Breast Cancer Survivors

Chemo Secrets From a Breast Cancer Survivor

Undergoing chemotherapy can be one of the most terrifying things that you go through in your life. One of the most frightening things about chemotherapy is the lack of real information that most people have about it, and the unknown makes it so much more frightening as a result. This eBook, written by a young cancer survivor gives you the real story about what chemo is all about. The most valuable information you can get about chemotherapy is from someone that has already experienced it. This PDF eBook allows you to download and read it as soon as your order it. You can begin your journey of reassurance as soon as you want! Because that's what this is about: chemo does not have to be a terrifying unknown! Other people have gone through it before, and want to help you through it as well! This eBook is the guide through chemo that many people wish they could have had, and now you can have it yourself! Read more...

Chemo Secrets From a Breast Cancer Survivor Summary

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Mammographic Density and Breast Cancer

Epithelium and stromal tissues that are strongly related to risk of breast cancer appear radiologically dense, whereas fat appears radiologically lucent.93 The proportion of the mammographic image occupied by radiologically dense tissue is a composite measure of breast tissue composition. At present, the role of mammographic density in breast cancer etiology is not clear.94 However, it has been established that mammographic density is an independent predictor of breast cancer risk, with associated relative risks between 4 and 6 for the highest vs. the lowest quartile of mammographic density. Evidence suggests that the magnitude of the increase in breast cancer risk is greater than that associated with nearly all other breast cancer risk factors after adjustment for age, body mass index (BMI), age at menarche, breast cancer family history, parity, menopausal status, and HRT use.93,95

Breast Cancer Do Food Choices Make a Difference

Breast cancer it's a common fear for good reason. Breast cancer is the most common cancer among North American women, striking nearly two hundred thousand women annually. It's the second most common cause of cancer death for women, killing nearly fifty thousand women a year. All women are vulnerable to breast cancer-eventually. What's your risk Among the probable risk factors family history of breast cancer, early menstruation, late menopause (after age fifty-five), older-age pregnancy of a first child, some forms of benign breast disease, obesity after menopause, ovarian and endometrial cancer, exposure to ionizing radiation, and simply getting older. The causes of breast cancer aren't understood. Yet, healthful eating and lifestyles, maintaining healthy weight throughout life, being physically active, and reducing alcoholic-beverage consumption may help protect you from breast lesions and cancer. Are you a pear or an apple The place where extra pounds of body fat settle on your body...

Micronutrients Breast Cancer

To reduce the chances of developing breast cancer To reduce the chances of developing breast cancer Higher intakes can sharplyre-duce risk of breast cancer41 Fig. 5.30 Vitamin C intake and risk of breast cancer. In 12 studies of diet and breast cancer, vitamin C intake had the most consistent and significant inverse association with breast cancer risk. The risk was nearly one-third lower with the highest intakes of vitamin C, compared with lower intakes. The mean intake of the lowest quintile was the current recommended dietary allowance for vitamin C. (Adapted from Howe GR, et al. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1990 82 561)

Breast Cancer

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. About one in ten women will develop the disease, many at a young age (about one-third of cases occur in women below 50 years). High levels of estrogens in the body are thought to be a contributing factor in many cases of breast cancer. There is a strong hereditary component a woman whose mother or sister develops breast cancer has about twice the normal risk. Dietary changes and nutritional supplementation in women at increased risk may significantly reduce the chance of developing breast cancer.

Diet Breast Cancer

High intakes of saturated fat may increase risk of breast cancer, whereas intake of monoun-saturated fats (such as in olive oil and avocados) reduces the risk.34,35 Higher intakes of dietary fiber (> 25-30 g day) may also help protect against breast cancer.36,37 Regular consumption of vegetables, particularly cabbages, brocolli, and cauliflower, reduces estrogen activity in the body and risk of breast cancer.35 Foods rich in isoflavonoids, such as soy products like tofu and soy milk, are also protective. It is important for women to maintain a normal weight women who are overweight are much more likely to develop breast cancer. Alcohol should be consumed only in moderation. Women who drink more than 2-3 drinks per day increase their chances of developing breast cancer by about 50 .38,39 Heavy, chronic alcohol intake nearly triples the risk.

Descriptive Epidemiology

Women in the U.S., New Zealand, the European Union, Israel, Canada, Australia, and Uruguay have breast cancer incidence rates that rank as the highest in the world.5 Among women living in the U.S., breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Projections for 2004 show an expected 215,990 new cases of invasive breast cancer, representing 32 of all new cancer diagnoses, and 40,110 breast cancer-related deaths, accounting for 15 of cancer-related mortality.6 Breast cancer incidence has increased over the past 30 years in the U.S.6 This trend is thought to reflect increased diagnosis due to mammographic screening,7 and perhaps also to secular trends in the prevalence of obesity and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use by postmenopausal women.8 Over the same period, breast cancer mortality rates have declined, reflecting earlier breast cancer detection and treatment, and improvements in breast cancer therapies.9 The risk of...

Have You Ever Wondered 116

. . . how to protect against breast cancer Scientists don't yet know, but the question is under investigation. Until we learn more, the best advice is to engage in moderate to vigorous physical activity 45 to 60 minutes five or more days per week to minimize lifetime weight gain through the combination of caloric restriction and regular physical activity and to avoid or limit intake of alcoholic beverages. Men can develop breast cancer, too. See Breast Cancer Do Food Choices Make a Difference in chapter 17. Caution talk to your doctor about any alternative or complementary therapies, such as herbal products, vitamins, or minerals, before you try them to relieve symptoms or to promote the quality of your life. Although some are safe and harmless, others can interfere with the effects of radiation or chemotherapy, or with your recovery from surgery. Some may have harmful side effects. Chemotherapy. Chemotherapy uses oral or injected medications to stop or slow the progress of cancer...

Soy Isoflavones and Breast or Prostate Cancer Risk

Several case-control studies and one cohort study have reported on the relationship between soy intake (or indirect measures of intake) and breast cancer risk. These studies are summarized in Table 4.4. In a study in Singapore involving 200 breast cancer cases, breast cancer risk was reduced approximately 60 among women in the highest quintile of soy consumption, compared with those in the lowest quintile of soy consump-tion.39 However, this relationship was observed only in premenopausal women. In a larger hospital-based study in Japan, those women consuming soy three or more times per week had approximately 20 lower risk of Table 4.4 Summary of Epidemiologic Studies of Soy Tofu Intake and Breast Cancer Risk Table 4.4 Summary of Epidemiologic Studies of Soy Tofu Intake and Breast Cancer Risk breast cancer than those women who consumed soy less frequently. Again, the findings of a protective relationship were restricted to premenopausal women only.40 Two studies in China (one in...

Inhibition of Angiogenesis

We have studied green tea and its catechin components, including EGCG, for their antiangiogenic properties. Green tea extract (GTE) as well as its individual catechin components inhibited MDA-MB231 breast cancer cell and human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation. Furthermore, GTE suppressed breast cancer xenograft size and decreased the tumor vessel density in vivo.44 GTE or EGCG also decreased levels of VEGF peptide secreted into conditioned media in HUVEC and MDA-MB231 human breast cancer cells and decreased RNA levels of VEGF in the cancer cells. This inhibition occurred at the transcriptional level and was accompanied by a significant decrease in VEGF promoter activity.45

Enhancing flavor and aroma

As a result, many nutritionists warn against eating the crisp, crinkly, absolutely yummy browned top layer of foods, especially burned meats, which in 1998 were tentatively linked to a higher risk of breast cancer in women. Of course, the theory has yet to be proven, and as is true with so much in modern nutrition, the story may be more complicated than it seems at first glance.

