appeal of chocolate, it is improbable that they play a major part in chocolate craving. Chocolate is a major source of certain minerals including copper, magnesium and iron. A 50 g bar of plain chocolate offers 1.2 mg of iron and milk chocolate 0.8 mg. These levels compare with the US recommended daily amount of 15 mg day for an adult female and 10 mg day for an adult male. In a sample of young British adults, Fordy and Benton (76) found that 52 of females and 11 of males had levels of ferritin, the storage protein for iron, below the recommended level. Given the widespread instance of iron-deficiency anaemia, both in industrialized and developing countries, any source of iron is likely to be valuable. Although there is no reason to believe...

Previous page 166

Produced a large amount of phenylethylamine. When the women's infatuation stopped, so did the production of phenylethylamine (45). The implication sometimes drawn in popular writing is that chocolate is a substitute for love. Given the biological role played by phenylethylamine, it is obvious to suggest that it may be responsible for the attraction of chocolate. The drug will increase the rate of lever pressing to receive stimulation of 'pleasure centres' in the brain (46), something true of all drugs of abuse. All drugs to which humans become addicted influence the activity of brain dopamine. It is likely that if chocolate supplied sufficient phenylethylamine then addiction would occur. The question is whether this is a likely scenario. Is the level of the compound in chocolate sufficient to cause addiction and account for craving Although the level of phenylethylamine in chocolate is high compared with most food (47), the levels are exceeded in some cheeses and sausage, foods that...

Previous page 165

Males were given nalmefene, a long-lasting opioid antagonist (39). Treatment with nalmefene decreased caloric intake by 22 , although the subjective ratings of hunger did not alter. The consumption of fat and protein, but not carbohydrate, decreased. Nalmefene did not influence the intake of particular macronutrients, but rather it influenced the intake of palatable foods, for example high-fat cheese such as Brie. The choice was between various savoury food items chocolate and sweet foods were not on offer. In a similar study, naloxone differentially decreased the intake of high-fat high-sugar foods (40). Drewnowski et al. (41) examined the hypothesis that the influence of opiate antagonists on taste preferences and food consumption would be greater amongst binge eaters. Bingeing is typically associated with food cravings. They compared patients with a diagnosis of bulimia nervosa with a group without this history. Snack foods were presented and divided into four categories depending...

Previous page 201

These beliefs regarding chocolate lasted for a long time and numerous references can be found in Brillat-Savarin (13). He was an amazing person a magistrate, condemned to exile in 1794, he arrived in America where, after a short spell as a diplomat, he became the first violin at the New York Theatre. Curious about everything and above all about manners and gastronomy, he observed a great deal in the New World. When he returned to France in 1796 he became a magistrate again. But he was above all a chronicler of his time and one of the pioneers of today's gastronomic guides and guides to manners. Thus, in 1825, he reported a whole series of 'virtues of chocolate' which was said to have various properties it would facilitate digestion, it would prevent minor everyday disorders, it would allow one to retain one's figure by limiting corpulence and of course, it was said, as with the Aztecs, to have restorative and aphrodisiac properties. In conclusion, Brillat-Savarin even asserted 'What...

Previous page 124

The work on chocolate in human observational studies is often associated with sugar. Nonetheless, many studies commenced in the 1930s focusing on retrospective diet diaries of adults or children related to the development of dental caries. The most extensive of these retrospective studies was published by Nizel and Bibby (3) using dental caries data for recruits to the US armed forces during the Civil War (186165), World War I (191718) and World War II (194245). Mapping dental caries by state and relating this data to food consumption and dietary patterns, the authors discovered that caries was not, as expected, related to sugar or confectionery use. The low-caries states of the south-west and south-central USA used far higher levels of soft drinks (soda pop) and confectionery, which would have included chocolate, while the high-caries states used higher levels of white flour. The many human observational studies on diet and dental caries rarely mention chocolate and, if they do, it...

Previous page 180

The supposed connection between chocolate and acne probably originates in folklore. Conscientious attempts to demonstrate the connection have been unable to do so, but that has not prevented those with strongly held views from expressing them persuasively, sometimes disguised as scientific facts. The actual causes of acne appear not to be understood even today. However, factors such as hormonal changes, both in adolescents and in women during menstruation, and bacterial status can adversely affect acne eruptions. There also appear to be connections to deficiencies of zinc and retinol-binding protein, but these are as yet unexplainable. Certainly, expert bodies such as the American Dietetic Association (16), the American Academy of Dermatology (5) and the Mayo Clinic (17) all state that there is no link between chocolate and acne, as do previous reviewers. To paraphrase Maslansky and Wein (14), 'is it possible that we have been guilty of taking candy away from babies ' 1. Cook, L.R....

