Botulinum Ebooks Catalog
Honey is a risk factor for infant botulism (Spika et al., 1989) and, to date, is the only food directly implicated in infant botulism. Surveys of random lots of honey indicated approximately 1 to 10 spores kg, while honey implicated in infant botulism contains 103 to 104 C. botulinum spores per kg (Hauschild et al., 1988 Midura et al., 1979). Health Canada recommends that honey should not be fed to children less than 12 months of age While early studies indicated the presence of low levels of C. botulinum in corn syrup, more recent studies have failed to demonstrate contamination of syrups by C. botulinum. The first survey of corn syrup for C. botulinum found spores in eight of 40 samples (Kautter et al., 1982). In an ensuing nationwide survey of corn syrup, C. botulinum spores were detected in five of 961 (0.5 ) bottles examined. In a subsequent survey by the United States Food and Drug Administration, a total of 738 bottles of corn syrup and other products...
Although as many as a hundred bacteria cause foodborne illness, these are among the worst troublemakers Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Escherichia coli O157 H7, and Listeria monocytogenes. You also may hear about Shigella, Vibrio vulnificus, and Yersinia enterocolitica, three other bacteria that cause foodborne illness. Clostridium botulinum is rare. Yet, left untreated, botulism is often fatal It requires immediate medical attention. Botulism-causing bacteria can come from home-canned or commercially canned foods. Usually these are low-acid canned foods such as meats and vegetables that haven't been processed or stored properly. Foods improperly canned at home, as well as improperly handled home-prepared herbal oils, pose a higher risk.
if homemade herbed oils and garlic oils can pose a food safety risk Yes, for Clostridium botulinum bacteria (See chapter 12.) If you make them at home, use immediately The U.S. Food and Drug Administration advises that home-prepared mixtures of garlic in oil be made fresh for any meal or snack and not be left at room temperatures. Refrigerate and use leftovers within ten days after that, discard.
In hot, humid weather your body perspires, increasing water loss. Cool, refreshing drinks may help cool your overheated body. An interesting side note Your body has a harder time cooling down in hot, humid weather than in hot, dry weather. That's because perspiration doesn't evaporate from your skin to cool you down. Instead your skin feels sticky and hot. Dehydration may seem like just a summer issue. But keeping your body well hydrated during winter is just as important. When the weather turns chilly, most people head indoors. There heated air evaporates the moisture on your skin. Although you may not feel thirsty, you still need to replace water loss. Even in the cold outdoors, you may perspire . . . perhaps from the physical exertion of shoveling snow, skating or skiing, or from being bundled up with many layers of clothing.
Alcohol makes blood vessels expand, so more warm blood flows up from the center of your body to the surface of the skin. You feel warmer for a while and, if your skin is fair, you may flush and turn pink. (Asians, who you may remember from a few paragraphs back tend to make less alcohol dehydro-genase than do Caucasians, often experience a characteristic flushing when
When you're warm, your body perspires. The moisture evaporates and cools your skin so that blood circulating up from the center of your body to the surface is cooled. The cooled blood returns to the center of your body, lowering the temperature (your core temperature) there, too.
Here's a sentence that you probably never thought you'd read A healthy body needs fat. Your body uses dietary fat (the fat that you get from food) to make tissue and manufacture biochemicals, such as hormones. Some of the body fat made from food fat is visible. Even though your skin covers it, you can see the fat in the adipose (fatty) tissue in female breasts, hips, thighs, buttocks, and belly or male abdomen and shoulders. 1 Cushions your skin (imagine sitting in a chair for a while to read this book without your buttocks to pillow your bones)
By the time your water loss equals 4 percent of your body weight (5 pounds for a 130-pound woman 7 pounds for a 170-pound man), you're slightly nauseated, your skin is flushed, and you're very, very tired. With less water circulating through your tissues, your hands and feet tingle, your head aches, your temperature When you lose enough water to equal 15 percent of your body weight, you're deaf and pretty much unable to see out of eyes that are sunken and covered with stiffened lids. Your skin has shrunk, and your tongue has shriveled. When you've lost water equal to 20 percent of your body weight, you've had it. You're at the limit of your endurance. Deprived of life-giving liquid, your skin cracks, and your organs grind to a halt. And sorry about this so do you. Ave atque vale, as the Romans say. Or as the Romans say when in the U.S.A, Canada, Great Britain, Australia, or any place where English is the mother tongue Hail and Farewell.
