Strategies To Maintain Optimal Bone Health
Osteoporosis is a reduction in the density of bone. The remaining bone is then compromised in strength and resistance against fracture. The National Osteoporosis Foundation estimates that forty-four million Americans or about 55 percent of the people (including all races) age 50 and older will be affected by osteoporosis, which occurs six to eight times more frequently in women than in men. It is estimated that ten million adults already have osteoporosis, eight million of which are women, and as many as thirty-four million are estimated to have low bone mass (called osteopenia). In fact as many as a million and a half new fractures are attributable to osteoporosis in the United States each year. Sadly, many of these fractures result in permanent immobility. Osteoporosis is a reduction in the density of bone, which includes reductions in minerals as well as proteins.
The World Health Organization (WHO) has set guidelines for characterizing the degree of bone loss. In order to do so, bone density must be compared with what is typically seen in younger people. Osteopenia is a level of bone density reduction that places a person at greater risk of fracture. It is said to be a measured bone density that is 1 to 2.5 standard deviations (a measure of statistical variability) below an average (or statistical mean) for a younger person of the same gender. Osteoporosis is more severe, whereby the reduction of bone density is greater than 2.5 standard deviations below the average. Individuals should talk to their physicians about where they are relative to others and X-ray measurements such as DXA (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, see Chapter 8) are used in the diagnosis. Generally, osteoporosis develops without symptoms. It is usually not until a person fractures a bone or complains of severe back pain that an X-ray diagnosis is made.
DXA has been used as a diagnostic tool for the evaluation of bone health and particularly low BMD. BMD is normally distributed and is often expressed in standard deviation (SD) units relative to its T or Z distribution. The T distribution has a mean of zero, which corresponds to the mean of young healthy women. T-scores are used for the diagnosis of osteoporosis and osteopenia and to predict fracture risk in postmenopausal women 59 . Specifically, the World Health Organization has established cutoff scores for the diagnosis of osteoporosis and osteopenia for postmenopausal women 59 . In postmenopausal women, fracture risk nearly doubles for every SD below the young adult mean 62 . One more recent debate has been related to the fact that the same diagnostic strategies used for postmenopausal women (the distribution of T-scores and the comparison with the young adult mean) have been applied to premenopausal women, adolescents, and children. This seems problematic for three reasons (1)...
Preventing and treating osteoporosis has three considerations (1) enough calcium and vitamin D, (2) weight-bearing physical activity, and (3) perhaps medication. The best guidance protect your bones from further deterioration. Besides the sound advice in Protect Your 'Support System ' in this chapter, remember this Consult with your physician about new medications that may help prevent bone loss or treat osteoporosis. Equally important, talk to your doctor about other medications and supplements you take. Thyroid hormones, oral glucocortoids (steroids), and chemotherapy, among others may promote bone loss. Enjoy plenty of calcium- and vitamin D-rich foods. They provide more for bone health (calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D) and overall health than supplements do. And a varied, well-balanced eating plan offers other nutrients that appear to promote bone density, including magnesium, potassium, and vitamin K.
Osteoporosis, as well as other, less severe forms of bone disease, may be a complication of long-term untreated celiac disease, because the body cannot properly absorb calcium and vitamin D. (Vitamin D enhances the absorption of calcium and is necessary for the proper formation of bone.) Osteoporosis is a bone disease characterized by low bone mass and structural changes within the bone that weaken it and increase the risk of fracture. There are several risk factors for osteoporosis, including inadequate calcium intake and poor absorption of calcium. Before diagnosis, people with celiac disease often experience malabsorption as a result of damage to the lining of the small intestine. Consequently, their bone mineral density or peak bone mass may not be optimal. Once you are diagnosed with celiac disease and your issues with malabsorption have been resolved on a gluten-free diet, it is important that you consume recommended amounts of calcium to help improve your bone mineral density.
The decrease in bone density appears to be more substantial in women versus men. It has been estimated that a woman may lose 27 percent or more of her bone mineral from peak bone mass to her seventies. Bone mineral losses of up to 50 percent have been reported in women diagnosed with osteoporosis. The point should again be made that while the focus has largely been on minerals, osteoporosis is a disease resulting from loss of bone material in general. This means that protein as well as minerals are lost, and as mentioned above, some researchers believe that the key to preventing osteoporosis may actually be found in preserving (and rebuilding) the collagen foundation. Without collagen, the minerals cannot properly stick in bone. Perhaps the analogy of hanging drywall on the wooden frame of a house will help. Here the wooden frame is collagen and the drywall is hydroxyapatite. In fact, hydroxyapatite crystals resemble sheets of drywall (see Figure 10.1).
Although osteoporosis is most often diagnosed in postmenopausal women, it should be noted that signs of osteoporosis have been observed in younger women as well. Younger female athletes who are excessively lean can reduce or halt their estrogen production and establish the opportunity for bone loss. In addition, the positive effects of weight-bearing exercise are not apparent in excessively lean women. The positive effects of resistance training will not balance out the negative impact of reduced estrogen levels. Anorexia nervosa, which is most common in teenage and younger adult women, is characterized by abnormally low body weight. This state can also reduce estrogen production and invoke bone demineralization.