Previous page 181

Cocoa and chocolate contain intrinsic methylxanthines, predominantly theobromine with small amounts of caffeine. Methylxanthines as a group are well-known diuretics and reportedly contribute to urinary mineral excretion when consumed at high levels (see Chapter 10 (5)). However, no other impact upon the kidney has been reported from the consumption of cocoa or chocolate. Some patients have tended to report heartburn symptoms following chocolate consumption and reportedly with some frequency. This led Babka and Castell (6) to further investigate this claim. They demonstrated that immediate and sustained lowering of the pressure of the lower sphincter of the esophagus could be induced experimentally with ingestion of chocolate as well as some other foods. The original studies by Babka and Castell (6) measured pressure of the LES in normal subjects following administration of either water (control), whole milk, non-fat milk, orange juice, water tomato paste mixture and dilutions of...

Previous page 170

Chronic rather than acute consumption and such a mechanism could not account for craving. Premenstrual Syndrome and Chocolate Craving It has been reported repeatedly that the incidence of chocolate craving increases in the premenstrual stage. As early as the 1950s, surveys began to find that the premenstrual stage was associated with cravings for sweet items, particularly chocolate, although there was also a general increase in appetite (81). As one example, a survey found that 58 of women reported that appetite increased and 61 reported an increased desire for sweet foods in the premenstrual stage (81). The consistency of these findings has led to the view that food craving is a symptom of If there is no clear evidence that the intake of carbohydrate increases specifically during the premenstrual stage, is there support for the anecdotal reports that there is an increased craving for sweet foods Sucrose intake has been found to be higher in the luteal phase (84). The intake of...

Previous page 105

Sugar the other major energy component of chocolate has also been implicated in obesity, but on a less sound scientific footing. Carbohydrate intake induces a strong hypothalamic-mediated satiety response (37, 38), i.e. intake is regulated by a feeling of fullness. Sugar-rich foods are necessarily bulkier (less energy dense) than high-fat foods, and also less dense in vitamins and nutrients. This has led to a view that high-sugar foods provide 'empty calories', are unnecessary in the diet, and so when present in the diet they contribute, gratuitously, to excess energy intake and the aetiology of obesity. There is a considerable scientific literature which refutes this viewpoint (22, 29, 39), although the concept is generally sustained through the popular and slimming press. For example, craving for chocolate was reported to be the single most important factor contributing to dietary failure by slimmers in repeated annual surveys (Dr E. Evans, personal communication). This may well be...

Previous page 138

Chocolate and Headache Is There a Relationship Migraine is a common disorder, affecting approximately 17 of women and 6 of men in the USA (1). Exactly what factors migraine patients perceive as triggering their pain has been examined by several researchers (24) with varying conclusions. Stress and the menstrual cycle are by far the most commonly cited migraine triggers (4), and both of these factors have been empirically demonstrated to be related to migraine onset (5). Various foods have also been indicated as triggers by migraine patients, although studies have found inconsistencies in the percentage of migraineurs who implicate specific foodstuffs (varying from 0 (6) to 75 (7)). Chocolate tends to be the most frequently identified food as a headache trigger, with approximately 2375 of chronic headache sufferers indicating that eating chocolate is associated with headache onset (3, 7). The evidence that food in general, and chocolate specifically, triggers migraine is mixed. This...

Previous page 141

Investigations of Chocolate as a Trigger of Headache Three studies have investigated the relationship between chocolate and headache directly through placebo-controlled challenge studies. In one such study, Gibb et al. (43) selected 20 subjects from a headache clinic who believed chocolate was a trigger of their migraines and divided them into chocolate (n 12) and carob 'placebo' (n 8) groups. Subjects ate 40 g samples and were contacted by telephone 32 hours after ingestion. Five of the individuals who ate chocolate and none of the individuals who ate the placebo reported the development of a headache within 24 hours of eating the sample, a significant difference (P 0.051). In contrast to the findings of Gibb et al, two published studies have failed to find an association between chocolate and headache. Moffet et al. (44) selected

Previous page 102

Unhealthy food luxury and forbidden fruit treat and temptation. In their study of health information and food preferences, Wardle and Solomons (4) used the phrase 'naughty but nice' to suggest a paradox between familiar, high-fat foods which are rated as well liked compared to newly formulated, low-fat, healthy foods which are rated as less preferred. Chocolate is a food which fits this label well given its long history, beginning with its unique position as a luxurious drink for the Aztec lite to its introduction to the Spanish aristocracy (5) and its current widespread popularity and general availability. Given 17th-century pronouncements on its aphrodisiac qualities, early restrictions of its use to the lite (see Rossner (6) for a summary) and its first appearance in a British medical directory in 1826 as having medicinal uses (7), chocolate appears to confer upon the consumer more than simple calories. Chocolate, therefore, has a long tradition of specialness and in contemporary...

Previous page 140

Table 15.1 Vasoactive amines and headache-triggering agents in chocolate. Chemical Amount typically found in chocolate Table 15.1 Vasoactive amines and headache-triggering agents in chocolate. Chemical Amount typically found in chocolate Although there is some evidence that BPEA and tyramine contribute to migraine headache in some patients, there is some dispute concerning the contribution of dietary as opposed to endogenously produced BPEA. Karoum et al. (26) measured BPEA and tyramine in human blood, cerebrospinal fluid and urine, as well as in rat brains before and after ingestion of foods including chocolate, and found no alteration of either BPEA or tyramine. The authors con- Chemicals found in chocolate other than BPEA and tyramine have also been implicated as causing headaches, although not as frequently. Caffeine has also been linked to headache, and theobromine a caffeine metabolite is typically present in chocolate and cocoa products (27). It is the theobromine rather than...

