Natural Childbirth Options
The maternal mortality rate reflects the number of maternal deaths in a population due to both direct obstetric causes and to conditions aggravated by pregnancy or childbirth. The maternal mortality rate in the United States is approximately 7.7 deaths per 100,000 pregnancies. Research indicates that 88 to 98 percent of all maternal deaths can be prevented. Socioeconomic factors such as poverty, education level, and malnutrition have proven to be the underlying causes of most maternal deaths. Maternal mortality rates are substantially less in developed countries (1 in 1,800) than in developing countries (1 in 48), illustrating the impact of socioeconomic status. To keep the rates as low as possible, health officials in all nations must advocate for quality health services for all women during pregnancy and childbirth. see also Infant Mortality Rate.
Summary Preeclampsia is a multi-organ disease that is specific to pregnancy and is characterized by the development of proteinuria and hypertension. It complicates 5-7 of pregnancies and specific criteria must be met for diagnosis. The exact etiology or pathophysiology of preeclampsia is poorly understood and as such, there are no well-established methods of primary prevention or of reliable and cost-effective screening. Calcium and aspirin may have a role in preventing preeclampsia in certain subpopulations, and research continues regarding these and other possible nutritional interventions. Preeclampsia is associated with increased maternal mortality and morbidity, and childbirth is the only known cure. Women with preeclampsia need to have regular surveillance. The associated hypertension may warrant treatment under certain conditions and magnesium sulfate is the drug of choice for the prevention and treatment of eclamptic seizures.
Summary Iron deficiency and anemia are major public health concerns throughout the world and are of special concern in many developing countries where the incidence and severity of anemia in certain populations is very high. Pregnant women, women of childbearing age, and young children are especially vulnerable to iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) because of increased iron needs during growth and pregnancy, and iron losses during menstruation and childbirth. The most commonly used indicator of IDA in many resource-poor settings is hemoglobin however, since anemia can be caused by factors other than iron deficiency, it is recommended that measurement of hemoglobin be combined with a more specific measure of iron status such as ferritin to determine whether the anemia is due to iron deficiency. IDA, especially severe anemia (hemoglobin 7 g dl), can influence outcomes in both the mother and her child, including maternal mortality, birth weight, cognition in both the mother...
Shorter postpartum hospital stays (12-48 hours) need not negatively impact on breastfeeding success. When health care professionals in the community and hospital provide consistent, clear, breastfeeding information and support for mothers throughout pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum and the breastfeeding period, the breastfeeding experience can be positive and successful for both mother and baby.
Body size does not appear to be a signifi cant determinant of age at menopause. No associations with BMI were detected in the cross-sectional study of Scottish and British women,75 which also assessed self-reported body weight at ages 20, 30, and 40 years. Similarly, BMI did not differ between women who became menopausal or remained premenopausal in the 11-year prospective Danish study80 or in the 7-9-year prospective study of 3756 Dutch women,74 despite considerable variability in BMI among the samples. Although the cross-sectional Japanese study of Nagata et al. reported that mean BMI was significantly lower among postmenopausal women, the absolute difference was small (22.2 vs. 22.5 kg m2).78 In summary, although some associations with several different types of variables and age at menopause have been observed, in many cases these associations are inconsistent or weak. For example, the large prospective study of Dutch women assessed age at menarche, number of siblings, age at...
Fj During pregnancy, acupuncture and herbs S should only be administered by practitioners with a very good knowledge of these therapies, since some acupuncture points are contraindi-cated during pregnancy (they increase labor pain, can increase pathological disease progression, and can lead to premature birth). With recurrent vomiting, ensure sufficient intake of fluids, possibly intravenous hydration with fluids by allopathic physician.