The third component of the triad is related to the athlete's bone health. In the initial Triad Position Stand 2 , this component was termed osteoporosis, which is defined as a degenerative skeletal disease most common to postmenopausal women and characterized by compromised bone strength 53 . Today, it is recognized that bone strength, as a triad component, also occurs along a spectrum that spans from low bone mass and stress fractures to osteoporosis, which is considered the most severe condition. Although bone quality represents an important aspect of bone structure and strength, BMD assessed by DXA is currently the most accepted quantitative method for the diagnosis of osteoporosis and prediction of fracture risk 59 . It is likely that in the future, measures characterizing bone quality will be combined with BMD to describe the full scope of an individual's bone strength, as has been shown by Nikander and colleagues 60 . For the remainder of this article, however, the focus is on...
Some of the most promising nutraceutical substances in the prevention of osteoporosis are isoflavones found mostly in soybeans and soy foods (tofu, tempeh, and miso). There are about twelve forms of isoflavones in soy, including genestein and daidzein. Researchers believe that these factors may have the ability to bind to estrogen receptors and that would include those in bone tissue. At this time scientists are optimistic that a positive link exists between soy or isoflavone consumption and bone health. However, it will probably take time and a few more well performed human studies to draw more specific conclusions. So at this time it would seem wise to include some soy in the diet (Table 12.3). Nutrition Throughout Life 333 Can Caffeine or Coffee Cause Osteoporosis The results of a couple of studies revealed a correlation between excessive coffee consumption and a higher hip-fracture rate. However, even if there is a true effect many researchers believe that there is a safe level of...
In the presence of adequate dietary calcium, 1,25-OHD increases bone formation and growth plate mineralisation by providing sufficient calcium to allow calcification to occur. In contrast, prolonged vitamin D deficiency results in a poorly mineralised skeleton. When calcium is limited the skeleton is sacrificed because appropriate concentrations of calcium are required for vital nerve and muscle activity. Seasonal increases in PTH may have an adverse effect on bone loss. It is known that accelerated bone loss occurs in hyperparathyroidism (Maxwell, 2001) and increased PTH activity is a determinant in vertebral osteoporosis. However, studies by Krall and Dawson-Hughes (1991) showed that serum concentrations of 25-OHD 95nmol L prevent a seasonal increase in PTH. This suggests that when vitamin D status is poor, PTH stimulates 1,25-OHD production, which acts primarily on the bone to release calcium for essential activities. When vitamin D status is good, sufficient 1,25-OHD is produced...
Diet appears to have only a moderate relationship to osteoporosis, but calcium and vitamin D are both important, at least in older populations. Many other nutrients and dietary factors may be important for long-term bone health and the prevention of osteoporosis. Among the essential nutrients, plausible hypotheses for involvement with skeletal health, based on biochemical and metabolic evidence, can be made for zinc, copper, manganese, boron, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin K, the B vitamins, potassium and sodium (15). Evidence from physiological and clinical studies is largely lacking, and the data are often difficult to interpret because of potential size-confounding or bone remodelling transient effects.
Boosting your calcium and vitamin D intake and regular weight-bearing exercise helps slow bone loss and reduce risks for osteoporosis and fractures. After age fifty, the Adequate Intake for women, set by the Institute of Medicine, is 1,200 milligrams of calcium daily, and for vitamin D, 10 micrograms a day. As a reference, 8 ounces of milk supplies about 300 milligrams of calcium and 2.5 micrograms (or 100 International Units) vitamin D. For more about calcium and bone health, see Calcium A Closer Look in chapter 4. Taking a calcium supplement does make a difference in bone health as noted in further investigation of the Women's Health Initiative Study. This was questioned when this study was first published. For bone health, phytoestrogens (see chapter 4) haven't been shown to prevent osteoporosis or lower fracture risk. While hormone therapy may reduce bone loss, any benefit from estrogen only must be balanced against increased heart disease risk. Refer to Osteoporosis Reducing the...
The best defense against osteoporosis is a good offense. Some weight-bearing exercise and a diet (with supplementation) providing adequate protein, vitamin D, calcium, magnesium, boron, zinc, vitamin C, copper, and iron in the years prior to peak bone mass will optimize bone density. Copper, iron, and vitamin C are important for making proper collagen. An early start and a continuation of these practices throughout adulthood in conjunction with regular medical checkups and a periodic X-ray will provide the most benefit. In fact, it seems that one of the most important times for the positive effects of activity on bone density is during the prepuberty years. Children should be encouraged to be involved in physical activities. Furthermore, women should discuss menopausal postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy with a physician. Do not smoke and encourage others to quit as well. Regular exercise and adequate intake of calcium, and vitamins D and C support bone health.
The most important lifestyle modification you can make that will help to prevent or reduce osteoporosis is to change your diet. You should eat at least seven to ten servings of high-nutrient dense fruits and vegetables every day. As we have seen, the potassium and magnesium in plants protects the bones, and many high-density vegetables also contain a fair amount of calcium, which balances their high magnesium content. Do not substitute rice milk or soymilk, since the former is high in sugar and the latter is high in glutamate. While studies have indicated that various extracts from soybeans, such as ipriflavone, can reduce osteoporosis, I recommend that everyone (especially small children) avoid all forms of soy. Soy is also high on the list of foods that cause allergies. For those with demonstrable osteoporosis, or with a strong family history of osteoporosis, I suggest supplementation. A single supplement which contains calcium, magnesium, zinc, vitamin K, vitamin D3, and boron...