Previous page 186

NHANES 3 dietary components consisted of a 24-hour recall, a food frequency questionnaire, and questions about special diets, medications and nutritional supplements. Recall data were collected for over 25 000 people. These data may be analyzed to characterize consumption of chocolate confectionery for various population groups. The major limitation of NHANES 3 data is that only one 24-hour recall is obtained for each person, so intra-individual variation cannot be estimated. CSFII data on age, sex, race, region, season and other variables allow estimation of consumption of foods, including chocolate confectionery, for a wide variety of population subgroups. Results can be reported based on consumption per day or on 2-day averages. Approximately 2200 survey respondents completed 7-day dietary records. The results can be analyzed to estimate chocolate confectionery intakes by population subgroups per day or per week percentages of populations consuming chocolate confectionery on a...

Previous page 139

Assuming that at least some individuals experience food-triggered headaches, two main theories have been presented to account for this effect. The first is that vasoactive amines in food affect blood vessels in the brain, causing the vasodilatation associated with migraine pain. According to the vascular theory of migraine, a migraine episode is associated with changes in the vascular system, with a period of vasoconstriction (a decrease in blood flow to the brain, often associated with an 'aura'), followed by a reactive vasodilatation which is associated with the sensation of throbbing pain. Vasoactive amines in foods such as chocolate are thought to trigger vascular reactions in those who are prone to migraine or sensitive to the effects of that particular amine. The second, more controversial hypothesis is that these patients suffer from food allergies and that migraine pain is an allergic reaction. A variety of amines have been implicated in the development of headache, most...

Previous page 178

Several foods such as fats (fatty meat, fried foods, nuts), carbohydrates (all sweets, cola drinks, chocolate) and iodides (seafood, iodized salt) have been commonly implicated as causing acne (6, 7). Tomatoes, citrus fruits and spices have also been blamed by some patients. It has been shown that human sebum composition and its rate of excretion can be changed by diet. Diets high in fats resulted in increased free fatty acids in all subjects and increased sebum excretion rate in the majority (7). Conversely, fasted subjects demonstrated a 40 reduction in sebum excretion rate (7). Similarly Macdonald reported that varying proportions of chocolate, sucrose and skim milk can significantly change surface lipid levels over a minimum 5-day time interval (8, 9). Unfortunately, these studies involve gross dietary maneuvers and experience has shown that in reality, compliance with even simple treatments for short-term disease is low. Acne and Chocolate It is a widely held belief by the public...

Previous page 121

People with diabetes have long suffered from the widespread belief that normal everyday pleasures such as chocolate are to be eaten sparingly or not at all. It can be concluded that the majority of chocolate products give glycemic and insulin responses that are lower than those shown for white or wholemeal bread. Some products, however, stimulate disproportionately more insulin relative to the level of glycemia and may be undesirable in large amounts in the diet of people with insulin resistance syndrome (i.e. individuals who are overweight, hypertensive, with impaired glucose tolerance or NIDDM). Although the subjects studied were often normal non-diabetic individuals, the findings are likely to apply to individuals with diabetes. Hence, chocolate products should not be blamed for high blood sugar levels, nor should they be recommended for the treatment of clinical hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) in insulin-dependent diabetes. Chocolate products are usually very energy-dense foods and...

Previous page 196

The mouth-feel of chocolate is perhaps its most unique and important characteristic. Cocoa butter has a very narrow melting point, which happens to be close to body temperature (6, 51). So when chocolate candy is eaten, it changes from a solid with some snap to a luxuriously smooth, mouth-coating liquid. Also important to the mouth-feel of chocolate are processes that reduce the particle size of ingredients. Preference for high-fat foods may be universal (67). High-fat foods comprise the bulk of craved foods (3) and sweetfat combinations are among the most highly preferred (68). Chocolate candy is an excellent example of a highly palatable sugarfat mixture. Flavor is a complex combination of several sensory inputs including the senses of taste, smell, chemical irritation, touch and temperature. Chocolate is the flavor of

Previous page 185

Household budget surveys are conducted by many countries to provide food supply data at the household rather than national level. Summary data on household food use of chocolate have been included in budget survey reports (7), but as with chocolate supply data, waste by household members is not considered. In addition, chocolate purchased and consumed outside the home is not considered. Users of chocolate within a household cannot be distinguished, and individual variation cannot be assessed. Chocolate intakes by subpopulations based on age, sex, health status and other variables in most cases can be estimated only by using standard proportions or equivalents for age sex categories.

Previous page 191

The number of taste qualities is small. Most people agree that they include sweet, sour, bitter and salty. Another candidate is umami, which is a savory or meaty taste exemplified by the taste of monosodium glutamate (MSG) (see (5)). The taste of chocolate as it is normally consumed in the form of candy, cake, ice cream, etc., is primarily bitter (the Aztec term chocolatl means bitter water (6)), and sweet (due to the sugar added in processing). The bitterness of chocolate comes from the xanthines, theobromine and caffeine, and also from substances produced during the roasting process (7). The latter is necessary to produce the characteristic aroma of chocolate. Bitter tastes are generally disliked. This dislike can be seen soon after birth in the facial expressions of newborn infants (811). Although a dislike for bitter seems to be innate, it is also modifiable by experience. For example, Moskowitz et al. (12) reported on a population of Indian laborers who showed a high preference...

