How to stop cats spraying in the house

Cat Spray No More

Cat Spraying no more is a product that will guide the users on the way to prevent the various mess made by their cats. It is true that a cat that pees in the house can make their home smell like a litter box; it can be upsetting and stressful for the users and can become incredibly expensive if the users are forced to continually clean carpets and floors, or replace furniture. However, Cat Spraying No More is one that will help in the reduction of these problems because it will point the users towards the right things to do and what not to do as regards their cats. This product will stop their cat peeing and spraying outside the litter box for good. This professionally created and proven system will work whether their cat has just started peeing where they should not or if they've been doing it for years. This product is a cheap one that can be learnt by anyone. It comes with certain bonuses that will change the way the users see things as regards cat. They are Cat Training Bible, 101 Recipes for a Healthy Cat, The Cat Care Blueprint, Pet Medical Recorder Software. Continue reading...

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Cat Spray Stop

Susan Westinghouse is the creator of the cat spray stop program. She is an avid veterinarian and cat expert with lots of years of experience. She claims that the guide offers a broad outline and precise approaches targeted at preventing your cat from spraying, despite your cat's stubborn or persistent personality. According to her, it contains the exclusive TTS Taste, Touch, Smell method for pinning the issue, therefore the guide works to stop the cat from spraying and discourages him to ever repeat the bad behavior in the future. It is an e-book that comes with two bonuses attached to it. The first bonus is a nutritional program that will help your cat lose unnecessary weight, while the second bonus is an essential oil recipe for cats that will help to reduce their stress level. This program is suitable for any owner who lives with a cat that has bad litter box habits and often sprays. Susane Westinghouse's guide is characterized by ease of use and it contains a ton of helpful tips that make the process a lot easier both for you and your furry companion. The program is spread across six chapters that take you through a comprehensive tour in how you can solve this annoying problem now, while also learning how to keep it from coming back to haunt you later on in the future. Continue reading...

Cat Spray Stop Summary

Contents: Ebook
Author: Susan Westinghouse
Price: $37.00

Amino Acid Losses from the Urinary Tract of Cats and Dogs

Quantitative data on the losses of protein and amino acids through the urinary tract in adult cats and dogs are limited. In healthy adult dogs, 24 h urinary protein excretions of 4.8, 8.2 and 13.9 mg kg-1 body weight have been reported (DiBartola et ai, 1980 Biewenga et ai, 1982 White et ai, 1984). Similar values have been reported by Monroe et al. (1989) who found that entire male cats excreted on average 8.7 mg protein kg-1 body weight day-1 whereas entire female cats excrete significantly more (16.6 mg kg-1 day-1). Lower values of 4.9 mg kg-1 day-1 were found by Adams et al. (1992) in adult cats White Russo et ai (1986) reported a value of 17.4 mg-1 day-1 and found no significant differences between male and female cats. Hendriks et al. (1997a) determined the endogenous content of several urinary nitrogen fractions in adult cats fed a protein-free diet and by regression to zero dietary nitrogen intake, and found undetermined nitrogen (total N-urea N-creatinine N-ammonia N)...

Amino Acid Losses from the Gastrointestinal Tract of Cats and Dogs

During the digestion of food, large quantities of protein-containing endogenous material are actively and passively secreted into the lumen of the digestive tract. Among these are digestive enzymes, mucus, bile acids, desquamated cells, serum albumin, urea and amines (Fauconneau and Michel, 1970 Snook, 1973). Much of the endogenous material excreted into the gastrointestinal tract is digested and re-absorbed, although some remains unabsorbed and is lost from the body via excretion in the faeces. These losses are not constant but depend on the diet consumed by the animal. A well-researched example of this is the dietary taurine requirement in growing cats. Hickman et al. (1992) showed that heat-processing of a canned cat food will result in a greater loss of taurine from the small intestine than the same food but unprocessed. The difference is caused by the re-absorption of taurine in bile acids by the enterohepatic circulation being dependent on dietary components in particular the...

Amino Acid Composition of Hair and Quantitative Hair Loss in Adult Cats and Dogs

Amino acids are constantly lost from the body in the form of hair. As cat and dog hair is mainly composed of amino acids (Table 22.3), the contribution of hair loss to the overall amino acid requirements may be significant. Hair proteins contain high levels of cysteine and the amount of cysteine required for hair growth may constitute a significant proportion of the total sulphur amino acid requirements of adult cats and dogs, especially for those breeds with a relatively dense and long hair coat (e.g. Persian, Longhaired Scottish Fold, Pekinese and Collie). The effect of hair colour will most likely not effect requirements as the amino acid composition of different coloured (black, white, grey and ginger) hair from cats has been found to be not significantly different (Hendriks et al., 1998b). However, coat colour and in particular the colour black was recently shown to be dependent on the level of aromatic amino acid intake in kittens (Yu et al., 2001). The replacement of hair in...