Osteoporosis, or thinning of the bones with aging, results in hunched backs and brittle bones that break easily. Particularly among older post-menopausal women, osteoporosis is a serious health problem. In a survey of more than 200,000 healthy women 50 years or older, 40 percent had osteopenia (reduced bone mass, the early stage of osteoporosis) and 7 percent had osteoporosis and they didn't even know it. The women diagnosed with osteoporosis were four times more likely to fracture a bone within the next 12 months those with osteopenia were almost two times more likely (Siris et al. 2001). Osteoporosis is also a major concern for men older than 70, so men need to take care of their bones in their earlier years as well. Younger female athletes who have stopped having regular menstrual periods are also at risk for low bone density that can develop into osteoporosis. Both amenorrheic and postmenopausal women lack adequate estrogen, a hormone that contributes to menstruation and helps...
Osteoporosis weakening of the bone Osteopenia is defined as the stage of low bone density that precedes osteo- with osteoporosis. The World Health Organization formed a committee in 1994 to define osteoporosis, and four categories were defined normal, osteopenia, osteoporosis, and established osteoporosis. All of these categories are measured by bone density and the prevalence of fractures. In osteopenia, bone density falls between one standard deviation and 2.5 standard deviations below average. Risk factors include age, race, and ethnicity, and the use of hormones. Although treatment for osteopenia is largely affected by age and the presence of fractures, women between the ages of fifty and seventy can prevent it by taking estrogen with calcium and exercising regularly. According to the National Osteoporosis Foundation, approximately 10 million women and 2 million men in the United States have osteoporosis. Men have bones that are much larger and stronger than women's bones, which...
With respect to osteoporosis, the effect of specific nutrients on bone metabolism and in disease incidence has been previously published. Thus, in this chapter, only the studies on diet patterns, food groups that characterize these diet patterns, and their effect on the incidence of osteoporosis, risk of osteoporotic fractures, or bone mineral density (BMD) will be summarized and discussed. There are no large epidemiological studies that were designed with the primary objective of determining the incidence of osteoporosis and related To date, about a dozen studies have been published studying the bone health of vegetarians (Table 6.2). These are cross-sectional studies with small sample sizes compared with what is typically seen in large cohort studies. The first study, published in the early 1970s,21 compared a group of British lacto-ovo vegetarians (LOV) to non-vegetarians from the same geographical area. BMD of the third metacarpal was higher and age-related decline slower among...
Osteoporosis is a condition of gradually weakening, brittle bones. As bones lose calcium and other minerals, they become more fragile and porous. They may break under normal use or from just a minor fall, bump, or sudden strain. Because it progresses slowly and silently, people often don't realize they have osteoporosis until they fracture a bone. The spine, hip, and wrist are the most common fracture sites. Among older adults, a dowager's hump is an obvious sign of osteoporosis. Vertebrae in the spine collapse as a result of bone loss. Collapse of several vertabrae leads to a loss of height, back pain, and increasing disability. Osteoporosis affects most Americans over age seventy, especially women. But men get it, too. In fact, even if you add up all the cases of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes in a year, osteoporosis is more common. In the United States alone, .5 million bone fractures annually are attributed to this bone disease each year. About 0 million Americans over age...
Another area with conflicting studies is the link between soy and osteoporosis. One method for determining your bone health and changes in bone density over time is calcium metabolism (a process where a substance, necessary for life, is synthesized or broken down). For bone density to increase, more calcium must be kept in the bones. This retention is measured by tests that look at calcium absorption versus calcium loss as measured in the urine. In studies that have compared a soy diet to a calcium whey diet, calcium loss through the urine was much lower on the soy diet. Some researchers suggest that the amino-acid content of soy protein, as compared to that of animal protein, is the reason for less calcium loss in the urine.
The measurement of bone mineral density in vivo was introduced in 1963.30 This technique, which later became known as single-photon absorptiometry, permitted bone mineral content to be measured in the wrist. With the emergence of osteoporosis as an important clinical entity (refer to Chapters 26 to 28), numerous technological advances in the measurement of bone mineral density have since been achieved. At present, DXA is the primary clinical method used for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. Although DXA measures were initially limited to the specific regions that are the most important in osteoporosis (e.g., lumbar spine, femoral neck, and forearm), DXA has been extended to allow for the study of the total skeleton in addition to its regional parts.31 Further, advancements in DXA technology have also permitted for the measurements of soft-tissue composition in addition to bone mineral content and density.31 Thus, three components can be measured with a whole-body DXA scan bone mineral...
The prevalence of low bone mass and osteoporosis in athletes is difficult to address because of the differences in diagnostic criteria used among organizations and the fact that BMD data using DXA are not as easily and inexpensively collected. In general, using the World Health Organization classification for postmenopausal women 59 , the prevalence of osteopenia in female athletes has been reported to be 22 to 50 , with a relatively low prevalence of osteoporosis 63 . Considering the new ISCD and IOC criteria, women with low T-scores or Z-scores would now be considered as having low BMD for chronologic age or below the expected range (ISCD Position Statement, 2005). More recently, Torstveit and Sundgot-Borgen 64 have applied these new criteria in a sample of 186 elite athletes and found that 10.7 had a BMD below the expected range for age.
