Food First Supplements Second

Vitamins and minerals are referred to as micronutrients, because we need them in tiny or micro amounts in our diet compared to macronutrients, which are proteins, carbohydrates, and fats, which are needed in larger or macro quantities in our diet. Although we don't require gobs of vitamins and minerals, thirty-five of them (thirteen vitamins and twenty-two minerals) are considered essential for life. However, new bioactive substances are constantly being isolated, and most nutritionists believe...

Vitamin and Minerals at a Glance

Fat-soluble vitamins include A, D, E, and K, while vitamin C and the B vitamins are water-soluble. We need only tiny amounts of vitamins in our diet. In fact, in a year, you need less than a pound of vitamins compared to the two thousand pounds of food we eat. But even they are essential for life, as our bodies cannot manufacture vitamins and minerals. Most vitamins play some role in muscle contractions or the ability to convert food into energy and in energy metabolism. Several B vitamins are...

Tools to Test if You Are Overly Fat or Underweight

Sports dietitians have many ways to assess body fat, but also there are several ways to gauge how lean you are on your own. You may remember the old height and weight tables, which have pretty much fallen by the wayside. Now, the new gold standard used by public health officials is the body mass index (BMI calculator). The body mass index is correlated to body fat in most normal-weight individuals but is not the best for extremely fit athletes. However, because it does not directly measure fat...

Saturated Fats vs Unsaturated Fats

The more saturated a fat is, the more hydrogen molecules it has attached to its carbon chain and the more likely it is to clog arteries. Mono-unsaturated and polyunsaturated fats have fewer hydrogen and are less likely to trigger the process that creates plaque in arteries that impedes blood flow leading to cardiovascular disease, heart attack, and stroke. Monounsaturated fat (monos) and polyunsaturated fats (polys) are considered the good fats. At the other end of the fat spectrum are...

Fat Adaptation

So what about the effects of the high-fat intake associated with a diet such as the Atkins A recent study looked at the effects of fat adaptation, which is essentially a type of fat loading similar to the high-fat intakes of Atkins-like diets. Some athletes try fat adaptation to reduce glycogen use and increase fat burn during exercise, with the goal of enhancing and extending their speed and endurance. The results, reported in International Sports Medicine, suggest that even when athletes...

Index

Adenosine triphosphate ATP , 164-165 adequate intake AI , 171 advertising, for dietary supplements, 140-141 alcohol, 12, 34, 113-114 a-linolenic acid ALA . See omega-3 fatty acids Almond Butter Pancakes with Blueberries recipe , 132-133 American College of Sports Medicine ACSM , 53, 78, 93, 98, 116 American Dietetic Association ADA , 2, 93 American Heart Association AHA , 83 American Medical Athletic Association, 133 Amgen Tour of California 2007 , 121-122 amino acids, 59-60 creatine, 147-149...

Selected Readings

Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 6th ed., Home and Garden Bulletin No. 232. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 2005. Drewnoski A. Concept of a Nutritious Food Toward a Nutrient Density Score. Am J Clin Nutr 2005 82 721-732. Economos CD, Bortz SS, Nelson ME. Nutritional practices of elite athletes. Practical recommendation. Sports Med 1993 16 6 381-399. Fogli-Cawely JJ, Dwyer JT, Saltzman E et al. The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans Adherence Index development and...