Celiac disease can occur at any time in a person's life and often the onset is triggered after surgery, viral infection, emotional stress, pregnancy or child birth. The impact of celiac disease can affect several areas and systems of the body often making the diagnosis challenging. In fact the symptoms associated with the digestive tract can mimic other digestive disorders. Symptoms often include
Normal pregnancy lasts approximately 40 weeks and is typically broken into three equal time periods called trimesters. It is desirable to deliver after at least 37 weeks of pregnancy with the newborn weighing greater than 2.5 kilograms or about 5.5 pounds. Infants born prior to the 37th week are referred to as premature, while those born weighing less than 2.5 kilograms are called low birth weight infants. Premature and low birth weight infants find life more challenging in the days, weeks, and months that follow as they are at greater risk for medical complications. Premature infants are often introduced into the real world before their organs, especially their lungs, are fully developed and capable of coping with the new environment. On the other hand, babies cannot stay in the womb much longer than 40 weeks. Babies must be born before the skull becomes too large to pass through the birth canal. From a developmental standpoint, babies probably should stay in the mother's womb for a...
Keratinizing epithelial as the most conspicuous effects of vitamin A deficiency. These observations focused attention of vitamin A function on epithelia, and gave birth to the conclusion that the primary systemic function of vitamin A was to control epithelial differentiation.1 These observations also prompted multiple intervention studies with laboratory animals, which concluded that dosing with various retinoids (retinyl palmitate, retinyl acetate, RA) reduced the incidence of chemically induced (7,12-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene, benzo a pyrine, 3-meth-ylcholanthrene, N-methyl-N-nitrosourea) lesions in several epithelial targets, including the respiratory tract, the stomach, the vagina, and skin.17 Most likely because of poorly controlled protocols and or different protocols that really were not comparable, the earliest animal studies reported mixed results of dietary vitamin A supplementation on the incidence of chemically caused carcinogenesis. Many studies, however, showed...
Although many healthcare providers recommend that pregnant women consume a standard prenatal MVMM supplement as an insurance policy against inadequate micronutrient intake, evidence to support a benefit from this practice for most women in developed countries is weak. Nonetheless, there are a handful of reports suggesting that MVMM use is related to decreased risk of fetal malformations. For example, Botto and coworkers conducted a retrospective, case-control study in which they compared incidence of conotruncal heart defects in 2 groups of women living in the Atlanta, Georgia area those giving birth to infants with conotruncal defects (n 158) and unaffected women (n 3,026) 7 . Multivitamin use was defined as reported regular use from 3 months before conception through the third month of pregnancy. Data from this study suggest that periconceptional multivitamin use is associated with a reduced risk for this form of malformation. However, because this study was not an intervention...
During pregnancy and lactation Women who are pregnant or nursing often need supplements to provide the nutrients they need to build new maternal and fetal tissue or to produce nutritious breast milk. In addition, supplements of the B vitamin folate now are known to decrease a woman's risk of giving birth to a child with a neural tube defect (a defect of the spinal cord and column).
Congenital cardiac anomaly (CAA), also known as congenital heart disease (CHD), refers to any structural defect of the heart or major vessels that exists from birth. It is the most common cause of infant death, other than problems of prematurity, and death is likely to occur in the first year of life. CAA may result either from genetic causes or from external causes such as maternal infection or exposure to other factors that affect embryonic development. The general problems associated with CAA include increased cardiac workload, hypertension, poor oxygenation of blood, and respiratory infections. There are many types of CAA, including aortic stenosis, atrial septal defect, valvular stenosis, and pulmonary stenosis.
In the movie the world we know now is just a fantasy created by computers. Everything the characters see, hear and feel is computer generated and fed into their brains by the machines that control them. Like living inside a virtual reality game. From birth to death people are kept unconscious inside a pod by the machines that run the world, never knowing the truth that the world they know isn't real. The machines use the people kind of like living batteries, they suck off their bio-electrical energy.