For women If you're at high risk for osteoporosis, a bone mineral density (BMD) test may be advised especially if you've experienced early menopause, amenorrhea, a fracture from a minor strain, or if you have a family history of osteoporosis. Not at risk Still, a BMD test at menopause offers a baseline for later, especially if you're contemplating estrogen or other drug therapy. Consult your doctor.
Fluoride can stimulate osteo-blastic activity and new bone formation, but its role in osteoporosis remains unclear.6,14 Although one study found a decrease in vertebral fractures with intermittent fluoride and calcium therapy,12 another found that skeletal fragility and fracture rates were increased by daily supplementation with fluoride and cal-cium.13 Overall, it appears fluoride has little beneficial effect in osteoporosis.14
You can't control all factors that keep your support system, or skeleton, healthy. But regardless of age, gender, or body build, you can help reduce your osteoporosis risk with smart eating and lifestyle choices. Osteoporosis is often described as a disease of youth that manifests itself in the senior years. Ideally, your bone health strategies began in your childhood and have continued throughout adulthood in fact, almost 50 percent of bone formation occurs during the adolescent growth years with 98 percent of a woman's No matter what your age now, you're still young enough to make a difference in your bone health. Your food choices and lifestyle patterns can slow the natural process of bone loss. For more about caring for bones in the mature adult years, see Calcium As Important As Ever in chapter 18. By now you're well aware of the link between calcium and bone health. So if your food choices come up short, now's the time to close the calcium gap Consider other links to calcium....
Calcium supplements can help prevent osteoporosis, which is a condition that occurs when bone breaks down more quickly than it is replaced. In this illustration, the bone above is normal, but the bone below is more porous and therefore more susceptible to fracture. Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc. Reproduced by permission. Calcium supplements can help prevent osteoporosis, which is a condition that occurs when bone breaks down more quickly than it is replaced. In this illustration, the bone above is normal, but the bone below is more porous and therefore more susceptible to fracture. Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc. Reproduced by permission. infants 0-6 months, 600 mg for infants 6-12 months, 800 mg for children 1-10 years, 1,200 mg for ages 11-24 years, and 800 mg for individuals over 24 years of age. Pregnant women require additional calcium (RDA 1,200 mg). Many experts believe that elderly persons should take as much as 1,500 mg to help prevent osteoporosis, a common condition in...
While much of this book has discussed nutrition applicable to younger adults, most of the following discussion will focus upon older adults. However, alcohol consumption will first be addressed as the legal drinking age in the United States is 21. Also addressed will be the importance of young adulthood with regard to osteoporosis prevention. And in the next chapter the importance of the younger years of life to preventing heart disease and cancer will be discussed. Young to middle adulthood years are probably the most important years with regard to preventing the most significant diseases plaguing older adults, namely heart disease, cancer, and osteoporosis.
Menopause sets the stage for two conditions osteoporosis and heart disease. Many women deal with uncomfortable menopausal symptoms, too. Instead of hormone therapy, nutrition and lifestyle strategies may help. If you're approaching or experiencing menopause, talk with your healthcare provider about the best approach for you. Nonhormonal medications may be prescribed. Protect yourself from or deal with chronic health problems that afflict women heart disease, diabetes, cancer (including breast cancer), osteoporosis, and anemia see chapter 22.
Informed, prosperous, and health-conscious, the baby boomers are known as a generation that plans to fight vigorously against the encroachments of age. During the 1990s, as the boomers began reaching their fifties, they increasingly turned to supplements to ward off osteoporosis, memory loss, and a host of other ailments. With increased demand, the vitamins, minerals, and herbs they sought migrated from health food stores to mass merchandisers. Between 1997 and 2002 the supplement industry experienced a 34 percent jump in sales, to more than 19 billion annually. osteoporosis weakening of the bone structure
Is more popular with the general population than ever before. Clearly, resistance training can favorably influence bone density and increase the amount of muscle attached to the skeleton. Thus resistance training can reduce the risk of bone-related disorders such as osteoporosis and improve energy expenditure, reduce body fat content, and improve self-image.
Throughout the first few decades of human life, and providing that adequate minerals are provided by diet, the body deposits these minerals into bone in order to strengthen it and also to serve as a future mineral reservoir. Humans typically reach peak bone mass or maximal bone density by their late twenties to very early thirties. After this time, bone density seems to decrease slowly. So from a osteoporosis prevention standpoint, maximizing peak bone mass is crucial as discussed below.
Phytonutrients are bioactive compounds in food that promote your health by helping to slow the aging process or reducing the risk for many diseases. Since the early 1980s, research has intensified in investigating how phytonutrients protect against some cancers, heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, cataracts, osteoporosis, urinary tract infections, and other chronic health conditions.