When a large number of similar cells are joined, they'form tissue. Our body is made up of six different types skin tissue connective tissue, holding muscles and organs in place blood tissue muscle tissue nerve tissue and glandular tissue. Except for the tissue making up our nervous system, all can heal themselves by growing new cells. Seeing your skin heal within a few days after cutting a finger is visible proof. Of course, you also know that bones mend after being broken. The same is true of muscle tissue after breaking down, it is quickly rebuilt by the formation of new cells.
Your body also makes its own vitamin D when your skin is exposed to sunlight. About ten to fifteen minutes on your hands, arms, and face without sunscreen twice weekly is ample time for your body to produce enough vitamin D. If you're darker-skinned or live in a cloudy or smoggy area, you may need more sun exposure just don't overdo For lighter skin, less.
Like fat, cholesterol often gets a bad rap, yet it's part of every body cell and of some hormones, including sex hormones such as estrogen. As part of a body chemical called bile, it helps the body digest and absorb fat, too. With the help of sunlight, a form of cholesterol in your skin can change to vitamin D, a nutrient essential for bone building. However, too much cholesterol in the bloodstream is linked to heart disease.
The human body is an awesome piece of engineering. You've got a four-chamber, high pressure pump called the heart that works non-stop for decades a 3 lb. supercomputer called the brain that makes the Pentium chip look obsolete and a 206-piece frame that not only protects all the important stuff but repairs itself automatically. All this wrapped in the largest organ in your body, your skin, that also helps regulate metabolism and body temperature.
Oj NG Checking with your doctor or pharmacist before opting for a supplement you hope will have medical effects (make you stronger, smooth your skin, ease your anxiety) is a smart idea. The bad old days when doctors were total ignoramuses about nutrition may not be gone forever, but they're fading fast. Besides, your doctor is the person most familiar with your health, knows what medications you're taking, and can warn you of potential side effects.
Vitamin A deficiency is of most concern in developing countries, where it affects the health of many children and adults, causing night blindness, blindness, poor growth, and other problems. Up to 500,000 children worldwide go blind each year because of vitamin A deficiency. Signs of deficiency include night blindness, dry skin, dry hair, broken fingernails, and decreased resistance to infections. In the United States, vitamin A deficiency is sometimes seen in the elderly, the poor, and preschool children. In children, a mild degree of vitamin A deficiency may increase the risk of developing respiratory and diarrheal infections, decrease the growth rate, slow bone development, and decrease the likelihood of survival from a serious illness. Prolonged use of high doses of preformed vitamin A (the Tolerable Upper Intake Level is 3000 micrograms day) may cause symptoms of hypervitaminosis A such as hair loss, bone pain and damage, fatigue, skin problems, liver damage, nausea, and...
The most commonly used pesticides are organophosphates, chlorinated hydrocarbons, and carbamates, and include products like Malathion, Diazinon, Sevin, and DDT. All of these pesticides employ a neurotoxic mechanism to kill insects. Furthermore, most pesticides and herbicides are easily absorbed through the skin and lungs. This is why you see warnings on the label to wash all spills off your skin with copious amounts of soap and water IMMEDIATELY
But that doesn't mean that excess carotenoids don't have side effects. Carotenoids, like retinoids, are stored in body fat. If you wolf down large quantities of carotenoid-rich foods like carrots and tomatoes every day, day after day, for several weeks, your skin particularly the palms of your hands and the soles of your feet will turn a nifty shade of dusty orange, brighter if your skin is naturally light, darker if it's naturally dark. It sounds fantastic, but it has actually happened to people eating two cups of carrots and two whole tomatoes a day for several months. When they cut down on the carrots and tomatoes, the color faded.