Cesarean section rates are higher among obese women compared to nonobese women. In Washington State, Baeten et al. 40 examined delivery data from over 96,000 mother-infant pairs. These researchers found that obese women had nearly a threefold greater risk of having a cesarean section than women who were not obese. After adjusting for gestational hypertension, GDM, and preeclampsia, the risk decreased nominally, to 2.7-fold. In another study, Brost et al. 41 found that for each 1-kg m2 increase in prepregnancy BMI, the odds of having a cesarean section increased by 7 . Obesity is associated with a reduced likelihood of vaginal birth after cesarean section (VBAC) 42 , and a lower success rate for VBAC compared with normal weight women (68 versus 79.9 , respectively 42, 43 ). Operative and postoperative complications associated with cesarean surgery in obese women, especially the morbidly obese, are many including greater risk of excessive blood loss, prolonged operative time, higher...
Data from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) underline a decline in 2004 in the teenage birth rate in the US, with 41.2 births per 1,000 females aged 15-19 years 11 . Rates increased slightly in 2004 for girls aged 10-14 years 11 . These data are worrisome, as these young women are nearer to menarche, and still growing themselves, with increased nutritional needs. These very young women also have increased risk for maternal death 12 . The younger-aged group received the lowest rate of timely prenatal care, highest rates of late or no prenatal care, and was at highest risk of pregnancy-associated hypertension. Among the youngest cohort, pregnancy outcome was poor, e.g., infants were more likely to be preterm, to be born with low birth weight, and to die in their first year at a rate that was three times the overall rate of 15.4 per 1,000 13 .
Fetal nutrients are derived largely from the mother, and fetal nutrition is thus closely related to maternal nutrition. However, it is important to appreciate that maternal nutrition is not the same as fetal nutrition. Firstly, the mother has her own nutrient demands which may be in conflict with those of the fetus. For example, pregnant adolescent sheep deliver smaller fetuses, especially when the ewes are very well nourished and therefore growing well, and the growth restriction appears to be predominantly secondary to reduced placental growth.1-3 Human adolescents also tend to give birth to lighter infants, and birth weight has been reported to be less in offspring of adolescents with a higher dietary sugar intake.4,5 Secondly, the fetus lies at the end of a long supply line which can be impaired at many points. Nutrients are used by the fetus predominantly for growth and metabolism, with little energy expenditure on other processes such as thermoregulation, movement and digestion....
Young girls who grow poorly become stunted women and are more likely to give birth to low-birth-weight babies who are then likely to continue the cycle by being stunted in adulthood, and so on (128). Maternal birth size is a significant predictor of a child's birth size after controlling for gestational age, sex of the child, socioeconomic status, and maternal age, height and pre-pregnant weight (129). There are clear indications of intergenerational factors in obesity, such as parental obesity, maternal gestational diabetes and maternal birth weight. Low maternal birth weight is associated with higher blood pressure levels in the offspring, independent of the relation between the offspring's own birth weight and blood pressure (7). Unhealthy lifestyles can also have a direct effect on the health of the next generation, for example, smoking during pregnancy (9,130).
During the 1990s, there were many successful efforts by UNICEF to improve health, nutrition, and survival for women and children around the world. In 1990, UNICEF members, who held voting rights, supported the formation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child. During 1991, UNICEF and the World Health Organization (WHO) initiated efforts to improve the health and nutritional status of pregnant women, mothers with babies, and infants, through the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding program. In response, health centers around the world adopted the ten steps, and became baby-friendly hospitals and birthing centers. By 2002, more than 15,000 sites in 136 counties were educating women and promoting healthful behaviors to improve the nutritional status of babies.
Childbirth is the cure for preeclampsia as the disease process usually resolves within days of delivery. Delivery is always preferable from the perspective of maternal health. However, decisions on induction of labor or cesarean delivery must include a consideration of prematurity-related neonatal risks and the severity of the preeclampsia. Women with mild preeclampsia should be carefully followed until they are close to term and delivered at 37-39 weeks 30 . Women with severe preeclampsia may be expectantly managed until 32-34 weeks, or delivered sooner based on maternal and fetal status 31 . Women with preeclampsia need to have regular surveillance of the fetus with nonstress testing and amniotic fluid volume assessment. Blood work should be checked periodically to detect renal or hepatic involvement, hemolysis, or thrombocytopenia.