Female athletes who experience menstrual dysfunction, particularly amenor-rhea, often show little concern for the disruption in their cycles some even express relief at the ''break.'' Similarly, some coaches simply dismiss menstrual dysfunction, believing it is a natural result of hard training 18 . Nonetheless, despite these attitudes, it should be emphasized that menstrual dysfunction is not a normal response to training rather, it is a clear indication that health is being compromised. The health consequences of menstrual dysfunction are well documented and include infertility and other reproductive problems, decreased immune function, an increase in cardiovascular risk factors, and, perhaps most importantly, decreased BMD and increased risk for premature osteoporosis 2,52 .
It is not healthy to be excessively lean as it increases the risk for various diseases as well as malnutrition. An excessively lean male would have less than 5 percent body fat, while an excessively lean female would have less than 10 to 12 percent body fat. Do not forget that 0 percent body fat cannot be a goal, as not all body fat is stored in adipose tissue, which is classically called fat. Some fat is stored in bone marrow and other vital places. Excessively lean girls often fail to produce adequate sex hormones (such as estrogens), a condition which is associated with irregular or halted menstrual cycles, which promotes the loss of bone mineral, setting them up for bone disorders such as osteoporosis.
A reduction in blood estrogen levels, as typical after menopause (postmenopausal), is directly associated with a decrease in bone density. Thus, estrogen is a principal factor in the development of osteoporosis. Researchers have reported that osteoblasts (bone makers) have receptors for the hormone estrogen, and estrogen also appears to decrease the activity of osteoclasts (bone destroyers). Despite these findings, the exact mechanisms for how estrogen protects women against excessive bone material losses is not clear. Postmenopausal estrogen replacement therapy has proven effective in slowing the rate of postmenopausal bone mineral loss in women however, there are other medical concerns and each women should understand these.
Risk for developing stress fractures, decreased bone mineral density, and other bone problems. Women For your bones' sake, pay attention if your periods stop. Talk to your doctor. This is not a normal outcome of physical activity. Stress fractures caused by weakened bones may seriously affect your physical performance. And the long-range impact on bone health increased osteoporosis risk. For bone health, your doctor may recommend a higher calcium intake, or perhaps a calcium supplement. See Osteoporosis Reduce the Risks in chapter 22.
In the year 1999, 64 percent of the U.S. population was overweight or obese, while the prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents more than doubled during the previous two decades. Fifty-six percent of women over the age of fifty had low bone density, and 16 percent were suffering from the debilitating disease of osteoporosis. And while smoking prevalence hit an all-time low among adults, it has continued to increase among America's youth. Statistics like these sell newspapers, inspire public-policy initiatives, and provide topics for classroom discussions. But where do these statistics come from How can scientists determine the percentage of the entire U.S. population that suffers from conditions such as obesity and osteoporosis or engage in unhealthy habits such as smoking
The second area is in relation to bone. Some research efforts have determined that when diet protein levels increase, so too does the level of calcium in the urine. This lead to the conclusion that high-protein diets cause a loss of calcium from bones, rendering a person more prone to osteoporosis. However, follow up research has shown that the higher protein intake also increases calcium absorption, thus leading to a corresponding increase in calcium in the urine. So, like kidney dysfunction, the notion that a high protein intake, such as 25 percent of calories for weight loss or maintenance, leads to osteoporosis has not been shown to be true.
For older people, there is convincing evidence for a reduction in risk for osteoporosis with sufficient intake of vitamin D and calcium together, and for an increase in risk with high consumption of alcohol and low body weight. Evidence suggesting a probable relationship, again in older people, supports a role for calcium and vitamin D separately, but none with fluoride. There is considerable geographical variation in the incidence of fractures, and cultural variation in the intakes of nutrients associated with osteoporosis and the clinical outcome of fracture. In Table 18, where the evidence on risk factors for osteoporosis is summarized, it is important to note that the level of certainty is given in relation to fracture as the outcome, rather than apparent bone mineral density as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry or other indirect methods. Since the Consultation addressed health in terms of burden of disease, fractures were considered the more relevant end-point. In...
To a variety of health problems, the most prevalent of which are anemia, beriberi, osteoporosis, pellagra, and rickets. Anemia occurs when the body does not have enough red blood cells to transport oxygen from the lungs to the body's cells. The most common symptom of anemia is a constant feeling of fatigue. Making sure that one's diet contains the proper amounts of iron, folate, and vitamin B12 can prevent anemia. Osteoporosis is an asymptomatic condition in which the loss of minerals can cause the body's bones to become porous and fragile. Making sure that one's diet contains the recommended amount of calcium and vitamin D can reduce the risk of developing osteoporosis. osteoporosis weakening of the bone structure Rickets, or defective bone growth, is the result of an excessive vitamin D deficiency. It has been virtually wiped out in the United States due to the vitamin D fortification of milk. see also Anemia Beriberi Osteoporosis Pellagra Rickets.
As part of the DRIs it is recommended that the intake of added sugar not exceed 25 percent of calories. However, many nutritionists would like to see this recommendation lowered. That's because diets higher in added sugars are linked to excessive calorie consumption and thus obesity as well-being linked either directly or indirectly to heart disease, cancer and osteoporosis. Meanwhile the USDA recommends that an adult consuming 2,000-calorie daily, the amount that would approximate weight maintenance for an average woman not exceed 40 grams of added sugars. That level of added sugar (roughly 10 teaspoons) is the amount of sugar in a 12-ounce soft drink.