Previous page 146

The Role of Chocolate in Exercise Performance Louise M. Burke The purpose of this chapter is to review the role of chocolate, and chocolate bars in particular, in the achievement of optimal sports performance. It is difficult to assess the role of a single food, or even a group of foods in the nutrition of athletes. Generally, a menu based on food variety is promoted to ensure adequate nutrient intake and eating pleasure. Table 16.1 illustrates the diversity of sports nutrition goals which vary between athletes and sports, and the period of the sporting calendar. Furthermore, individuals may be able to use a number of foods, or combinations of foods, to meet a specific nutritional goal, according to their personal preference and previous experience. Since carbohydrate is the primary nutrient supplied by a chocolate bar, this review focuses on the acute intake of carbohydrate and exercise performance. Investigations of carbohydrate intake before, during and after exercise are examined,...

Previous page 131

While chocolate is often regarded by consumers as a commonly allergenic food, only rare allergies have been documented to chocolate itself (16, 17). Of course, milk, egg, peanut and tree nuts are often mixed with chocolate to produce confectionery items, and these components are frequently offending foods which probably accounts for the confusion. The allergens in these foods are naturally occurring proteins (18). While foods contain tens of thousands of proteins, only a few are allergenic. These food allergens tend to be resistant to heat processing and digestion (19). Thus, the allergens in peanuts, tree nuts, milk and eggs are likely to survive chocolate processing.

Previous page 177

Schifano, F. and Magni, G. (1994) MDMA (ecstasy) abuse psychopathological features and craving for chocolate a case series. Biol. Psychiatry 36, 763767. 79. DiTomaso, E., Beltramo, M. and Piomelli, D. (1996) Brain cannabinoids in chocolate. Nature 382, 677678. 80. Waterhouse, A.L., Shirley, J.R. and Donovan, J.L. (1996) Antioxidants in chocolate. Lancet 348, 834. 92. Michener, W. and Rozin, P. (1994) Pharmacological versus sensory factors in the satiation of chocolate craving. Physiol. Behav. 56, 419422.

Previous page 145

Hurst, W.J. and Toomey, P.B. (1981) High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of four biogenic amines in chocolate. Analyst 106, 394402. 15. Schweitzer, J.W., Friedhoff, A.J. and Schwartz, R. (1975) Chocolate, -phenylethylamine and migraine re-examined. Nature 257, 256257. 16. Shively, C.A. and Tarka, S.M. (1984) Methylxanthine composition and consumption patterns of cocoa and chocolate products. In The Methylxanthine Beverages and Foods Chemistry, Consumption and Health Effects (Ed. by Spiller, G.), pp. 149178. Alan R. Liss, New York. 18. Marcus, D.A., Scharff, L., Turk, D.C. and Gourley, L.M. (1997) A double-blind provocative study of chocolate as a trigger of headache. Cephalalgia 17, 855862.

Previous page 104

Fig. 11.1 Energy imbalance and obesity. * BMR basic metabolic rate. Question From where do the 500 calories (excess to total energy requirements) which cause weight gain come The chocolate The wine The cheese The crisps The icecream Fig. 11.1 Energy imbalance and obesity. * BMR basic metabolic rate. Question From where do the 500 calories (excess to total energy requirements) which cause weight gain come The chocolate The wine The cheese The crisps The icecream

Previous page 133

Several types of food intolerances exist. The major categories include anaphylactoid reactions, metabolic food disorders and idiosyncratic reactions (2). The anaphylactoid reactions are not discussed further here because there is no conclusive proof that such reactions occur related to foods. Metabolic food disorders occur in individuals who are unable to normally metabolize a food component. Lactose intolerance is the best example, and is an example that has relevance to chocolate manufacturing (see below). Idiosyncratic reactions are those illnesses that occur through unknown mechanisms. By definition, relatively little is known about idiosyncratic reactions. In many cases, the cause-and-effect relationship with specific foods or food components has not been well established. The role of sugar in hyperkinetic and other abnormal behaviors in children is discussed briefly below as an example of an idiosyncratic reaction. Individuals with these various forms of intolerances can often...

Previous page 153

Nevertheless, a range of other carbohydrate-rich drinks and foods, including chocolate bars, may be consumed successfully by athletes during exercise and may be chosen on the basis of practical issues such as taste, cost and availability. Solid foods such as chocolate bars are a portable carbohydrate supply for athletes who need to transport their own provisions (e.g. road cyclists, cross-country skiers and hikers). They may also offer some taste variety and satiety for athletes undertaking ultra-endurance events. Whether an athlete 'on the move' such as a runner has the opportunity to unwrap and consume a bar might be taken into consideration, as must the 'keeping' characteristics of chocolate bars in hot conditions.