Rationale for the Use of Soy Phytoestrogens for Neuroprotection

The purpose of this chapter is to stimulate thinking, not just about the potential benefits of the soy phytoestrogens in the brain, but also about the larger issue of the role of diet in general in determining late life health. This chapter will discuss experimental approaches taken to address whether soy phytoestrogens, or isoflavones, can have neuroprotective actions in the mammalian brain. The structural similarity between the soy isoflavones and the natural estrogen, 170-estradiol (Figure 8.1), has been the rationale for experiments by many others that have shown that soy isoflavones can have beneficial effects in models of cardiovascular disease (Anthony et al., 1996 Clarkson et al., 1997), breast cancer, and prostate cancer (both

Treatments and Remedies Benefits and Disadvantages of Each

Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) is the often-used medically prescribed treatment for menopausal and postmenopausal women. Although some studies have indicated a decreased risk of CHD and osteoporosis with ERT use, others have indicated it may increase the risk of breast cancer. The Women's Health Initiative, which was designed to study the effects of ERT on the health of elderly women, stopped the ERT part of the research in July 2002. The preliminary result of that study showed the risk of CHD was, in fact, increased in women on ERT. Hormone replacement pills are used by some women to reduce the symptoms of menopause. According to the Women's Health Initiative, women who use a combination of estrogen and the synthetic hormone progestin increase their risk of developing breast cancer and heart disease. Stephen Chernin Getty Images. Reproduced by permission. Hormone replacement pills are used by some women to reduce the symptoms of menopause. According to the Women's Health...

Eating for Detoxification

My colleague Roe Gallo, a fruitarian and natural healer, has a working theory that one should continue on a juice fast cleansing program until all excessive body fat is eliminated. She believes, as do I, that body fat is where most of the body's poisons are stored. In her book Perfect Body she presents testimonies of her clients whom she has helped heal of major illnesses, including breast cancer, through juice fasting.

Whole Grains and Cancer

There is a wide range of protective substances found in whole grains that exert their effect through various mechanisms including antioxidant activity, hormonal effects, binding of carcinogens, and otherwise influencing the environment of the gut in a beneficial fashion.60 A recent review of some 40 case-control studies (involving 20 different types of cancer) found a pooled odds ratio of 0.66 (99 confidence interval 0.60-0.72) for high vs. low whole grain intake.61 Most odds ratios in this review were < 1 for studies of colorectal cancers (or polyps), other gastrointestinal cancers, all hormone-related cancers, and all studies of pancreas cancer. Most of the odds ratios for the various cancer sites that were reviewed were of the order of 0.5 to 0.8, although for both breast and prostate cancer the relationship was not as pronounced. The odds ratios for breast cancer studies was 0.86 and was even higher for the prostate cancer studies reviewed (odds ratio 0.90). Overall, there...

Estrogenlike Actions Of Soy Isoflavones In Models Of Human Chronic Disease

The mechanisms of protection against the cancers do not appear to be identical to those involved in cardioprotection, since the isoflavones only had effects against atherosclerosis when administered in a soy protein matrix (Clarkson et al., 1997), while breast cancer protection was measured with the soy isoflavone genistein, independent of soy protein (Murrill et al., 1996). Thus, these data foreshadowed our complex results, which suggested that the soy isoflavones and physiological estrogen have nonidentical actions in primate brain, although the end results in both cases may be beneficial, and similar behaviorally.

Epidemiologic Studies of Cancer in Vegetarian Societies

An example of such studies was an analysis of cancer mortality (1911-1978) conducted in two groups of British nuns, one of which consumed no meat (n 1769) and one in which meat consumption was limited (n 1044).10 In this study, mortality from colorectal cancer was not lower than the general population in either group even when using mortality rates in single women for comparison. The SMR in the no-meat group was 0.99 for colon and small bowel cancer although esophagus cancer was found in excess in both no-meat and limited-meat intake groups (SMR 1.93 and 2.04, respectively). Breast cancer was somewhat lower in the no-meat group (SMR 0.87) and somewhat higher in the some-meat group (SMR 1.17), although neither finding was statistically significant (Figure 4.1). cancer was found less frequently in the vegetarians as well. When the analysis was restricted to those who had been members of the vegetarian societies for > 5 years or > 15 years, the excess of stomach and breast cancer...

The Relationship between Diet Physical Activity and Cancer

Scientific evidence indicates that physical activity may reduce the risk of certain cancers. This effect may be due to the fact that physical activity is associated with the maintenance of a healthy body weight. Other mechanisms by which physical activity may help to prevent certain cancers may involve both direct and indirect effects. For colon cancer, physical activity accelerates the movement of food through the intestine, thereby reducing the length of time that the bowel lining is exposed to potential carcinogens. For breast cancer, vigorous physical activity may decrease the exposure of breast tissue to circulating estrogen, a hormone that has been implicated in breast cancer. Physical activity may also affect cancers of the colon, breast, and other sites by improving energy metabolism and reducing circulating concentrations of insulin and related growth factors.

Dietary Fiber and Cancer Risk

There are few studies on the relationship between dietary fiber intake and cancer risk for cancers other than colon rectum. Studies on breast cancer show mixed results for fiber,56-58 but a more consistent, protective role for fiber appears evident in regard to pancreas cancer.59

Studies in Seventh Day Adventists

These studies are reviewed below. However, as early as 1958, Wynder and Lemon examined cancer and heart disease in SDA hospital patients compared with non-SDA patients.18 In this early study, based on 564 SDA and 8128 non-SDA patients admitted to eight SDA hospitals throughout the U.S., lower risk of epidermoid lung, mouth, esophagus, larynx, and bladder cancer were found in the SDAs than in the non-SDAs. Colon and rectum cancer, however, were not found less frequently in the SDA than the non-SDA comparison group, while prostate and breast cancer were found somewhat more frequently in the SDA patient series. Interviews with study subjects indicated that only 41 of the SDA patients consumed any meat, whereas 95 of the general population consumed meat. A further follow-up of this population was completed through 1976 and Standardized Mortality Ratios were reported comparing age-adjusted mortality rates in California SDAs to the U.S. white...

A common mistake exercisers make is to set expectations too high or be overwhelmed at the time its g

Get involved in a run, walk, bike to support something that's important to you - breast cancer, AIDS, multiple sclerosis, Make-A-Wish, March Of Dimes, etc. It makes you feel good your hard work now has more meaning and purpose. It also makes you feel grateful that you have a healthy body.

Introduction Cancer Epidemiology

Given these definitions, disease prevalence and incidence rate appear to be related to each other. For a disease under investigation, a certain proportion of the population at risk of developing a specific cancer feeds the prevalence pool of persons affected by the cancer of interest at a specific point in time. The event occurrence (e.g., newly diagnosed breast cancer) influences the disease status at a population level. A small percentage of cancers (5 to 10 ) can be attributed to the inheritance of one or more mutated genes that are carried in germ cells of parent and passed on to an offspring. As a result, all cells of the offspring show the same genetic defect, predisposing the individual to one or more specific cancer. Familial breast, ovarian, and prostatic cancers, linked to breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA-1) and breast cancer susceptibility gene 2 (BRCA-2) gene mutations, and familial adenomatous polyposis predisposing to colon cancer, based on APC gene mutations,...