Studies have shown that exercise can have a direct effect on preventing heart disease, cancer, and other causes of premature death. Furthermore, participation in regular physical activity may reduce the rate of occurrence of these maladies. An inverse relationship exists between disease and exercise, meaning that with increased levels of physical activity there is a decreased prevalence for certain diseases. Currently, there is strong evidence that exercise has powerful effects on mortality, CAD (including blood lipid profiles), and colon cancer. Research has also confirmed that aerobic exercise can reduce high blood pressure, obesity, type II diabetes, and osteoporosis. In addition, stroke and several types of cancer (such as breast, prostate, and lung cancer) can also be reduced with regular physical activity. osteoporosis weakening of the bone structure
In humans, calcium deficiency rarely, if ever, causes the production of hypoplastic enamel (poorly mineralized enamel) similar to the osteoporosis produced in bone. Teeth appear to have a biological priority over bone when calcium is limited in the diet. osteoporosis weakening of the bone structure
In females, three associated medical conditions form the female athlete triad disordered eating, amenorrhea (suppression of the menstrual cycle), and osteoporosis (weakening of the bones). A female athlete can have one, two, or all of these conditions. With lowered estrogen levels, the female athlete can experience bone loss similar to that seen in menopause. Unfortunately, the lost bone is never replaced. This has both short- and long-term consequences on bone health. The increased risk of bone damage, for example, can lead to stress fractures and osteoporosis.
Osteoporosis weakening of the bone structure Dietary decisions made in adolescence may have lasting health effects. For example, in the United States, more than 85 percent of teen girls and about 65 percent of teen boys do not include enough calcium in their diets. Such deficiency increases their chances of developing osteoporosis as adults. AP Wide World Photos. Reproduced by permission.
In addition to the neurological effects I have already discussed, elevated lead levels in children are associated with many physiological defects, such as abnormal bone formation and bone weakness. Because lead is stored in the bones, and under normal conditions is released only when bone dissolves, it can remain in large concentrations in the bones throughout life. As we begin to age, our bones frequently break down, releasing not only calcium and phosphorus, but also lead and other metals that have been stored in them. Osteoporosis, an exaggerated process of bone destruction, releases large amounts of stored lead, as well as aluminum and fluoride, over a relatively short period of time. The released lead enters the blood stream, and then the nervous system where it proceeds to wreak havoc with the delicate cellular systems I described above. This is akin to giving a person a single toxic dose of lead, but the osteoporosis patient and her doctor would not even begin to suspect...
Not every athlete can carbohydrate load on pasta, breads, and cereals. About 1 in 133 people has celiac disease, a disorder in which the body can't tolerate gluten, a protein found in wheat, rye, barley, and sometimes oats (if the oats get contaminated with wheat during processing). In these people, gluten triggers intestinal inflammation and eventually can interfere with the absorption of nutrients, including iron and calcium. Gluten intolerance easily leads to anemia (if iron is not absorbed) and osteoporosis (if calcium is not absorbed).
You can get the recommended intake of most nutrients (except possibly iron) by eating 1,500 calories of a variety of foods. This amount will not only prevent nutrition deficiencies but also reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as osteoporosis, cancer, and heart disease.
The general increase, however, in the quantity and variety of food available has mostly been accompanied by the emergence of degenerative conditions such as CVD, various types of cancer, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, obesity, osteoporosis and hypertension. Documenting and monitoring dietary patterns has therefore become a priority in the formulation of dietary recommendations and the planning of national food, nutrition and agricultural policies (Soci t Fran aise de Sant Publique. Health and Human Nutrition, 2000).
Vitamin D plays an indispensable role in building and maintaining strong bones and teeth. In fact, vitamin D is responsible for the body's absorption and utilization of the mineral calcium. Insufficient amounts of this key vitamin can lead to serious bone abnormalities, including rickets in children (bones that are soft and malformed) and osteoporosis or osteomalacia (softening of the bones) in adults.
The exercise recommendations from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) mirror those of the Center of Disease Control (CDC), and the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM). The ACSM recommends moderate intensity exercise for 30 min or more on most days of the week as part of a healthy lifestyle in the nonpregnant population 4 . A moderate level of exertion for 30 min duration has been associated with significant health benefits decreasing risk of chronic diseases including coronary heart disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and osteoporosis 33 . Women who are sedentary prior to pregnancy should gradually increase their duration of activity to 30 min. Those who are already fit should be advised that pregnancy is not the time to greatly enhance physical performance and that overall activity and fitness tend to decline during pregnancy. Pregnant women should exercise caution in increasing intensity, especially when an exercise session extends...
Result because when the body enters a state of semi-starvation, it channels energy away from reproduction to provide fuel for vital functions. Scientists refer to this phenomenon of overexercising and undereating and the related health implications as the female athlete triad. (This name seems to suggest that this kind of condition affects only women, although a similar form can affect men.) This condition can have dangerous, irreversible consequences, including infertility and osteoporosis. Usually, however, the condition can be ameliorated by increasing calorie intake to more completely meet energy demands.