Activity in the second and third trimesters 12 . There is a link between strenuous physical activity and the development of intrauterine growth restriction in the presence of dietary restrictions. Mothers with physically demanding and repetitive jobs were reported in several studies to deliver early and give birth to small-for-gestational-age infants 13-15 meanwhile, other studies on vigorous exercise found no difference 16 or an increase 17 in infant birth weight. It appears that infant birth weight is not affected by exercise if energy intake is adequate 18 , and that fetal weight can be maintained with adequate nutritional intake.
Infection is widespread throughout the world. Rotavirus infection may occur repeatedly in humans from birth to old age. The first infection is predominant among children aged 6-24 months, although cases may occur in older children. Neonatal infections appear to be nosocomial in origin, because they are rarely seen in babies born at home or at village health centers. Approximately 90 of children in both developed and developing countries experience rotavirus infection by 3 years of age. The cumulative incidence of rotavirus illness by the age of 5 years approaches 0.8 episodes child per year.
Women who gained at the recommended level 60 . In a longer-term study, Rooney et al. 61 followed 540 women for 8 years after childbirth and found that women who gained more than the IOM recommended weight during pregnancy retained 2 kg above their prepregnancy weight more at 8 years postpartum compared with those who complied with weight guidelines. These researchers also showed that at the mean age of 42 years, obese women weighed 34 lb more than when they became pregnant. Given that obesity is a risk factor for chronic diseases, these findings suggest that interventions are needed to improve adherence to IOM recommendations and to help women achieve a healthful weight postpartum.
Iron is a component of hemoglobin in red blood cells (RBC) and as such, an iron deficient diet can result in iron deficiency anemia characterized by the production of RBC that do not contain a full complement of hemoglobin and are inefficient at delivering oxygen to cells. Pregnancy and childbirth place women at risk for iron deficiency anemia due to a marked blood volume expansion during pregnancy, increased maternal needs, fetal requirements, and blood loss associated with childbirth. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common nutritional deficiency in the United States and the world, affecting 7.8 million adolescent girls and women of childbearing age 79 . The iron requirements of pregnancy are thoroughly discussed in Chap. 16, ( Iron requirements and Adverse Outcomes ).
Summary Postpartum depression is the number one complication of childbirth 1 , and healthcare providers need to have a keen understanding of the disorder in order to provide support and advice. In the first portion of this chapter, the prevalence and onset of postpartum depression is discussed, with a consideration for risk factors that have been associated with the disorder. Within this context, there is a discussion of how postpartum depression affects the mother, the mother-infant relationship, and infant development. Detection of postpartum depression is key to treatment, making repeated screening throughout the first year postpartum highly important.
Milk energy output is tabulated by multiplying the volume of milk produced by its energy density (Table 18.2). The figure used by the Institute of Medicine to estimate the daily volume of milk produced from birth to six months is 0.78 l day 7 . From 7 to 12 months, mean milk production is estimated to be 0.6 l day, reduced with the introduction of solid foods. While the daily volume of breast milk produced among exclusively breastfeeding mothers is remarkably consistent from woman to woman and country to country, it varies considerably, of course, if a woman is partially or totally breastfeeding 6 . The US Institute of Medicine reviewed studies where human milk energy density was measured by bomb calorimetry and found an average value of 0.67 kcal g.