Previous page 164

As this food deprivation-induced increase in self-stimulation was blocked by naloxone, it was proposed that endogenous opiate activity promoted eating by enhancing the reward value of the food. The amount of b-endorphin occupying receptors in the rat hypothalamus has been reported to increase when chocolate milk and candy are eaten (24). Opioid antagonists are more effective in reducing food intake in obese animals than in those of a normal weight (27). Thus, there is increasing evidence that in rodents, endogenous opiates regulate food intake by modulating the extent to which pleasure is induced by palatable foods. The increase in b-endorphin may reflect either a pleasant sensory experience or alternatively a reaction to the metabolic consequences of eating. In rats, the anticipation of eating palatable food is associated with b-endorphin release (24), suggesting that psychological factors play a role. When the reactions to two chocolate drinks were compared in humans (35), plasma...

Previous page 197

Rozin, P., Levine, E. and Stoess, C. (1991) Chocolate craving and liking. Appetite 17, 199212. 4. Michener, W. and Rozin, P. (1994) Pharmacological versus sensory factors in the satiation of chocolate craving. Physiol. Behav. 56, 419422. 7. Hoskin, J.C. (1994) Sensory properties of chocolate and their development. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 60 (Suppl.), 1068S1070S.

Previous page 194

Given these individual differences in liking for sweetness and bitterness, it is notable that chocolate candy is available in a variety of forms (bittersweet to sweet) which allow individuals to choose the balance between sweetness and bitterness that they like the best. For example, the age-related changes in perception and preference for sweet and bitter tastes may contribute to a shift in preference from very sweet milk chocolate in youth to more bitter, less sweet chocolates in adulthood and old age. The misidentification of odor as taste is known as tastesmell confusion (4749). One could easily argue that odor is the primary component of flavor (50). There are only a few basic tastes. So if taste were synonymous with flavor, the number of flavor experiences would be limited as well. In terms of taste, raspberry, mango, grape and peach would all be sweet and tart. Chocolate and coffee ice creams would both be bittersweet. Taste alone cannot account for the subtle nuances of flavor...

Previous page 176

Hurst, W.J. and Toomey, P.B. (1981) High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of four biogenic amines in chocolate. Analyst 106, 394402. 47. Hirst, W.J., Martin, R.A., Zoumas, B.L. and Tarka, S.M. (1982) Biogenic amines in chocolate a review. Nutr. Rep. Int. 26, 10811087. 53. Shively, C.A. and Tarka, S.M. (1984) Methylxanthine composition and consumption patterns of cocoa and chocolate products. In The Methylxanthine Beverages and Foods Chemistry Consumption and Health Effects (Ed. by Spiller, G.), pp. 149178. Alan R. Liss, New York.

Previous page 163

The data in Table 17.1 cause serious problems for the Wurtmans' hypothesis. An increased availability of tryptophan is only going to occur when protein offers less than 5 of the calories, perhaps only when it is under 2 . Wurtman and Wurtman used their hypothesis to explain the choice of food rich in carbohydrate by those wishing to enhance their mood. However, it is difficult to find meals that contain so little protein that the uptake of tryptophan is likely to be increased. In potatoes, 10 of the calories come in the form of protein in bread, it is 15 and in milk chocolate, it is 13 . Looking at Table 17.1, it appears that no increase in the availability of tryptophan can be expected with bread, potato or chocolate. If anything, less tryptophan will be available to enter the brain and the synthesis of serotonin would decrease rather than increase. A second problem is that the time-scale is wrong. Any increase in the level of brain tryptophan will occur only after insulin has been...

Previous page 112

IOCCC (1997) International Statistical Review of the Cocoa, Chocolate and Sugar Confectionery Industries 1996. International Office of Cocoa, Chocolate and Sugar Confectionery, Brussels. 57. Seligson, F.H., Krummel, D.A. and Apgar, J.L. (1994) Patterns of chocolate consumption. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 60, S1060S1067. 64. Hetherington, M.M. and Macdiarmid, J.I. (1993) Pleasure and excess liking for and over-consumption of chocolate. Physiol. Behav. 57, 2735. 65. Macdiarmid, J.I. and Hetherington, M.M. (1995) Mood modulation by food an exploration of affect and cravings in 'chocolate addicts'. Br. J. Clin. Psychol. 34, 129138. 70. Rozin, P., Levine, E. and Stoess, C. (1991) Chocolate craving and liking. Appetite 17, 199212.

Previous page 149

Chocolate Bars and Carbohydrate Intake in the Hour before Exercise The negative publicity surrounding this study has lead to generalized warnings to avoid carbohydrate intake during the hour prior to endurance exercise. This advice still persists in many athletic circles, despite the evidence from at least a dozen subsequent studies that carbohydrate feeding in the hour prior to exercise enhances, or at least fails to affect, work capacity and performance of prolonged, moderate-intensity exercise (for reviews see (4, 23)). In at least one study, chocolate bars provided the pre-exercise meal choice and did not alter the endurance of cyclists riding at 70 VO2max compared with a placebo feeding, despite the transient lowering of blood glucose concentrations after 15 min of exercise (19).