In energy deficiency states we clearly need to advance further our understanding of the role of leptin (and other hormones) to improve and or correct the neuroendocrine abnormalities of women with hypothalamic amenorrhea and anorexia nervosa as well as those of obese subjects dieting to lose weight and or having had surgery for obesity. We also need conclusive evidence from randomized trials on whether leptin and or other treatment options could also improve the osteoporosis of subjects with anorexia nervosa or hypothalamic amenorrhea. Importantly, we need to learn whether the effect
We hear much more about vitamins than minerals, but minerals are certainly no less important to our health, and are critical for even basic survival. Science has been focusing more attention on their potential link to our protection from major chronic diseases like high blood pressure, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease and cancer with promising results. As mentioned earlier, too much iron may play a crucial role in oxidation. Researchers in Finland studied about two thousand healthy men for three years. They tracked twenty risk factors for heart disease, and at the end of the study the risk of heart disease was twice as great for those men with high blood levels of iron. The only other risk factor more significant was smoking. *112 We have also mentioned the contributing role that a little known mineral, boron, may play in offering protection from osteoporosis. Certainly calcium is at the forefront of osteoporosis prevention. There are more than sixty minerals in the body which...
Physical inactivity increases the relative risk of most common diseases plaguing industrialized societies including coronary artery disease, stroke, hypertension, osteoporosis and cancer (Booth and Lees, 2007). For thousands of years, humans had to be active to survive and metabolic pathways selected during the evolution of the human genome are inevitably linked to physical activity. Sedentary modern lifestyles may prompt a maladap-tive response to our ancestral genomic background that leads to metabolic dysfunction and many chronic diseases. The topic of gene-physical activity interactions is receiving increasing attention (Andreasen et al., 2008 Grove et al., 2007 Kilpelainen et al., 2007 Rankinen et al., 2007 Nelson et al., 2007a) (see Table 1.2). Similar to smoking and alcohol, all recent reports are based on relatively large observational studies. The selection of genes studied appears to be quite heterodox, with no clear unifying theme and also with a variety of main outcomes...
The correlation between estrogen loss and risk for osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease development has been strongly demonstrated by epidemiological data (Rosano and Panina, 1999). Sufficient experiments have been carried out to warrant the conclusion that dietary intake of soy protein, or specifically the soy isoflavones, results in estrogen-like protection against the development of the hormone-dependent breast and prostate cancers (Barnes, 1997 Lamartiniere and Fritz, 1998), as well as atherosclerosis (Anthony et al., 1996 Adlercreutz and Mazur, 1998 Setchell and Cassidy, 1999).
Osteoporosis weakening of the bone structure Calcium loss from the bones is increased in the first five years after the onset of menopause, resulting in a loss of bone density. This bone loss then tapers off until about the age of seventy-five, when calcium loss accelerates again. This predisposes women to the risk of osteoporosis and bone fractures.
Over the years many studies have explored the connection between caffeine and health. No scientific evidence has been found to link caffeine intake to any health risks, including cancer (pancreatic, breast, or other types), fibrocystic breast disease (benign fibrous lumps), cardiovascular disease, blood cholesterol levels, ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease, infertility, birth defects, or osteoporosis. While caffeine can increase slightly the amount of calcium lost through urine and feces, it's the amount of calcium in about 1 tablespoon of milk that's lost for each cup of regular coffee. To help counter this effect and boost the calcium benefit, enjoy coffee drinks made with plenty of milk. A 12-ounce caffe latte, made with fat-free milk and no added syrups or whipped cream, has about 400 milligrams of calcium and 110 calories. Moderate amounts of caffeine don't appear to raise the risk for osteoporosis. By the way, you don't need to use whole milk to get a foam on cappuccino....
2) Because of the poor quality milk and because dairy products must be kept for long periods of time they are 'pasteurized' . This means the milk is heated-up to kill all the 'germs' for our health. It is similar to what happens to fruit juice when it is heated up. It also kills most of the beneficial enzymes and micro-nutrients contained in the milk. Not only that but the heat changes the chemical structure of the protein in the milk making it harder to digest and more likely to cause allergies. It also makes the minerals harder to use by our bodies, which is why people can still get osteoporosis drinking pasteurized milk.
Adequate calcium intake is essential for development of strong and dense bones during the adolescent growth spurt. Inadequate calcium intake during adolescence and young adulthood puts individuals at risk for developing osteoporosis later in life. In order to get the required 1,200 milligrams of calcium, teens are encouraged to consume three to four servings of calcium-rich foods each day. Good sources include milk, yogurt, cheese, calcium-fortified juices, and calcium-fortified cereals.
DSHEA also gave manufacturers the freedom to provide information about product benefits on labels through three types of claims. Health claims describe a relationship between a food substance and a disease or health-related condition. For example, the health claim diets high in calcium may reduce the risk of osteoporosis has been authorized by the FDA and may appear on the labels of dietary supplements. Structure function claims may state a benefit related to a nutrient-deficiency disease (such as scurvy, which is caused by a deficiency of vitamin C), as long as the statement tells how widespread the disease is. These claims may also describe the role of a nutrient intended to affect a structure or function for example, antioxidants maintain cell integrity, or calcium builds strong bones. Nutrient content claims describe the level of a nutrient or dietary substance in a product, using FDA-regulated terms such as good source, high, or free. For example, if a label claims a dietary...