New Adventist Health Study

*Adjusted for age at entry, age at first pregnancy, age at menarche, menopausal status, history of benign breast disease, maternal history of breast cancer, education and weight. As with the analysis of fatal breast cancer, no strong relationship between consumption of animal products and breast cancer risk emerged from the new incidence study. After controlling for the effects of several covariates known to be associated with breast cancer risk (e.g., age at first menstrual period, age at first full-term pregnancy, and body weight), risks associated with meat intake were negligible. Comparing current use of meat, poultry and fish in those who consumed these products more than three times per week with never users, a non-significant relative risk of 1.33 was found, thus indicating that meat was only weakly associated with breast cancer in this study, if at all.29

Strength of evidence

There is also convincing evidence to indicate that physical activity decreases the risk of colon cancer. Factors which probably increase risk include high dietary intake of preserved meats, salt-preserved foods and salt, and very hot (thermally) drinks and food. Probable protective factors are consumption of fruits and vegetables, and physical activity (for breast cancer). After tobacco, overweight and obesity appear to be the most important known avoidable causes of cancer. Breast cancer. Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in the world and the most common cancer among women. Incidence rates are about five times higher in industrialized countries than in less developed countries and Japan (11). Much of this international variation is a result of differences in established reproductive risk factors such as age at menarche, parity and age at births, and breastfeeding (43, 44), but differences in dietary habits and physical activity may also contribute. In fact, age at...

Vitamin A And Cancer In Experimental Animals

Retinyl acetate, fed in rather high amounts (250 to 750 nmol g food) to rats also has a chemopreventive effect with respect to mammary tumors induced by chemical carcinogens including BP, DMBA, and MNU.22 However, retinyl acetate causes hepatoxicity at effective doses. Fortunately, the synthetic retinoid N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (fenretinide) also is effective, and tends to concentrate in the breast.26 Curiously, dietary 13-ds-RA is not an effective chemopreventive of MNU-induced breast cancer. These results illustrate two issues concerning retinoids as chemopreventives (1) doses compounds effective against cancer in one tissue may have toxic effects in other tissues (2) chemopreventive activity in test systems in vitro often does not predict actions in the intact mammal. Obviously, the pharmacology of a retinoid (tissue distribution, metabolism rate, etc.) has great impact on its chemopreventive action and toxicity in vivo. The conclusion that specific retinoids act on cancer of...

Other nutritional changes Antinutrients

Extrusion decreased the aglycone (genistein) of okara, a tofu by-product, mixed with wheat flour (Rinaldi et al, 2000). Glucosides of daidzin and genistin increased, but acetyl and malonyl forms decreased in the mixtures. Total isoflavone values were reduced in 40 okara samples extruded at high-temperature. Aglycones did not change in extruded corn-soy blends, but they were less effective in preventing proliferation of breast cancer cells in vitro (Singletary et al, 2000).

Fruits And Vegetables A Population Studies

The protective effect of vegetables has also been observed for hormone-related cancers, such as breast cancer. A recently published case control study found a strong inverse association between total vegetable intake and breast cancer risk in premenopausal women.8 A risk reduction of 54 was seen in women with the highest intake of vegetables compared with those with the lowest intake. The protective effect appeared to be due to the synergistic effect of a variety of substances in the vegetables. A Greek study also noted that vegetable and fruit consumption was independently associated with significant reductions in the incidence of breast cancer.9 Women consuming four to five servings of vegetables per day had a 46 lower risk of breast cancer, compared with women consuming less than two servings a day. Furthermore, women consuming six servings of fruit a day had a 35 lower risk of breast cancer than women consuming less than two servings a day. In preliminary studies, the stilbene,...

Analysis Interpretation

Of the 145 SMRs or relative risks that were less than 100, 39 were deemed to be statistically significant (i.e., not due to chance). These figures varied when evaluating specific cancer sites, however. For colon cancer, out of a total of 20 studies, 19 (95 ) reported an SMR RR less than 100 (or 1.0). Six of these were statistically significant. For the other cancer sites evaluated, this figure was lower. For prostate cancer, only 55 of the SMRs reviewed were < 100 (none significantly so) while for breast cancer 67 were < 100, of which one was significantly less than 100 and two were significantly greater than 100. Table 4.3 summarizes the percent of SMRs and or RRs less than the null value for all cancer sites combined as well as for colon, prostate, breast, lung, stomach, pancreas and ovarian cancer as well as for the lymphatic hematopoietic cancers. When within-group comparisons are evaluated where dietary variation exists (e.g., within the SDA populations), several patterns...

Alternative Explanations for Low Cancer Risk in Vegetarians

Data have suggested that colon cancer may be associated with cigarette smoking (but only after a long latency period).64-65 The more relevant question today may be which cancer sites are not associated with tobacco the list appears to be quite short and currently includes prostate, endometrium, and breast cancer.

Apoptosis in Response to DNA Damage

The binding of p53 to DNA occurs by both sequence-specific and non-sequence-specific mechanisms, and is highly dependent upon the reduction state of the molecule since the binding involves a zinc finger and a further seven cysteine residues (Liu and Kulesz-Martin, 2001). Evidence is accumulating that signals from both oxidative stress pathways and DNA strand breaks are integrated by p53 (Liu and Kulesz-Martin, 2001), enhancing its central role in protecting the genome from diet-induced and other forms of damage. It is possible that the familial breast cancer genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 are also involved in the damage checkpoint at G1-S (Strachan and Read, 1999). Evidence is accumulating (Hickman and Samson, 1999) that chemicals that alkylate DNA resulting in the formation of O6-alkylguanine adducts initiate apoptosis using signals from the MutSa branch of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) pathway and may be independent of the p53 status of the cell. Fishel (2001) has proposed that these MMR...

Enhancement of Apoptosis

Tumor growth is thought to require activation of telomerase, making it a target for chemoprevention.39 Retinoids induce senescence in malignant and pre-malignant human and rat breast carcinoma cells, in vitro and in vivo.40 Retinoids also synergize with vitamin D in inhibiting telomerase. The combination of vitamin D3 and 9-cis-retinoic acid inhibited telomerase activity through direct interaction of the heterodimer of the vitamin D3 receptor and retinoid X receptor (RXR) in prostate cancer cells.41 Other nutritional factors, including EGCG and curcumin, also regulate telomerase activity. In nude mice models bearing both telomerase-dependent and -independent xenograft tumors cloned from a single human cancer progeny, only the telomerase-dependent tumors responded to prolonged oral administration of EGCG.42 Furthermore, curcumin inhibits telomerase activity in MCF-7 breast cancer cells via downregulation of hTERT expression.43

Nuts Seeds And Oils

Polyphenolics.142 Oilseeds, such as sesame seed and especially flax seed, are very rich sources of lignans.65 Plant lignans are converted to mammalian lignans (enterolactone and enterodiol) by bacterial fermentation in the colon.143 The lignan metabolites bear a structural similarity to estrogens and can bind to estrogen receptors and inhibit the growth of estrogen-stimulated breast cancer.144

The Menopausal Transition

Menopause signals the end of child-bearing capacity, and is also associated with changes in susceptibility to various chronic diseases, including breast cancer, heart disease, and osteoporosis.66 Differences in age at menopause between vegetarian and omnivorous women, should they exist, could be associated with differences in chronic disease patterns between these groups. Furthermore, some women experience unpleasant symptoms during menopause (vasomotor symptoms such as night sweats and hot flushes, mood swings, insomnia, weight gain, headaches, and fatigue),67 and these symptoms have been observed to differ among women in different cultures.67,68 Whether dietary variables contribute to these differences in symptom experiences has not been clearly established, but there is speculation that they could.68-70 Some of these dietary differences may also exist between vegetarian and omnivorous women. Accordingly, after defining and describing the menopausal transition, available research on...

Antioxidantsyour Ace Against Oxygen Rebels

As an antioxidant, beta-carotene is a star performer. Doctors at Harvard Medical School, who have been following twenty-two thousand male physicians as part of a ten-year health study, found that men with a history of cardiac disease who were given beta-carotene supplements every other day suffered half as many heart attacks, strokes, and deaths as those given a placebo. A study is now underway to evaluate forty-five thousand postmenopausal women to determine if the treatment protects women in the same way. Scientists speculate that beta-carotene may help to decrease the impact of toxic radicals on blood lipids like LDL and lipoprotein-a, which are instrumental in the development of heart disease. Special interest has been directed toward the role of beta-carotene in combating cancer. In countries with a diet rich in beta-carotene, incidence of lung, colon, prostate, cervical, and breast cancer is low. That, of course, could be attributed to a number of factors, and there are some...