Previous page 148

Chocolate Bars and 'Fuelling Up' Chocolate bars offer a compact and enjoyable source of carbohydrate for an athlete who has high carbohydrate requirements. They may provide a useful part of a 'fuelling up' programme, particularly as a portable snack that requires minimal preparation or storage facilities. However, the value of a varied food intake should be promoted, particularly in the everyday eating patterns of athletes in heavy training.

Previous page 135

Episodes have occurred including several in the confectionery industry. In Europe, a consumer inadvertently ingested a chocolate product containing unlabeled hazelnuts. Although only 6 mg of hazelnut was estimated to have been ingested, the consumer experienced a serious asthmatic reaction (11). More serious by far, several years ago in Canada, a consumer died after the ingestion of a chocolate-coated wafer contaminated with undeclared peanut, although the level of peanut in the contaminated product remains uncertain. The peanut residues in this product apparently arose from the use of shared production lines and inadequate flushing between peanut-containing and peanut-free products.

Previous page 192

There are individual differences in responses to other bitter compounds such as quinine and urea (19). Unfortunately, only relatively few bitter compounds have been studied extensively and some of the major ones contributing to the bitterness of chocolate (xanthines, theobromine and others) have not been studied at all. Thus, the range of sensitivities to these substances and the possible role of genetic differences underlying individual differences in sensitivity and preference remain to be investigated. Green et al. (31) studied the hedonic evaluation of sucrose and lactose solutions of young monozygotic and samesex dizygotic twin pairs. They reported no heritable component for sucrose preference, although they did report a strong racial difference in the liking for sweet tastes, which may be caused by differences in genes across populations. However, the methods used in this study were very crude, so results must be treated with even more caution than usual. Krondl et al. (32)...

Previous page 199

Although the New World was discovered by Christopher Columbus in 1492, cocoa, and with it chocolate, only arrived in Spain about 1520 (or, according to other sources, 1527 when Cort s is said to have given beans of cocoa to Charles V). It reached the Netherlands (which were then Spanish provinces) about 1609, spread to England in 1657, and reached France only in 1659. Furthermore, it was only in 1660 that Benjamin d'Acosta inaugurated the first plantation of cocoa trees in the Windward Islands, now known as the Lesser Antilles (9, 10). As previously mentioned, chocolate as a drink played a large role in the religious ceremonies of the Aztec Court. Similarly, cocoa beans played the role of currency anything one wanted could be bought with them gold, clothing, slaves or prostitutes (10). But it was not until Diaz del Castillo, a companion of Cort s, recounted for the first time the place of this beverage at the court of Montezuma, Emperor of the Aztecs, in Mexico, that people learnt...

Previous page 150

Although the results of this study have quickly led to advice that low-GI, carbohydrate-rich foods are the preferred pre-event meal choice for the endurance athlete (24), the evidence for clear performance benefits is lacking. Other investigations comparing high- and low-GI foods eaten as pre-exercise meals have failed to find any differences in exercise performance between trials, even when disturbances to blood glucose and insulin profiles were attenuated with the low-GI meals (2527). It is important to note that even small rises in insulin concentration cause a suppression of FFA concentrations and lipolysis this appears to be an absolute rather than dose-dependent effect (27, 28). Therefore, although the insulin rise may be blunted with a low-GI carbohydrate food (27), or with the addition of fat to carbohydrate (e.g. as in chocolate) (28) compared with a high-GI food, this may not be sufficient to completely abolish other metabolic changes.

Previous page 134

The intake of sugar or sucrose, a common component of chocolate confectionery products, has been linked to several forms of aberrant behavior especially in young children and adolescents. In young children, sugar intake has been suggested as a cause of hyperkinesis, more correctly known as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (35). In adolescents, a hypothesis was raised that sugar contributed to aggressive or delinquent behavior (35). A critical examination of the data from multiple studies suggests that few individual hyperactive children respond adversely to a sucrose challenge (35). The most carefully designed and controlled studies of the effect of sucrose on hyperactive behavior found no convincing evidence of any association (35). Some evidence does exist to suggest that both juvenile delinquents and adult criminals display anomalies in carbohydrate metabolism that may be related to their antisocial behavior (35, 36). However, carefully controlled challenge studies...

Previous page 120

Sugars play a unique role in human diets. They satisfy our instinctual desire for sweetness and contribute 2022 of the energy in modern Western diets. Revised estimates of honey intake in prehistoric times indicate that amounts eaten may have approached the current levels of added sugars (33). Added sugars have many functional roles in foods, which extend beyond their sweetness, including preservative, textural and flavour-modifying qualities. Unfortunately, sugars have a 'bad reputation' especially in respect of dental caries, which is no longer deserved. Since it is now clear that neither sugary foods in general nor chocolate itself produce exceptionally high glucose responses, other arguments are often raised to justify a restriction on sugar. However, even in these areas, new research dispels much of the old dietary dogma.