Irreducible Oxidation of Body Amino Acids Associated with Body Protein Turnover

Measurements of the loss of body amino acids originating from amino acid catabolism in vivo have been made by measuring endogenous urinary nitrogen excretion in animals fed a protein-free diet (Calloway and Margen, 1971 Yokogoshi et al., 1977 Kendall et al., 1982 Meyer et al., 1989). Estimates of endogenous urinary nitrogen (EUN) excretion in adult dogs using a protein-free diet have been determined in a number of studies (Table 22.5). The estimates shown in Table 22.5 are remarkably consistent between studies and show that EUN excretion in adult dogs fed a proteinfree diet is approximately 208 mg kg-0-75 day-1. Kendall et al. (1982) also measured endogenous urinary urea nitrogen (EUUN) excretion in adult dogs fed a protein-free diet. These authors reported an EUN and EUUN excretion of 210 and 108 mg kg-0-75 day-1, respectively. Meyer et al. (1989) found similar values of 186 and 113 mg kg-0-75 day-1. Using the regression to zero protein intake approach, the latter authors found...

Maintenance Amino Acid Requirements

Maintenance amino acid requirements arise from a number of physiological functions within the body which use amino acids. Maintenance amino acid requirements in adult cats and dogs include the need to replace amino acids lost from the gastrointestinal tract, integument and epidermis, those lost through the urinary tract, amino acids irreversibly modified, and those used to synthesize physiologically important non-protein compounds such as hormones, neurotransmitters and other metabolically important products (Fuller, 1994). In addition, irreducible oxidation of body amino acids associated with the turnover of body protein is an important component making up the maintenance amino acid requirements of cats and dogs. The following will provide quantitative information on the losses of amino acids through a number of the above-mentioned routes in adult cats and dogs.

Classification According to Essentiality

Nutritional essentiality is characteristic of the species, not the nutrient. Arginine is required by cats and birds but not by humans. Also, it is not synthesized by the young of most species in amounts sufficient for rapid growth. It may, therefore, be either dispensable or indispensable depending on the species and stage of growth. Ascorbic acid (vitamin C), which is required by humans and guinea pigs, is not required by most species.

Comparative Amino Acid Requirements

There are metabolic differences between species that necessitate higher requirements for certain amino acids to support maximal growth, thus their designation as conditionally essential. One species difference relates to the expression of enzymes of the ornithine-urea cycle. This cycle serves to dispose of excess ammonia, and it also plays a critical role in the synthesis of the glutamate family of amino acids (proline, arginine, citrulline, ornithine), in particular arginine, which can be degraded to form urea and ornithine. The high activity of arginase in the liver of rapidly growing animals coupled with the low rate of intestinal arginine synthesis, limits arginine for protein synthesis (Wu et ai, 1997). Arginine is required in cat diets because they lack the enzymes to synthesize arginine and ornithine, plus they have a limited ability to convert glutamate into ornithine (Chapter 22). In the absence of these precursors, cats become comatose due to the build up of toxic ammonia....

ATMethylhistidine methylhistidine

3-Methylhistidine is a normal constituent of chains of actin and myosin and is formed by post-translational donation of a methionine methyl group to actin and myosin histidine. After degradation of these proteins, the liberated methylated histidine (3-methylhisti-dine) is not reused but quantitatively excreted in the urine of animals. As such, 3-methylhistidine has been used as a method to continuously monitor the breakdown of myofibrillar proteins in muscle (Young and Munro, 1978 Ward and Buttery, 1980 McCarthy et al., 1983). The amount of 3-methylhistidine excreted by an animal is dependent on the myofibrillar protein catabolic rate. Few quantitative data are available on 3-methylhistidine excretion and factors affecting myofibrillar protein catabo-lism in adult cats and dogs. Marks et al. (1996) showed that 3-methylhistine can be used to measure skeletal muscle protein losses or gains based on the quantitative recovery of intravenously administered 3- 14C methylhistidine. The...

Essential amino acids

The cat is unique among mammals in its requirement for arginine as an essential component of the diet. Indeed, Morris and Rogers (1978) observed that one meal without arginine was sufficient to precipitate mortality in cats. Other effects included emesis, tetanic spasms and hyperammonaemia. It was concluded that the inability of the cat to synthesize ornithine is the basis of the dietary need for arginine. The cat also has a specific requirement for taurine which is directly related to its role in the prevention of retinal degeneration. Arginine (cats, poultry, fish) Taurine (cats)

As mentioned in Lesson The Sunfood Diet Lesson Food And Karma and Appendix

Every natural species can tolerate a vast amount of improper food (fuel). That is why dogs, mice, rats, cats, birds, etc. can tolerate large volumes of denatured, dead, and improper food even though they have never seen these types of foods in their genetic history. The cells and tissues composing the anatomy of these organisms always display an amazing degree of resilience, elasticity, and buoyancy. However, every living organism can adapt itself up to a certain point only, and beyond that point follows illness and degenerative disease. And every adaptation along the way occurs at the expense of a repression of the body's functions of elimination - each adaptation has its price. Professor Hilton Hotema termed this the Law of Vital Adjustment, and later specified it as really the Law of Vital Reduction. This is how the body builds up a tolerance to food and air pollution the body's eliminative functions must first be weakened before it will submit to inimical foods and environments.