Amino Acids as Signal Molecules

Protein amino acid availability is an important factor in general nutrition, particularly during development (Morgane et al., 1993), in the progression of a wide range of diseases including diabetes (Hoffer, 1993), Kwashiorkor (Roediger, 1995) and hepatic encephalopathy (Mizock, 1999) and, as discussed below, in certain cases of cancer chemotherapy. Despite these obvious relationships, amino acid control of fundamental cellular processes is a topic about which we know very little in mammalian cells. Nutritional deprivation of intact animals is a necessary but complicated model for mechanistic studies because of the confounding effects of nutrient-induced changes in hormones that may themselves alter the expression of the activity under investigation. Therefore, a number of laboratories have used amino acid deprivation of cultured cells as a useful experimental model and, in so doing, have identified specific mRNAs, proteins and activities that are induced following amino acid...

Use in Prevention and Therapy

Pollution and other environmental hazards. Cysteine and glutathione help protect against toxins and pollutants, including drugs, bacterial toxins, peroxidized fats, heavy metals (lead, cadmium, arsenic, etc.), air pollutants, automobile exhaust fumes, food additives, and pesticides.7 Cysteine helps protect the lungs of smokers from the toxic effects of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, two of the many toxic ingredients in cigarette smoke. Cysteine can be important in cancer chemotherapy, reducing toxicity from agents such as cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin.

Reducing Fatigue During Chemo Treatments

Research suggests that exercise can help reduce fatigue associated with chemotherapy. In fact, people undergoing chemotherapy felt 14 to 35 percent less fatigued on the days they exercised compared to the days they didn't. If you're undergoing chemotherapy, you may want to try the following guidelines Start your exercise regimen before you begin chemotherapy treatments.

Mechanisms Of Complexity In Vitamin A Signaling

To fully appreciate the obstacles in using higher doses of exogenous retinoids in long-term chemotherapy, one must appreciate the complexity of retinoid signaling. First, precise concentrations of RA must be generated from retinol in a temporally and spatially specific manner.12 This process involves not only several steps (retinyl ester hydrolysis, retinol dehydrogenation, retinal dehydrogenation), but multiple enzymes that catalyze each step.13 After generation of RA, autoregulation also contributes to homeostasis through RA induction of degradative enzymes. In addition, multiple retinoid-specific binding proteins control substrate access to enzymes, RA concentrations, and RA access to receptors.1415 As mentioned earlier,

Drugnutrient interactions

Interactions of glutamine supplements with other nutrients and dietary supplements are not known.50 Since glutamine is metabolized to glutamate, which can act as an excitatory neurotransmitter, the potential for antagonizing the anticonvulsant effects of certain epilepsy medications exists. 50 Furthermore, since glutamine is metabolized to ammonia, it can potentially antagonize the antiammonia effects of lactulose.50 Although the aforementioned interactions are theoretically possible, no known adverse effects have been reported with glutamine supplementation. Glutamine supplements, especially the powders, should not be added to hot beverages because heat can destroy the amino acid. Individuals with kidney or liver disease should not take glutamine supplements. It has been suggested that glutamine may increase the effectiveness and reduce the side effects of chemotherapy treatments, therefore making it essential that individuals check with their health care providers before using...

Clinical Trials With Retinoids

Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) shows the most spectacular response to retinoid treatment, consistent with results in the cultured human APL cell line HL60.35 Combined therapy with RA and conventional chemotherapy produces 70 long-term remission.36 A few cases of APL develop resistance to RA therapy. In contrast, although RA alone has spectacular initial effects on patients with the form of APL that involves the t(15,17)-translocation, which produces the fusion protein PML-RARa, many of these patients relapse and become resistant to further RA therapy, for reasons still debated. Disappointingly, in several Phase III clinical trials, fenretinide has not shown broad-based chemoprevention activity against cancer of the sites predicted as responders from studies in models, including breast, bladder, cervix, and head and neck. Two groups have concluded, however, that fenretinide may show an effect in reducing ovarian cancer, as long as treatment is continued, but not after, and possibly...

If Youre Dealing with a Cancer Diagnosis

Safe food handling takes on even more importance since your immune response may not function as well as normal. With a low white blood cell count (common during chemotherapy and radiation) your body may not be able to fight infection or harmful foodborne bacteria effectively. For guidance on food safety, see chapter 12. To deal with side effects of chemotherapy or radiation that affect your ability to eat, try the strategies

Relationship of AS expression to asparaginase therapy of leukaemia

Cancer cells have an increased need for nutrients to sustain rapid growth and cell division, and, therefore, often express higher levels of enzymes involved in the corresponding metabolic pathways. Clinical treatment of certain cancers has been devised to take advantage of this need in instances in which critical enzymes are not expressed at sufficient levels. For example, childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is treated using combination chemotherapy, with L-asparaginase (ASNase) always present as one of the drugs (Capizzi and Holcenberg, 1993 Chabner and Loo, 1996 Chakrabarti and Schuster, 1996 Muller and Boos, 1998). This therapy is highly successful in inducing remission of the disease, but relapse due to drug resistance remains an issue. ASNase catalyses the reverse reaction of AS, and the logic of its therapeutic

Epidemiology and predisposing conditions

In the course of diseases promoting development of opportunistic infections. Transplant recipients are candidates for infectious esophagitis through different mechanisms drug-induced immunosuppression, chemotherapy and neutropenia. Furthermore, whereas bacterial and fungal infections predominate in the early phases following transplantation, when granulocyte number and function are more compromised, the cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection occurs a few months after transplantation when T-cell function is more impaired.

Micronutrients Cancer

Very high doses of vitamins A, C, E, and selenium are potentially beneficial as adjuvants in cancer treatment.20 In addition, high-dose supplements of niacin, vitamin E, and coenzyme Q10 can be beneficial in reducing toxicity of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. These treaments require expertise and should be considered only with an oncologist.

Digestion Bowel Movements and Other Pleasant Topics

Distribution of bacteria in the colon is remarkably stable throughout life, unless something upsets the balance, such as chemotherapy or the use of antibiotics.436 During early infancy, the colon's immune system takes stock of the normal bacterial flora and allows it to remain unharmed. It also neutralizes toxins secreted by certain of the bacteria. However, if this delicate system of tolerance and protection is impaired later in life, disease can result. As we age, a number of disorders can affect digestive health.

Drinking Water For Special Health Needs

Some people are more vulnerable to microbial contaminants such as Cryptosporidium (or crypto), which isn't destroyed by chlorination. More often found in surface water than ground water, crypto may cause nausea, diarrhea, or stomach cramps when healthy people ingest it. For people who are more vulnerable, the symptoms may be more severe and perhaps life-threatening. That includes people with HIV AIDS or other immune system disorders (such as lupus or Crohn's disease), organ transplants, the elderly, children, and those undergoing chemotherapy.

Mass community anthelminthic treatment

A South African randomized trial of 428 schoolchildren with a high prevalence of Trichuris, hookworm and schistosomiasis found that combination treatment with 3 days of albendazole and singledose praziquantel 6-monthly and iron supplementation weekly for 10 weeks reduced worm prevalence and increased hemoglobin levels, but did not improve growth.198 A Kenyan study showed that albendazole was more effective than mebendazole in reducing worm burdens in schoolchildren.199 However, a Tanzanian study of 2294 schoolchildren from a very high prevalence setting showed that single-dose albendazole vs. mebendazole reduced the parasite burden of Ascaris by 97 vs. 97 , of Trichuris by 73 vs. 82 , and of hookworm by 98 vs. 82 , respectively.200 Moreover, the high reinfection rate in this setting meant that the impact of chemotherapy was short-lived, so 4-monthly treatment would be necessary to reduce long-term morbidity.64 In South African school Finally, studies have shown that control of...