After dietary assessment recommend nutrient supplements for vegan diets which are found to be nutrit
This sign of excess fluoride intake has led to modifications in fluoride recommendations such that fluoride supplements are no longer recommended from birth, and doses have been decreased during the first 6 years of life. The difficulty lies in knowing how far to lower fluoride supplementation without jeopardizing the benefits of caries prevention. The diversity in drinking water supply and dental hygiene practices in Canada, and the lack of comprehensive epidemiological data, have made it difficult to reach agreement on the best way to provide the right amount of fluoride to all Canadian children. iron-fortified formula be used from birth (CPS, 1991). Although dietary iron is not used for hemoglobin synthesis in the first few months of life, its early use contributes to iron stores and helps to prevent later development of iron deficiency. In communities where the majority of formula used is iron-fortified, the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia is very low. The perception by...
Most types of meat are warm to hot in thermal nature and are excellent for supplementing qi and yang. Meat should be eaten primarily during the cold seasons. Meat intensifies body energy and provides the body with a degree of aggressiveness. It is very suitable for quickly replenishing energy deficits (following heavy physical exertion, after childbirth, during recovery). Excess consumption of meat pollutes the body with toxins and promotes phlegm disorders.
The Cochrane Collaboration developed in response to Archie Cochrane's call for systematic, up-to-date reviews of all relevant randomised clinical trials of healthcare. Cochrane's suggestion that the methods used to prepare and maintain reviews of controlled trials in pregnancy and childbirth should be applied more widely was taken up by the Research and Development Programme initiated to support the United Kingdom's National Health Service. Funds were provided to establish a Cochrane Centre to collaborate with other organizations in the U.K. and elsewhere to facilitate systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials across all areas of healthcare. For more information about the Cochrane Collaboration see http www.cochrane.org . The sections of the Cochrane Collaboration that relate most specifically to cardiovascular disease include
No other animal on this planet has such a developed brain relative to its body size. In fact, the human brain is so big that during pregnancy the size of the baby's head is a primary factor dictating the timing of birth. If babies were not born until the 10th or 11th month of pregnancy, it would be extremely difficult for the head to fit through the mother's birth canal.
A recent area of concern related to tobacco use has been nonsmokers' exposure to second-hand smoke. Parental smoking has been proven to contribute to increased rates of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in addition to chronic illnesses in children such as asthma, bronchitis, colds, and pneumonia. Pregnant women who chew tobacco, smoke, or are exposed to second-hand smoke have a higher risk of miscarriage and of giving birth to low birth weight babies, who are prone to infection. Women who smoke are more likely to be victims of primary and secondary infertility, to have delays in conceiving, and to have an increased risk of early menopause and low bone density ( Current Issues and Forthcoming Events ). Most women are unaware of these dangers. Not only can the expectant mother place her unborn fetus in danger, but she can also place herself at risk for future smok-ing-related diseases and early mortality.
The Canadian Paediatric Society Nutrition Committee, Dietitians of Canada and Health Canada collaborated on the preparation of this statement on nutrition for healthy term infants from birth to 24 months of age. This statement is intended for the use of health care professionals. It provides information that is basic to communicating consistent messages about infant nutrition to parents and caregivers across Canada. It is not designed, however to be an all-encompassing practical guide to infant feeding. The recommendations in this statement are based on available scientific evidence. However, many studies on infant nutrition are not based on randomized trials because they are neither possible nor ethical in many circumstances. In the absence of solid science, accepted practice and its rationale is presented. Throughout the document, we have attempted to clearly distinguish those recommendations based on science versus those based on common practice. A summary of the principles and...
In 1926, Wilson published a book entitled The Care and Feeding of Southern Babies A Guide for Mothers, Nurses, and Baby Welfare Workers in the South. Wilson believed that babies in the southern United States, because of climate and family food habits, required different feeding guidelines than those generally given in the early twentieth century. In his book, Wilson offered instruction on the care and feeding of children from birth until age three, and he included tables of height, weight, and child development, as well as some recipes. Only three hundred copies of this book were published. Wilson suffered from a fatal heart attack on May 10, 1960. see also Beikost Breastfeeding Infant Nutrition.