Taurine and Immune Function

The possibility that taurine might have immunomodulatory properties was indicated in studies in obligate carnivores, such as cats, in which taurine is an essential nutrient, due to an inability to synthesize the compound. Premature infants have similar metabolic difficulties. In cats deprived of taurine, substantial impairment of immune function occurs (Grimble, 1994). A large decline in lymphocytes, an increase in mononuclear cells and a decrease in the ability of these cells to produce a 'respiratory burst' and to phagocytose bacteria occur. There was a rise in gamma globulin concentrations in deficient animals. Spleen and lymph nodes showed regression of follicular centres and depletion of mature and immature B lymphocyte numbers. The changes were reversed by inclusion of taurine in the diets. Studies in other species have also reported effects of supplementation on immune system and function. In mice, administration of taurine prevented the decline in T-cell number that occurs...

Biosynthesis of Amino Acids and Nutritional Classifications

The title of this book now reflects the fact that, in addition to traditional farm animal species, additional chapters have been included to address the amino acid nutrition of cats and fishes. In light of this, it is necessary to revisit the classification of amino acids in the context of the physiological state of each species in question, the productive and health management goals and how this influences our nutritional decisions (see Chapter 1). There are 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins, and all of these are incorporated into proteins as the L-isomer. As nutritionists, we use the terms essential and indispensable, and non-essential and dispensable, interchangeably. An important qualifier here is that these categories were initially established for growth, indeed rapid growth. For growing mammals, birds and fishes, the essential amino acids 'required' in the diet will be dominated by the composition of the proteins accreted (e.g. skeletal proteins in growing...

Creatine

Maintaining low adenosine diphosphate concentrations at locations where energy is utilized. Creatine is synthesized from the amino acids arginine and glycine in the kidney and the liver (see Fig. 4.8). Creatine degrades in vivo to creatinine which is not used by the animal and is rapidly excreted in the urine. The irreversible conversion of creatine into creatinine occurs spontaneously and at a relatively constant rate. As such, creatinine is often used to validate quantitative urine collection in animals and humans although the suitability of creatinine for the validation of quantitative urine collection in humans has been questioned (Knuiman et al., 1986). Quantitative data on endogenous creatine and creatinine excretion in the urine of adult cats and dogs are scarce as many studies used creatinine-containing diets. Sagawa et al. (1995) showed that creatinine is absorbed by the intestine and excreted in the urine of adult cats. In adult dogs, Hoppe et al. (1993) reported a daily...

Conclusions

This contribution presents quantitative information on amino acids required for key physiological processes in the body of adult cats and dogs which collectively give rise to the maintenance requirements in these species. Much of the information required to construct a factorial model to generate specific maintenance amino acid requirements for these two species is available in the literature. Gut endogenous amino acid losses in adult cats and dogs are well characterized although the influence of dietary factors on these losses needs further investigation. Amino acids lost through the continual shedding of hair have been characterized in both species although further quantitative information is required especially in adult dogs. In addi tion, it remains to be established whether there is a difference in the anagen phase between long-haired and short-haired canine and feline breeds or, as the data suggest in dogs, the difference lies in the length of the telogen phase of the follicle...

Taste Receptors

In earlier attempts to explain amino acid imbalance and toxicity (Chapter 7), the effect on taste receptors has consistently been rejected as one of the mechanisms. This dismissal persisted even by authors demonstrating food intake reductions within 3-6 h of feeding an unbalanced diet to both laboratory animals and chicks. However, Forbes (2000) maintains that animals do display specific appetites for lysine, methionine and other nutrients. It is possible that selection might involve taste receptors. In this respect, the findings of Nelson et al. (2002) concerning an amino acid taste receptor might be relevant. They demonstrated the existence of specific receptors able to function as L-amino acid sensors with the capacity to respond to most of the 20 standard amino acids but not to their D-isomers or to other compounds. There is a need to re-evaluate current concepts of taste sensation in animals to underpin work on feed intake enhancers. Amino acids play an important role in the...

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The response to theobromine, as measured by behavioural measures, is less than that to caffeine. In fact, based on studies with animals, some have concluded that it is behaviourally inert (6668). However, others have reported a modest impact on the behaviour of mice (69), rats (70) and cats (71), although earlier reviews found no evidence that theobromine has a behavioural influence in humans (72, 73).

Felinine

Felinine acid) is a sulphur-containing amino acid present in the urine of certain members of the Felidae family including the domestic cat. Discovered by Datta and Harris (1951), 24 h felinine excretion levels of entire male cats have been reported to be 25 mg kg-1 body weight whereas castrated male, entire female and spayed female cats excrete 8.5, 7.5 and 4.1 mg kg-1 body weight (Hendriks et al., 1995). Precursors of felinine synthesis were recently shown to include cysteine and methionine with cysteine being a more immediate precursor for felinine synthesis than methionine (Hendriks et al., 2001). It has been hypothesized since the discovery of felinine that this amino acid is present in the blood of cats at extremely low levels or synthesized in the kidney and directly excreted in the urine. Recently however, Rutherfurd et al. (2001) identified a felinine containing tripeptide (7-glutamylfelinyl-glycine) in the blood of domestic cats, opening the possibility that felinine...

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