Potential contraindications to breastfeeding

Most prescription and over-the-counter drugs are minimally excreted through breast milk and are pharmacokinetically benign to the infant. Illegal drugs of abuse are contra-indicated during breastfeeding (CICH, 1996). Breastfeeding is not advised for infants of mothers who are receiving long-term chemotherapy. Breastfeeding should be temporarily stopped (anywhere from 1 day to 2 weeks depending on the type of isotope used) when radioactive compounds for diagnostic or

The Nutrition Connection

From the time that cancer was first diagnosed (some three hundred to five hundred years ago) to the present, most members of the medical profession have treated this disease using the theory that the tumor is the disease. This theory said that, if you can remove the tumor or destroy the tumor, you will cure the disease. Drs. Krebs, Burk, Nieper, and others said in essence, Wrong These men had seen thousands of cancer patients die. They realized that ninety-five per cent of these patients had their tumors treated with surgery, and or radiation, and or chemotherapy. It was obvious to them that, if removing the tumor or destroying the tumor cured the disease, ninety-five percent of these people would be alive and well. It was, therefore, equally obvious to them that removing the tumor or destroying the tumor did not cure the disease. This meant,

AOhd Analogs In The Treatment Of Cancer

Treatment with EB 1089 was found to block the increase in p21waf1 cip1 levels induced by adriamycin and interfere with induction of MAP kinase activity by ionizing radiation. These effects may be related to the capacity of EB 1089 to promote secretion of insulin-like growth factor binding protein. Similarly, pretreatment with another deltanoid, ILX 23-7553, shifted the dose-response curve for clonogenic survival, increasing sensitivity to adriamycin 2.5-fold and sensitivity to radiation fourfold. Our recent studies demonstrate that EB 1089 delays the accelerated senescence response to fractionated ionizing radiation in the breast tumor cells, promotes cell death in the irradiated cells, and delays proliferative recovery.8287 Taken together these findings indicate that deltanoids sensitize breast tumor cells to certain anticancer treatments. These data support the concept that deltanoids could have utility in combination with conventional chemotherapy or radiotherapy in the treatment...

Metabolism in the healing wound

The gut has received the most attention when evaluating the effects of glutamine supplementation. The importance of circulating glutamine in maintaining gut function and integrity was illustrated in a number of animal studies. In one study, the enzyme glutaminase was infused into several animal species to lower blood glutamine levels to nearly undetectable levels 46 . These animals rapidly developed diarrhea, mild villous atrophy, mucosal ulcerations, and intestinal necrosis. Likewise, Hwang et al. demonstrated that glutamine-enriched parenteral solutions increased jejunal mucosal weight and DNA content and significantly decreased the villous atrophy associated with the use of standard TPN 47 . Others have demonstrated the ability of glutamine-supplemented intravenous or enteral diets to increase villous height and mucosal nitrogen content and stimulate intestinal mucosal growth following starvation 48 . Furthermore, enteral or parenteral glutamine may offer some protection against...

Raw Evolutionary Diets Dont Work In Practice

One has to know, that she had lots of bad stress during that time. She worked a lot, regularly sleeping only 3 hours per day and her husband was in jail at that time, because of charges of working as a doctor without admission. (These were dropped much later). So Mrs. Burger became sicker and sicker and lost a lot of weight. And then she resorted to conventional medicine. She was treated with chemotherapy and artificial food for gaining weight, containing milk products. Probably caused by that she got pneumonia, from which she recovered when she started Instinkto again, but it was too late, she died some days later. This kind of addiction can happen with all kinds of natural foods, but especially easy with meat and other proteins.

Boring Statistics and Exciting Cases

Boring Routine Statistics America

It has been my opinion for some years that it may take as long as six months of nutritional therapy for the defense mechanisms of the body to begin to respond. Thus, I excluded from my study all patients with primary cancer who died within the first six months of treatment. These were patients whose defense mechanisms had been badly damaged or completely destroyed by their disease, the treatment they had received or a combination of both. Almost all of those in this group who were excluded were patients who had rapidly growing tumors in spite of (or perhaps because of) all of the radiation and or chemotherapy they had received. They had been told by their radiologist and or oncologist that their treatments had failed and there was nothing more that could be done. Usually the white blood cells and the body's ability to manufacture white blood cells had been destroyed. The white blood cells are the body's first line of defense against infection and, as mentioned in Chapter Two, are...

Increased Response to Antigrowth Signals and Induction of Differentiation

Most antigrowth signals act on the tumor suppressor proteins, such as Rb. TGF-P acts to prevent the phosphorylation that inactivates Rb, thus blocks advance through G1.26 When hypophosphorylated, Rb sequesters and inhibits E2F transcription factors that control the expression of genes required for progression from G1 to S. Other tumor suppressor proteins include p53 (or TP53), which in the wild-type state suppresses tumor growth by initiating DNA repair and inducing death of irreparable cells. Generally, p53 is maintained at a low concentration, although it can be induced by physical or chemical DNA damage.9 When p53 is mutated or suppressed by Mdm2, an oncogenic protein, proliferation of cells with DNA damage results.23 Studies have shown that function of the p53 pathway is lost in most if not all of human cancers.26 However, many other tumor suppressor genes have been defined and may be definitive for certain types of cancers, such as APC (adenomatous polyposis coli) in colorectal...

Other parasites Hymenolepiasis

Diagnosis is based on finding eggs in the feces, but stool concentration methods and numerous immunological techniques (ELISA, immunoblot-ting) are more sensitive for milder infections. Treatment is with praziquantel 40 mg kg as a single dose. Prevention involves avoidance of water sources containing cercariae and promotion of latrine use. Control programs for schistosomia-sis involve mass chemotherapy, destruction of snails, environmental sanitation, prevention of This nematode was discovered in Costa Rica in 1971 and appears to be mainly confined to Latin America and the Caribbean. The natural host is the cotton rat but adult worms (20 mm long) have been found in the cecum of children with appendicitislike illnesses with eosinophilia. Infection occurs by ingesting infected slugs. Diagnosis before surgery is based upon eosinophilia, radiology or serology, but larvae are not excreted in stool and no chemotherapy is effective.

Inhibition of Cellular Replication

Via Perillyl Alcohol

A comprehensive catalog of bioactive food components has been shown to inhibit cell proliferation in vitro at physiologically relevant doses, although there is specificity in the effects depending on dose, length of treatment, and cell type tested. A prominent example is genistein, an isoflavone and the major phytoestro-gen in soybeans and other legumes. Genistein and other phytoestrogens have a chemical structure reminiscent of 17P-estradiol, can bind the estrogen receptors (ERa and ERP), although with stronger affinity to ERP, and exhibit estrogenlike biological activity.9 Human breast and prostate cancer cell lines stimulated by EGF are inhibited by genistein independently of whether the cells express estrogen or androgen receptors. When all cell culture media are depleted of estrogens, genistein at concentrations < 1 pmol L acts as a growth stimulant to estrogen-dependent breast cancer cells in the presence of 17P-estradiol (0.3 nmol L, a physiological concentration) the effect...

Measuring Nutrigenomic Factors

A number of studies looking at BIA of individuals from young to older ages have shown a general trend toward lower fat-free mass after the age of 50 years.23 A recent study used BIA to assess body composition of 995 acutely or chronically ill patients at hospital admission and found that the fat-free mass was significantly lower, and fat mass significantly higher in the patients, as compared to 995 healthy age and height matched controls.24 A study comparing 131 patients on chronic hemodialysis with 272 age and sex matched healthy controls found that a change in phase angle was the strongest predictor of poor prognosis in the hemodialysis patients. It seemed to be a reliable detector of clinically overt depletion of lean body mass and changes in intracellular electrolyte and fluid bal-ances.25 Another study demonstrated that patients with both overt and subclinical thyroid disease had altered phase angle and bioimpedance values. This study suggests that it may be a useful tool in the...