Previous page 193

In another twin study (33), heritabilities for preference were reported for 3 of the 17 foods tested. Interestingly, these three were sweetened (but not unsweetened) cereal, orange juice and cottage cheese. The cereal and orange juice may be considered sweet. However, although most of the remaining foods tested were not sweet (e. g. beans, broccoli, chicken, corn), snack cake and cola, two clearly sweet foods, did not exhibit significant heritabilities. Rozin and Millman (34) also found no mz dz difference in liking for plain sugar or for a peppermint lifesaver. None of these twin studies examined a range of carbohydrate and non-carbohydrate sweeteners and most had a very small number of twin pairs. Moreover, most unfortunately, none of these twin studies provided any data specifically on chocolate.

Previous page 128

Reynolds, E.C. and Black, C.L. (1987) Reduction of chocolate's cariogenicity by supplementation with sodium caseinate. Caries Res. 21, 445451. 16. Grenby, T.H. and Mistry, M. (1995) Precise control of the frequency and amount of food provided for small laboratory animals by a new electronic metering technique, used to evaluate the cariogenic potential of chocolate. Caries Res. 29, 418423.

Previous page 209

Source Manoury-Tomas (34). chocolate. Source Manoury-Tomas (34). The study of ideal consumption preferences for dark chocolate, which is more bitter than other varieties, reveals in particular the very great range of situations and persons who may consume this chocolate (Fig. 22.2). Practically everybody, except babies and to some extent, the sick, showed a marked preference against eating it warm. This is logical since it is supplied as chocolate bars. Finally, it is not considered as a food for feasts, probably for the same reason. The topic of health reveals the existence of opinions which may appear to be contradictory and which are expressed with equal force but they do not prevent the consumer from greatly appreciating the product (Fig. 22.3). This dark chocolate is therefore considered to be full of calories, rich in fat, inducing weight gain and not beautifying the person who eats it. But these are the same people who consider it as useful to the body, good for...

Previous page 125

Vipeholm Study

These are the classic type of studies used in the pharmaceutical industry in which a group(s) of people are observed closely over a period of time under controlled circumstances to determine the development or absence of disease, and whether a drug is effective or not. While they are carried out every day in medicine, for many years they have not been allowed in dental research on foods and diets. One cannot deliberately instigate dental caries, purely for experimental purposes. For this reason, there has been only one proper study. Known as the Vipeholm Study (6), it remains the only intervention study involving chocolate in a human population. It plays a major role in any consideration of diet and dental caries. The Vipeholm project involved over 436 inmates of an institution for the mentally retarded. Over a study period of several years, groups of adult subjects were given dietary supplements, either as between-meals snacks or added to meals. The caries incidence was monitored and...

Previous page 119

Candy-coated chocolate peanut pieces Chocolate-covered caramel and nougat bar Chocolate-covered caramel and nougat bar1 ('lite' formulation) Chocolate-covered caramel cookie bar Chocolate-covered peanut and caramel bar Chocolate granola bar Energy drink2 (chocolate milk) Milk chocolate bar low glucose responses, the average GI being 49 and average II being 59. The candy-coated chocolate peanut pieces gave the lowest GI (GI 33) while the chocolate granola bar and the chocolate-covered caramel and nougat bar had the highest (GI 62). The latter value was comparable to that obtained by Jenkins et al. in 1981 for a similar product (Mars Bar) sold in Canada (4). One reason for the relatively low GI values is the high fat content of the products. Fat in food is well known to slow gastric emptying, thereby producing lower glucose responses, but importantly, insulin responses are not always correspondingly low (25). Hence, high-fat foods such as chocolate may appear to be very desirable if GI...

Previous page 109

Chocolate Consumption Chart

Research on consumers who report food cravings has revealed no specific link to obesity (69), dietary restraint (34, 69, 72) or oestradiol levels (34). However, menstrual cycle (73, 74), pregnancy (75), problem eating (64) and negative affect (69) have been linked to cravings. Therefore, although some obese consumers may experience chocolate cravings, this is no more common than cravings reported by their lean counterparts. The foregoing commentary suggests that the scientific rationale for a link between obesity, taste preferences and consumption of chocolate products is, at best, tenuous. An additional question remains 'Is there any evidence for a relationship between chocolate consumption and obesity from population studies ' Relationships between Chocolate Consumption and Obesity between and within Countries Epidemiological associations between diet and disease have historically (e.g. saturated fat with congenital heart disease (CHD)), and more recently (e.g. antioxidant vitamins...

Previous page 156

Strategies to match carbohydrate availability to the fuel needs of training and competition form an ongoing cycle for the athlete. Carbohydrate ingestion after exercise aids the resynthesis of muscle and liver glycogen in preparation for subsequent exercise sessions. The pre-exercise meal can assist to 'top up' body carbohydrate stores, while carbohydrate intake during exercise may be needed to provide additional fuel as body stores become depleted. In all cases, the amount of carbohydrate consumed by the athlete is important, and the type of carbohydrate-rich food or drink that might be consumed is dictated more by practical issues than the physiological characteristics of the carbohydrate source. Chocolate bars may be useful in many circumstances, since they provide a compact, portable and well-liked form of carbohydrate. Nevertheless, the athlete is encouraged to choose a variety of carbohydrate-rich foods to meet overall carbohydrate intake goals, and to let individual preference...