The benefit of attaining food safety with less nutrient degradation using HTST processes such as ohmic heating or microwave heating is based on differences in the kinetics parameters (k, z, Ea) for bacterial spores compared to those for biochemical reactions.28 First, rate constants for microbial destruction are usually much larger than those for the chemical reactions responsible for nutrient degradation, and second, rate constants for microbial destruction are usually more sensitive to temperature increases (z(thiamin) 48, z(peroxidase) 36.1, and z(C. botulinum) 10 C).29 Methods for rapidly reaching the target temperatures therefore tend to destroy microorganisms while giving less time to compromise the nutrient content and other quality attributes.26,30 In fact, the slow heating rate associated with conventional retorting can activate protease to degrade myofibrillar proteins before the protease is eventually heat-inactivated.31 Tests for conventional heating showed9 that heating...
Although losses in birds due to bacterial toxins are not of great economic importance, they do occasionally result in heavy losses in a particular flock. The main organism affecting poultry is Clostridium botulinum. No significant lesions are found in botulism poisoning and a positive diagnosis is usually based on identification of the organism and its toxin. Botulism is caused by the toxin produced from the C. botulinum organism under anaerobic conditions. C. botulinum is a saprophyte found in soil and dirt and can also be found in intestinal contents and feces. The mere presence of the organism is sufficient to cause disease or to be of diagnostic significance. Growth of the organism, in anaerobic conditions, results in the production of toxins. Botulism can result from birds eating carcasses of birds which have died from the disease and also fly larvae from such carcasses. The toxins present in the meat are ingested by larva rendering them extremely poisonous. Symptoms may appear...
Functions Working with thiamine and riboflavin, it helps to release energy by burning starches and sugars. As a coenzyme, niacin is necessary for cell respiration. These two functions should be useful to bodybuilders when they are choosing vitamin supplements to increase energy levels. Research has shown that nicotinic acid reduces levels of cholesterol. The same is not true of niacinamide. By increasing circulation, niacin in either form promotes healthier-looking skin and alleviates disturbances in the intestinal tract. Toxicity Basically, this vitamin is nontoxic. People with sensitive skin, however, may get flushed or itchy skin from nicotinic acid. This is caused by the release of a histamine and is usually gone within 15-20 minutes. This effect can be minimized by taking the supplement directly before or after a meal
Some of these changes manifest themselves in odd ways you should be aware of. Remember that what goes out of the rubber bag isn't entirely a matter of what transpires in the bathroom. A substantial amount of water, for example, transpires through your skin it is released as water vapour even when you aren't obviously sweating. Additional water is released as moisture in the air you exhale, and still more if you drool.
When you're physically active, you lose fluids as sweat evaporates from your skin. As you breathe, often heavily, you exhale moisture, too. A 150-pound athlete can lose l1 quarts, or 3 pounds, of fluid in just one hour. That equals six 8-ounce glasses of water. With heavy training, fluid loss can be higher. To avoid dehydration you need to replace the fluids you lose.
Vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, and vitamin K are relatives that have two characteristics in common All dissolve in fat, and all are stored in your fatty tissues. But like members of any family, they also have distinct personalities. One keeps your skin moist. Another protects your bones. A third keeps reproductive organs purring happily. And the fourth enables you to make special proteins. Vitamin A is the moisturizing nutrient that keeps your skin and mucous membranes (the slick tissue that lines the eyes, nose, mouth, throat, vagina, and rectum) smooth and supple. Vitamin A is also the vision vitamin, a constituent of 11-cis retinol, a protein in the rods (cells in the back of your eye that enable you to see even when the lights are low) that prevents or slows the development of age-related macular degeneration, or progressive damage to the retina of the eye, which can cause the loss of central vision (the ability to see clearly enough to read or do fine work). Finally, vitamin A...
Although the calipers are quick, simple, and convenient, the test results can sometimes be skewed if a tester pinches some muscle along with the fat or does not pinch enough of the fat. You will also need to have this type of test performed before a workout during exercise, your skin slightly swells, which can make you appear fatter than you are.