Protein Differences Between Omnivores And Vegetarians Or Vegans

A varied diet based on plant proteins is adequate, yielding growth and body maintenance results equivalent to a diet based on meat protein.39 The lower incidence of obesity, constipation, lung cancer, hypertension, coronary artery disease, type 2 diabetes, gallstones, reduced risk of breast cancer, diverticular disease, colon cancer, calcium kidney stones, and osteoporosis appear to be obvious advantages particularly of the well balanced vegan diet for the elderly.3,39,40 Key et al.,40 (Table 11.1) show the protective effect of daily fresh fruit intake in ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and lung cancer, and daily raw salad protection for ischemic heart disease. They also presented a higher incidence of breast cancer in the vegetarian women, but the confidence interval was broad. The smokers in their study population demonstrated a higher rate of ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and, of course, lung cancer, to emphasize the disease problems associated...

Types of dtc genetic tests on the market

In a December 2007 report, the UK Human Genetics Commission (2007, Appendix 2) identified 26 companies based in the USA, UK and Europe that advertise and or sell DTC genetic tests. While not an exhaustive count of the number of firms currently operating in this field, the tests provided by these 26 companies reveal the range of health concerns for which testing is available and the variable models by which services are offered. DTC tests assess genetic predisposition for a range of diseases and conditions, including cancer (mainly breast, ovarian, prostate and colorectal cancer), cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, diabetes (type 1 and type 2), obesity, celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, hemochromato-sis, factor V Leiden, thrombophilia, glaucoma, macular degeneration and Alzheimer's disease. They may test for genetic factors that affect lipid, glucose, caffeine, alcohol and pharmaceutical metabolism. Pregnancy and newborn screening tests are also available. Some tests are...

Cruciferous Splendiferous

Indole-3-carbinol, another chemical in the cruciferous family, cuts the risk of breast cancer by triggering enzymes which act to break down estrogen into a harmless form rather than its cancer causing form. How about the licorice root Legally, the extract of licorice root is approved by the FDA only to be used as a sweetener or flavoring. It seems an unlikely place to find health benefits, and conclusive evidence is still pending, but some of the best colon and breast cancer preventatives in lab animals are in licorice root extract. The phytochemical responsible is called glycyrrhizin. This chemical, which is fifty times sweeter than table sugar, is being studied by Japanese researchers for its possible link in bolstering the immune system, cancer prevention, and possibly to counteract HIV. It has anti-inflammatory action that soothes sore throats and ulcers. Licorice-flavored throat lozenges typically do contain true licorice extract, as does black licorice candy, but many candies...

Fermentation Excess and Putrefaction

The typical Western diet, high in fats and meats, and low in fiber, promotes the growth of a particular species of bad bacteria called Bacteroides. This organism secretes an enzyme called beta-glucuronidase, which can metabolize bile acids to form tumor promoters and prevent the proper metabolism of estrogens by deconjugating them. This raises blood estrogen levels, thereby increasing the risk of breast cancer. This enzyme can be reduced by taking calcium D-glucarate, which has been shown to lower breast cancer risk.

Debunking the Debunkers

During this period of time, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) stated that it wanted to run a study to show the difference between patients treated with orthodox therapy (surgery, radiation, chemotherapy) and those treated with nutritional therapy. I was asked to participate in this study. I went to New York to meet with one of the doctors who was conducting the study. I will call him Dr. Enseeye (not his real name, of course). There was a group of perhaps six or seven of us who had dinner that night with Dr. Enseeye. Betty and I were seated next to him. Bill You said that you knew of a patient who had cancer and was treated with Laetrile. You said that the patient died, and this proved that Laetrile was worthless. Hubert Humphrey had cancer and was treated with chemotherapy. He died three months ago. Doesn't that prove that chemotherapy is worthless too But, that's not my question. You also said that a little girl in New York took five Laetrile pills and died from cyanide poisoning....

Endogenous Hormones

The hormone-responsive nature of many breast tumors has led many to hypothesize that endogenous hormones play a causal role in the pathogenesis of this disease. Indeed, this hypothesis has been supported both by animal models and in vitro research, but challenges in epidemiologic study design and implementation have postponed arrival at a consensus regarding even the most strongly implicated hormones, such as estrogens. The Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer conducted a pooled analysis of nine prospective cohort studies that employed careful specimen collection, storage, and analytic procedures to investigate the relationship between sex-steroid hormone levels and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer.36 They examined risk of postmenopausal breast cancer by quintiles of serum hormone levels and found that estrogens and andro-gens were significantly and independently associated with increases in breast cancer risk, with evidence of dose-response relationships. The...

Reproductive Factors

Epidemiologic studies have been consistent in showing early age at menarche as a risk factor for breast cancer. A 5 decrease in breast cancer risk results from each year that menarche is delayed.14 A number of studies have provided evidence that the timing of menarche is associated with levels of endogenous estrogens in later adulthood.15 Early menarche results in early onset of regular ovulatory menstrual cycles,16 and consequently into an extended exposure to reproductive hormones.17 Over the past 100 years, age at menarche has progressively decreased in the U.S. and in most other areas of the world. It is possible that improved nutrition and control of infectious diseases of childhood may have led to lower ages at menarche, and increasing breast cancer incidence over the past century. At the time of menopause, age-specific incidence rates of breast cancer slow markedly, and the rate of increase in the postmenopausal period is only about one sixth the rate of increase in the...

Markers of Risk

In the U.S., 10 to 20 of patients with breast cancer and patients with ovarian cancer have a positive familial history, namely, a first- or second-degree relative with one of these diseases.86 Two major genes associated with susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer BRCA-1 and BRCA-2 have been identified to date.87,88 Mutations in either of these genes confer a lifetime risk of breast cancer of between 60 and 85 and a lifetime risk of ovarian cancer of between 15 and 40 .89 However, mutations in these genes account for only 2 to 3 of all breast cancers.90 Benign breast diseases include a heterogeneous group of diagnoses, which are categorized by their association with breast cancer risk. In particular, prolif-erative lesions without atypia are associated with a 1.5- to 2-fold increase in risk, whereas atypical hyperplasias are associated with a 4-fold to 5-fold increase in breast cancer risk.91 Lesions not expressing either proliferative or hyperplastic features have not been...

Lifestyle Factors

International differences in breast cancer occurrence might be partly explained on the basis of lifestyle factors, such as diet and alcohol consumption. Among the dietary factors, the most of the studies have focused on diet content of fat and fiber. As for micronutrients, phytoestrogens have been largely and still inconclusively investigated. Alcohol consumption has shown a moderate effect on breast cancer risk. The existing evidence about dietary components and alcohol intake in affecting breast cancer risk is discussed in detail further in the following chapters of this manuscript. Numerous epidemiologic studies on the putative association between cigarette smoking and breast cancer have been conducted with mixed results.26 An elegant paper by Band et al.27 isolates the competing effects of cigarette smoking by stratifying smoking study subjects by menopausal status, and, among those who are parous, comparing the time of smoking initiation relative to first pregnancy. In contrast...

Exogenous Hormones

The association between oral contraceptive (OC) use and risk of breast cancer has been controversial. The Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer75 reviewed 54 studies (performed in 26 countries) on the relationship between OC use and risk of breast cancer. The combined studies included a total of 53,297 cases and 100,239 controls. The group concluded that oral contraceptive use conferred a small increase in risk of breast cancer for current OC users (RR 1.24 95 CI 1.15 to 1.33), and a trend for decreasing risk following cessation of use. In women who discontinued OC use within the previous 10 years, the reported pooled result was RR 1.07 (95 CI 1.02 to 1.13) and no evidence of increased risk was reported for women who had discontinued use more than 10 years before.75,76 However, cases were diagnosed in the 1980s, formulations of oral contraceptives (current estrogen dose between 20 to 30 g vs. 100 g in 1960), age at first use, and duration of use have changed greatly...