Previous page 174

Waterhouse, D. (1995) Why Women Need Chocolate. Vermilion, London. 4. Rozin, P., Leveine, E. and Stoess, C. (1991) Chocolate craving and liking. Appetite 17, 199212. 7. Benton, D., Greenfield, K. and Morgan, M. (1998) The development of the attitudes to chocolate questionnaire. Per. Ind. Dif. 24, 513520. 8. Schuman, M., Gitlin, M.J. and Fairbanks, L. (1987) Sweets, chocolate and atypical depressive traits. J. Nerv. Ment. Disord. 175, 491495. 9. Lester, D. and Bernard, D. (1991) Liking for chocolate, depression and suicidal preoccupation. Psychol. Rep. 69,

Previous page 159

Chapter 17 Chocolate Craving Chocolate is a uniquely attractive substance that has an appeal unmatched by any other food item. Large sections of the population will readily admit to craving chocolate some will even claim to be addicted (1), although this is lay self-diagnosis rather than an accurate or medically justifiable description. Articles in the media and popular books have speculated that chocolate's appeal can be explained in terms of the influence that it has on the brain's chemistry. For example, Debra Waterhouse, in her book Why Women Need Chocolate (2), stated that 'food cravings are Mother Nature's way of informing us that we need to eat a specific food in order to look and feel great . . . Chocolate can cause a rush of both serotonin and endorphins into your brain cells . . . it has been called the most effective non-drug anti-depressant . . . the ''Prozac of plants.' Waterhouse claimed that chocolate has a calming influence for two major reasons. First, the sugar in...

Previous page 127

Chocolate peanuts Chocolate-fondant-caramel bar Sweet chocolate Chocolate biscuit Chocolate be made on relative cariogenicity. They have not been used to assess the cariogenicity of chocolate. In Vivo in Vitro Methods These seek to combine an intra-oral environment with the effects of foods outside of the mouth. They are therefore known as intraoral cariogenicity tests (ICT). Slabs of human sterile enamel are placed into an intra-oral, denture-like device. These become colonized by oral bacteria and plaque. The device(s) can be removed from the mouth and immersed in a food slurry, such as chocolate, at various times during the day. Over a period of several weeks, caries-like lesions develop in the enamel slabs, which can be measured for an index of cariogenicity. As with artificial mouths, the ICT method has not been used to assess chocolate, although it could readily do so. Imfeld et al. (10), using an animal model, recorded the CPI of sucrose at 1.0, apple at 0.6, a chocolate...

Previous page 118

Likely responses in people with diabetes. Most studies report that ingestion of a chocolate bar causes a substantially lower rise in plasma glucose and insulin than equivalent amounts of other carbohydrates (2022). Shively et al. (9) conducted one of the most comprehensive studies in normal subjects of glucose and insulin responses to various snack foods, including chocolate, potato chips, granola bars and peanut butter cups. They found that plasma glucose responses to the snacks, on both an isocaloric or equivalent carbohydrate basis, were uniformly lower than that after a glucose load. In contrast, insulin responses to the snacks exhibited more variability, the milk chocolate bar giving higher responses than those predicted by the level of glycemia. In fact, the insulin response to the chocolate bar was as high as that seen after the glucose load. There was no evidence, however, of rebound hypoglycemia. Recently blood glucose and insulin responses were determined after consumption...

Adding Iron to Your Diet

Each ounce of a dark-chocolate bar contains 0.60 milligram of iron. Look for bars with at least 60 percent cocoa content. Premium brands usually list the cocoa content on their label. Don't go overboard, though this isn't license to gorge yourself on chocolate Even dark chocolate is high in fat.

Coating consistency noun the body and viscosity of a liquid such that when it coats a solid it will

Cocoa noun 1. a powder made from chocolate beans 2. a drink made from this powder cocoa bean noun the bean-shaped seed of the cacao tree, used for making cocoa powder and chocolate cocoa butter noun a thick oily solid obtained from cocoa beans, used in making chocolate, cosmetics and suntan oils cocoa cake noun a chocolate-flavoured cake made using cocoa powder cocoa mass, cocoa liquor noun a paste produced by grinding roasted cocoa beans, used for making chocolate or separated into cocoa powder and cocoa butter

Caffeine What Sources How Much

The amount of caffeine in foods or beverages depends on several factors type of product, its preparation method, and portion size. Caffeine occurs naturally in some products, such as coffee and chocolate, and is added as a flavoring agent in some others, such as soft drinks. Chocolate milk beverage (8 oz.) Milk chocolate (1 oz.) Dark chocolate, semisweet (1 oz.) Baker's chocolate (1 oz.) Chocolate-flavored syrup (1 oz.)

Making Chocolate 101

Making Chocolate 101

If you love chocolate then you can’t miss this opportunity to... Discover How to Make Homemade Chocolate! Do you love gourmet chocolate? Most people do! Fine chocolates are one of life’s greatest pleasures. Kings and princes have for centuries coveted chocolate. Did you know that chocolate used to be one of the expensive items in the world, almost as precious as gold? It’s true!

Get My Free Ebook