As you go about your daily living, you are exposed to many toxins in the environment, both outdoors and within your home. Toxins from your environment, inhaled, ingested or absorbed through your skin, are called exotoxins. These include exhaust fumes plastics chemicals in cleaning products chemicals used in building materials, furniture and furnishings pesticides herbicides heavy metals synthetic ingredients in cosmetics and other body products oxidised fats in fried food burnt fats in barbecued food moulds hormones given to some livestock and food colours, preservatives and flavours. In fact, the complete list of environmental toxins you are regularly exposed to is overwhelming.
Like Mom always said, eat plenty of carrots and you'll see in the dark. That's because carrots contain beta-carotene, a substance that is converted into vitamin A by your body. Vitamin A promotes good vision, as well as healthy skin and the normal growth and maintenance of your bones, teeth, and mucous membranes. What Mom didn't tell you was that beta-carotene is also found in most orange-yellow fruits and vegetables, along with dark green vegetables. Your body converts beta-carotene into vitamin A only when you need it, so eating foods rich in beta-carotene cannot cause vitamin A toxicity. However, eating huge amounts might turn your skin slightly orange. Not to worry, this condition isn't serious. Simply lay off the orange veggies for a few days and the color will disappear.
As you move your body, your body's overall temperature goes up, and you sweat. As sweat evaporates, your skin and the blood just under your skin cool. Cooler blood that flows throughout your body helps protect you from overheating. If you don't replace fluids lost through perspiration, your body's fluid balance is thrown off a bigger problem as working muscles continue to generate more heat.
Achalasia presents a diagnostic challenge in children, given the varied presentations. High clinical suspicion is necessary, particularly when treating infants and young children. The mainstays of diagnosis are barium swallow and manometry, each with findings highly suggestive of achalasia. Once the diagnosis is made, the most efficacious treatment is surgical esophagomyotomy. As the operative experience in children progresses, laparoscopic Heller myotomy emerges as the surgical treatment of choice, with or without an added fundoplication. Balloon dilatation or BoTox injection should be reserved for addressing postoperative recurrence of dysphagia. Medical treatment with calcium channel blockers currently has only very limited application in children. 89. Pasricha PJ, Ravich WJ, Hendrix TR et al. Intrasphincteric botulinum toxin for the treatment of achalasia. N Engl J Med 1995 332 774-778. 90. Pasricha PJ, Rudra R, Ravich WJ et al. Botulinum toxin for achalasia long-term outcome and...
The following organisms can cause food-borne illness Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium perfringens, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Escherichia coli, (E. coli 0157 H7), Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Shigella, and Staphylococcus aureus. Campylobacter jejuni is caused by the ingestion of live bacteria and can be transmitted to humans via unpasteurized milk, contaminated water, and raw or undercooked meats, poultry, and shellfish. Clostridium botulinum, which causes botulism, is the most deadly of all food pathogens. It is transmitted by improperly canned food, whether it is home-canned or commercially prepared. Clostridium perfringens is transmitted by eating heavily contaminated food, and it tends to infect those who eat food that has been left standing on buffets or steam tables for long periods. Fe-ces-contaminated food or water transmits Cyclospora cayetanensis. Foods such botulism poisoning from the bacterium Clostridium botulinum
Endoscopic botulinum toxin injection With endoscopy playing an important role in the work-up of achalasia, it seems attractive to initiate therapy concurrently. Botulinum toxin (BoTox) is a potent inhibitor of presynaptic acetylcholine release, and can be injected into the LES through an endoscope. After a pilot study had demonstrated efficacy, Pasricha et al undertook a randomized, blinded and controlled study of BoTox.89 This study showed significant decreases in symptom scores, resting LES pressure and esophageal food retention. Approximately half of the injected patients, however, had no response or relapsed within 2 months of initial treatment and required either repeat injection or pneumatic dilatation. Subsequent studies in adults have shown that BoTox generally provides good initial results, but these improvements typically are not long-lasting.90-92 Follow-up showed that 10-35 of patients had no initial response, 30-40 relapsed within 4 months, and 38-67 had 'lasting' effects...
Get Glowing Skin
This is a great guide that will help you with all your skin care needs to get the best looking glowing skin.