Early Life Exposures

Among perinatal factors of interest, recent studies have linked high birth weight29 and a negative history of breastfeeding in infancy30 to an increased breast cancer risk, while most of the studies regarding birth rank and maternal age reported little or no association.31 Fetal growth has been positively associated with concentrations of estrogens at the extremes of the corresponding distributions, although evidence for an association throughout the usual range of fetal growth is not clear.32 Recent studies suggest that the role of early life factors in determining breast cancer risk may be more apparent in younger women, but this may be due to better recall in this group.33 Differences in caloric intake, availability of specific nutrients, or possible hormonal and immunologic consequences of having been breastfed have been proposed as possible causes of a decreased breast cancer risk.33-35

Soy and Cancer

There has been much debate and disagreement about soy consumption and its role in breast cancer. Similar in chemical structure to estrogen, isoflavones are in fact, weak estrogens, and they may act as such in the body. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has been shown to increase breast density, a factor in breast-cancer risk (as breast density increases, so does the risk for breast cancer), while recent soy studies have found that soy use in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women did not affect breast density.

Cancer

Intake than the control group developed colon cancer at the same rate as the control.78 As with colon cancer, the study showed similar rates of breast cancer risk in women eating a low-fat diet (8.1 decrease from comparison) and in those without diet modification. The Nurses' Health Study also reported no association between total fat intake or specific types of fat and breast cancer risk.79 In contrast, a higher risk of prostate cancer progression is seen in men with a high fat intake, with fat of animal origin correlating to the highest risk of prostate cancer.80,81 Various clinical, experimental, and epidemiologic studies have suggested that colorectal cancer is related to diets high in total fat, protein, calories, alcohol, and meat, and low in calcium and folate. A literature search on dietary fat and breast cancer risk involving published articles from January 1990 through December 2003 found a positive association between increased total and saturated fat intake and the...

Introduction

For each segment of women's reproductive lives (the pubertal transition, the years between menarche and menopause, and the menopausal transition), the normal physiology and endocrinology will be briefly reviewed. The potential influence of various dietary factors will then be described, and this will be followed by a discussion of the available data comparing vegetarians and omnivores. It should be noted that references to reproductive hormones will relate to reproductive function, per se, rather than to potential links between reproductive hormone levels and chronic diseases (e.g., breast cancer, heart disease, osteoporosis), addressed in other chapters in this volume.

Previous page

Studies in which palpable breast nodules disappeared after women abstained from methylxanthine-containing beverages (96, 97). These studies have been criticized for the lack of long-term follow-up. However, epidemiological findings from a number of other investigations do not support this supposed link (98102) even though at least one case-control study suggested a weak relationship between theobromine consumed in chocolate drinks and candy and a risk of breast cancer (103). In one prospective study, breast nodules spontaneously disappeared regardless of methylxanthine consumption (104). As others have noted, 'waxing and waning' or fluctuation of symptom severity with time is a characteristic feature of fibrocystic breast disease (104), making it difficult to confirm any causal association between elimination of methylxanthines from the diet and disappearance of symptoms. A large case control study sponsored by the US National Cancer Institute showed no association between caffeine...

Cancer Connection

After heart disease, cancer is the second leading cause of illness and death in the United States, currently accounting for one in four deaths. According to 2005 data, cancer will strike about one in three adults. For new cases among men, the incidence of prostate cancer is highest, followed by lung and bronchial cancer, then colorectal cancer. And for women, the prevalence of breast cancer is highest, followed by lung, then colorectal cancer. The overall death rate follows a similar order except that lung cancer for both men and women leaps to the top.

Conclusion

Nesaretnam, K., Stephen, R., Dils, R., and Darbre, P., Tocotrienols inhibit the growth of human breast cancer cells irrespective of estrogen receptor status, Lipids, 1998 33 461-469. Yu, W., Simmons-Menchaca, M., Gapor, A., Sanders, B. G., and Kline, K., Induction of apop-tosis in human breast cancer cells by tocopherols and tocotrienols, Nutr. Cancer, 1999 33 26-32.

Human Studies

In a study of Crohn's disease, a chronic intestinal inflammatory condition, a group of 28 patients was compared to a control group of 23 healthy subjects. In the study, Crohn's disease was found to correlate with statistically lower levels of lutein, zeaxanthin, a-, and P-carotene, but not P-cryptoxanthin (Rumi et al., 2000). In cord blood samples obtained from 96 infants it was observed that P-carotene levels, but not P-cryptoxanthin or retinol, were lowered by maternal smoking (Moji et al., 1995). Among breast cancer patients (n 266) studied in India, lowered levels of

Other molecules

From the pathophysiological point of view, pro-kinetics seems a logical therapeutic approach. However, efficacy data for the whole group of prokinetic drugs are disappointing. Cisapride was shown to have some efficacy in esophageal acid-exposure duration,135 but it is now banned because of cardiac side-effects. Prucalopride, a 5-HT4 agonist, as been suggested has a possible option, but although the drug seems effective in adult constipation,136 its use was prohibited for children because of the extrapyramidal side-effects. Ondansetron is a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist that accelerates gastric emptying, inhibits chemotherapy-induced emesis, but prolongs colonic transit time.137 The most frequently reported adverse events of ondansetron were mild to moderate headache, constipation and diarrhea in patients receiving chemotherapy. Tegaserod is a partial 5-HT4 agonist that has been mostly studied in constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome in adults.138 Tegaserod was shown to...

Bacterial infections

The greatest risk factors for occurrence of bacterial infections of the esophagus are granulocytopenia (as seen in patients undergoing chemotherapy) and hypochlorhydria or acid suppression.42 Despite often being unrecognized, bacterial esophagitis may have significant clinical relevance. Infection is usually polymicrobial and consists mainly of oral and upper respiratory flora (e.g. Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus viridans). It is possible that these organisms invade and colonize esophageal mucosa damaged by gastroesophageal reflux. Clinical presentation includes classical symptoms such as dysphagia, odynophagia and chest pain. Endoscopic pictures are non-specific and consist of ulcerations, discrete plaques, pseudomembranes and mucosal friability. Histology shows bacteria on Gram stain, but culture is not useful, since non-pathological bacteria can grow as well. The clinical course is usually mild and asymptomatic. At histology, features of bacterial...

Infection Control

Parasitic infections such as malaria, hookworm, whipworm, and schistosomiasis can cause or exacerbate anemia, especially when the infection is moderate to heavy, and when women are coinfected with multiple parasites 64 . Helminthes attach to the intestines and or bladder and feed on blood, causing regular host blood loss due to blood loss at the site of helminth attachment, and the blood consumed by the parasite. Parasitic infections can lead to, among other symptoms, anorexia, malabsorption of nutrients, nutrient loss through fecal or urinary blood loss, nausea, diarrhea, and vomiting, which can result in depletion of iron stores and iron-deficiency anemia 65, 66 . Efforts to control and prevent parasitic infections such as the use of bed nets, routine deworming using chemother-apeutic agents, malaria prevention and control, and improved sanitation can help combat anemia (Table 22.6). Specific to pregnant women, it is likely safe to provide deworming therapy after the first trimester...