In this chapter, the issue of appropriateness of a vegetarian diet will be explored by examining the stages of physical growth and development from birth to adulthood. Also, this chapter will review the current literature on vegetarian regimens in children and the impact of these diets on growth and development.
In other words, for a given culture, all the products included in a given list and defined as such by this culture are food. It is through educational conduct, itself inscribed both in the culture and in an affective and relational context from birth, that the child establishes this list. In other words one thus learns what is 'food for me' or 'food for us'.
Optimum nutrition during childhood can encourage formation of thick, acid-resistant enamel. The teeth gradually form and calcify from birth through the teen years, and a generous dietary supply of protein, calcium, fluoride, and vitamins C and D are important. Fluoride, incorporated into the enamel structure, sharply increases resistance of enamel to acid (see Fig. 5.3). Insufficient fluoride leaves teeth vulnerable to tooth decay. Low-level fluoride supplementation has great benefits adding trace amounts of fluoride to the water or salt supply can reduce risk of caries in children by more than two-thirds.9 However, too much can actually impair enamel formation and cause weakened, discolored teeth. In areas where water is fluoridated, supplementation with fluoride mouthwashes or tablets is unnecessary. However, in areas where the fluoride content of the water is very low or nonexistant, supplements are beneficial. The best time to give a fluoride supplement is at bedtime, after...
The developing fetus is very vulnerable to the toxic effects of mercury, lead, cadmium, and nickel, as well as industrial and agricultural chemicals. Small amounts of lead ingested by the mother in food and water can easily cross the placenta. Lead exposure of the fetus increases risk of premature birth. Moreover, the adverse effects of low-level lead exposure in utero can last long afterbirth - irreversibly impairing intellectual and motor development throughout childhood and lowering IQ.1. Exposure to mercury or polychlorinated biphe-nyls (widely used industrial chemicals) can retard fetal growth and cause birth defects.
Epilepsy is a congenital or acquired chronic brain disease . The disease is induced from abnormal discharge in brain cell by factors including (1) incomplete brain development (2) injured brain (such as traumatic brain injury TBI or brain injury during birth) (3) meningitis, encephalitis, and phrenitis (4) stroke (from brain injury or CNS injury), cerebral atrophy, or metabolic brain disease and (5) brain tumor or other diseases . Furthermore, patients may experience seizure when they suddenly stop taking drugs, do not sleep enough, are fatigued, overdrink, are alcoholics, suffer stress from sound or light, have a hormone effect (periods or menses), or are uncomfortable (cold and fever), among others .74
Postpartum depression (PPD) requires assessment in women with AN or BN as this mood disorder is tightly linked to eating disorders 64, 65 . While most studies report an increased incidence of PPD in women with AN or BN 24, 57, 64, 65 , one study reported fewer symptoms of depression in women with treated BN who delivered infants compared to women with treated BN who had not given birth 66 .
Many women in developing countries are often already iron deficient and or anemic before they become pregnant, and thus supplementation has been considered a preventive strategy for all women of reproductive age, especially adolescents who are at greatest risk. Weekly supplementation with the same dose recommended during pregnancy for a 3-month period has been suggested by the WHO. Although there is considerable evidence that treatment of iron deficiency with supplements is efficacious in improving hemoglobin levels during pregnancy, intervention programs have not been very successful. Some of the major problems with the distribution of iron supplements during pregnancy occur both at the level of the provider and consumer 4, 37, 38 . For example, quality of health care services, which include issues related to access, adequate and timely supply of the supplements, problems in the delivery system, poor quality of supplements (packaging, taste, appearance), etc., are some examples of...
Pregnancy And Childbirth
If Pregnancy Is Something That Frightens You, It's Time To Convert Your Fear Into Joy. Ready To Give Birth To A Child? Is The New Status Hitting Your State Of Mind? Are You Still Scared To Undergo All The Pain That Your Best Friend Underwent Just A Few Days Back? Not Convinced With The Answers Given By The Experts?