Tuberculosis

Although malnutrition and vitamin A deficiency seem to be major risk factors for the progression of tuberculosis, clinical management usually involves chemoprophylaxis and chemotherapy alone, rather than any special concern for host nutritional status. Cod-liver oil, a rich source of vitamins A and D, was used as treatment strategy for tuberculosis for over 100 years (Williams and Williams, 1871). The role of nutrition and tuberculosis remains a major area of neglect, despite the promise that micronutrients have shown as therapy for other types of infections and the long record of the use of vitamins A and D for treatment of pulmonary and miliary tuberculosis in both Europe and the USA.

HIV Infection

Although malnutrition and vitamin A deficiency seem to be major risk factors for the progression of tuberculosis, clinical management usually involves chemoprophylaxis and chemotherapy alone. Cod-liver oil, a rich source of vitamins A and D, has been a standard treatment for tuberculosis in the past. The role of nutrition and tuberculosis remains a major area of neglect, despite the promise that micronutrients have shown as therapy for other types of infections and the long record of the use of vitamins A and D for treatment of pulmonary and miliary tuberculosis in both Europe and the United States. High-dose vitamin A supplementation may reduce the morbidity of tuberculosis in children (492). A recent placebo-controlled trial from Indonesia suggests that daily supplements of vitamin A and zinc given to adults with pulmonary tuberculosis improves the lesion area observed on chest radiograph after 2 mo of tuberculosis chemotherapy, but not at 6 mo follow-up (493). Vitamin A and zinc...

Chapter Eight

One Tuesday night about eight o'clock, in late November, 1978, I received a telephone call from Professor Francis Anderson, a professor at the Albany School of Law in Albany, New York. Professor Anderson told me that he was representing an eight-year-old boy, Joey Hofbauer, who had been diagnosed as having Hodgkins Disease (a form of cancer of the lymph nodes). He told me that the Saratoga County Department of Social Services was trying to force the parents to allow the use of chemotherapy in the treatment of his disease. The parents did not want the child to have chemotherapy because they had already begun to have him treated with nutritional therapy. Professor Anderson explained that there was to be a court hearing on the following Thursday. He wanted to know if I would be willing to come to Albany and testify on the boy's behalf. I told him that I would. Joey Hofbauer had been diagnosed as having Hodgkins Disease some months earlier. His doctors said that the only treatment was...

Definitions

Regurgitation may be physiological in healthy, thriving, happy infants. Primary GER results from a primary disorder of function of the upper gastrointestinal tract. In secondary GER, reflux results from dysmotility occurring in systemic disorders such as neurological impairment or systemic sclerosis. It may also result from mechanical factors at play in chronic lung disease or upper airway obstruction, as in chronic tonsillitis. Other causes include systemic or local infections (urinary tract infection, gastroenteritis), food allergy, metabolic disorders, intracranial hypertension and medications such as chemotherapy. In some cases, secondary reflux results from stimulation of the vomiting center by afferent impulses from circulating bacterial toxins, or stimulation from sites such as the eye, olfactory epithelium, labyrinths, pharynx, gastrointestinal and urinary tracts, and testes.3,4 These stimuli usually cause vomiting. The symptoms and signs of primary and secondary reflux are...

Chapter Thirteen

The next is the story about a woman I will call Mrs. H.R. She was 68 years old when I first saw her in July, 1977. Her history was that in 1974 she had her right breast removed because of cancer. Some radiation was done and was followed by 2 years of chemotherapy. Following the chemotherapy, her left breast was removed for precautionary reasons. She was now beginning to develop metastatic skin lesions and wanted to go on nutritional therapy. This woman didn't feel well. She had very little energy to do anything. The third case I want to talk about is that of Mr. R.C. I first saw this 65-year-old man in November, 1976. Two months prior to this he had been found to have cancer of the prostate which had already metastasized to his right ribs. A transurethral resection had been done on the prostate gland. Neither radiation nor chemotherapy had been recommended because, he was told, the disease had already spread too far. He was put on a nutritional program. Mrs. A.B. was an 83-year-old...

Glutamine deficiency

Major surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation. Nutritional support may sometimes fail in preventing loss of lean body mass and in avoiding metabolic disorders, especially in the face of gastrointestinal failure and intolerance to enteral feeding 66 . Parenteral nutrition, therefore, becomes necessary when enteral nutrition is no longer a viable option. Providing nutrition intravenously was initially used as a means to provide the energy, protein, and micronutrients needed to avoid muscle wasting and immune system depression. Efforts are now being made to provide a mix of nutrients that will actually improve immune function in the face of critical illness 67 . There appears to be some evidence to suggest that immunonutrition can, in fact, reduce infectious complications and shorten hospital stays 68 . Although there has been significant investigative effort in this area, there is no full understanding or agreement regarding the optimal mix of nutrients needed to achieve this end....

Chapter Three

Several weeks before I had reached that decision, a very good friend of mine had asked me if I would be willing to give Laetrile to his sister-in-law. This was a hopeless case. The woman had cancer of the breast. In spite of, or maybe because of (depending on your point of view), all the surgery, radiation and chemotherapy that had been done to this woman, she had developed metastases to the liver, lungs and brain. She had been sent home from a Columbus, Ohio hospital and told that she would die within a week or two. She became my first patient. I wish I could say that she lived happily thereafter. She didn't. But she did live for about four months with a minimal amount of pain and suffering. Most of my first patients were those who had all of the surgery, radiation and chemotherapy they could tolerate and their tumors were still growing. I did for these patients the best that I knew to do.

Days of Treatment

Apo Trail Dr4 Apoptosis

Recently, Kline's group demonstrated anticancer activity of a novel VE analog against breast cancer and lung metastases alone or in combination with celo-coxib.4344 These data demonstrate the therapeutic promise of a-TOS and are likely to result in clinical application of the agent and design of novel anticancer agents. Antiapoptotic pro-survival consequences of other mutations can also be overcome by VE analogs. For example, overexpression of the receptor tyrosine kinase erbB2 HER2 complicates breast cancer treatment.60 The reason is that the auto-activated erbB2 activates Akt, a protein kinase phosphorylating multiple substrates, including IkB kinase (IKK), caspase-9, and Bad, resulting in elevated expression of pro-survival genes and inhibition of proapoptotic proteins.6162 It has been suggested that VE analogs overcome the erbB2-Akt antiapoptotic signaling. Akazawa et al.63 showed that a-tocopheryloxybutyric acid suppressed auto-phosphorylation of erbB2, shutting down the whole...

Trichuriasis

The use of proper latrines, good hygiene with handwashing and washing of vegetables will interrupt the life cycle. Overcrowded urban slums with limited water supply and heavily fecally contaminated soil for growing vegetables place children at particular risk. Mass chemotherapy is highly effective, but reinfection occurs rapidly in this setting.

Previous page 100

Lubin, F. and Ron, E. (1990) Consumption of methylxanthine-containing beverages and the risk of breast cancer. Cancer Letters 53, 8190. 103. McLaughlin, C.C., Mahoney, M.C., Nasca, P.C., Metzger, B.B., Baptiste, M.S. and Field, N.A. (1992) Breast cancer and methylxanthine consumption. Cancer Causes and Control 3, 175178.

Legumes

Consumption of soybeans is suggested as a contributing factor in the low incidence of breast and prostate cancer in Japanese women and men, respectively. Asian women who consume large amounts of soy foods have only one fifth as much breast cancer as Western women, along with a reduced mortality from breast cancer. Chinese populations having a regular consumption of soybeans, fermented soy products or tofu, have only one half as much cancer of the stomach, colon, rectum, breast, prostate, and lung compared with those Chinese people who rarely consume soy products.95 A high consumption of soy products and other legumes was associated with a 54 reduction in risk of endometrial cancer in Hawaiian women.96 Decreased prostatic cancer was observed in Hawaiian men of Japanese descent who consumed substantial amounts of tofu,97 while the use of soy milk more than once a day was associated with a 70 reduction in risk of prostate cancer in Adventist men in California.98 Studies on young women...

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