Phytoestrogens in soy and other foods may protect post-menopausal women from osteoporosis and heart disease and protect men against prostate and other testosterone-dependent cancers. Extrusion can transform soy into food products with broad appeal for consumers, but processing effects on soy isoflavones and other phytoestrogens should be evaluated for any products for which health effects are intended. Blends of soy protein concentrate and cornmeal (20 80) were processed under different extrusion conditions (Mahungu et al, 1999). Increasing barrel temperature caused decarboxylation of isoflavones, with increased proportions of acetyl derivatives, but total isoflavones also decreased.
On the other hand, regularly skimp on this mineral, and you'll wind up calcium-broke Your body fluids still need calcium to regulate normal body functions. What these fluids don't get from food must be borrowed from the calcium-bone bank. Borrowing day after day, year after year, will deplete the savings account and leave you with osteoporosis (brittle bones that break easily).
If you are considering hormone therapy, weigh the benefits and the risks. Although it may reduce discomforts of menopause and the risk of osteoporosis, hormone therapy is linked to increased breast cancer risk. Talk to your doctor about the best approach for you. Refer to Menopausal Symptoms Nutrition and Lifestyle Strategies later in this chapter. Physical activity remains a priority, with benefits to weight management to heart and bone health and to lower risks for heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. An active lifestyle also can reduce the discomforts of menopause. See GetPhysical in chapter 2.
When researchers at the University of Auckland in New Zealand added lactoferrin from cow's milk to a dish of osteoblasts, the bone cells grew more quickly. When they injected lactoferrin into the skulls of five lab mice, the bone at the site of the injection also grew faster, leading the team to suggest in the journal Endocrinologythat lactoferrin may play a role in treating osteoporosis.
First, these cells were shown to be growth inhibited at genistein concentrations attainable physiologically (Peterson et al., 1998). At concentrations of genistein that inhibited cell growth but were not cytotoxic, the resulting conditioned medium from the HME cells contained significantly higher levels of TGF-P relative to that from HME cells not exposed to genistein (Kim et al., 1998). These observations prompted the hypothesis that the cell growth-inhibitory mechanism of genistein could be mediated by TGF-P, rather than directly by the isoflavone. It is intriguing to consider that this involvement of TGF-P is an aspect of estrogen action in selected tissues TGF-P mRNA was lowered in rats following ovariectomy (Ikeda et al.,1993), an established model for osteoporosis, where bone loss occurs predictably unless the animals are given estrogen-replacement.
Ample calcium and mineral intake is particularly important for teenage females. Bone growth is rapid during adolescence, when about half of the total skeleton is formed. The amount of bone mineral that has accumulated in the skeleton during this period is a major determinant of risk of osteoporosis in later life. More calcium deposited into the skeleton during childhood and adolescence means a greater calcium bank to draw from during aging. seven have intakes near 1200 mg day.4 Milk and other dairy products are the primary source of calcium in the teenage diet, yet many adolescents regularly substitute soft drinks, iced tea, or other sweetened beverages for milk. Insufficient dietary calcium during adolescence can have lasting consequences. Poor intakes of calcium (and other minerals, such as zinc19) can compromise bone health and may increase incidence of bony fractures both during adolescence and later in life. Calcium supplements can help children and teenagers reach adequate...
Along this same line, but less well-known, is the observation that low-protein diets also increase longevity and high-protein diets are linked to shortened life spans. If confirmed, this finding could diminish the popularity of the high-protein diets being advocated by some popular authors. We already know that high-protein diets increase the incidence of osteoporosis, heart disease, and kidney disease, and high-protein diets in certain diseases, such as Lou Gehrig's disease (ALS), have been shown to significantly elevate blood levels of several destructive amino acids, including glutamate and aspartate.
Routine consumption of soft drinks containing phosphoric acid (that is, colas) is a risk factor for bone loss.2S Consumption of alkalinizing mineral water helps retain bone health and improve digestive functions.26 A comprehensive review comparing alkalinizing diets to acidic diets reported in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition concluded that alkalinizing diets improve bone density, nitrogen balance, and serum growth hormone concentrations, whereas the low-grade acidosis resulting from acidic diets contributes to bone loss, osteoporosis, and loss of muscle.27
Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) is the often-used medically prescribed treatment for menopausal and postmenopausal women. Although some studies have indicated a decreased risk of CHD and osteoporosis with ERT use, others have indicated it may increase the risk of breast cancer. The Women's Health Initiative, which was designed to study the effects of ERT on the health of elderly women, stopped the ERT part of the research in July 2002. The preliminary result of that study showed the risk of CHD was, in fact, increased in women on ERT.
Vitamin K deficiency in adults leading to clinical bleeding is almost unheard of, except as a consequence of hepato-intestinal disorders which disturb the absorption or utilisation of the vitamin. Use of warfarin or other anti-coagulant drugs, i.e. vitamin K antagonists, in the management of thromboembolic disease, reduces circulating concentrations of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors. The anticoagulants inhibit the biosynthesis of prothrombin and other vitamin K-dependent factors in the liver and others factors in extrahepatic tissues, leading to clotting factor deficiencies in the body (Olson, 1999). Studies investigating the effect of anticoagulants on bone health have shown mixed results but the participants were severely ill with chronic vascular disease which would have affected physical activity, a very important factor in bone health and may be the reason why vitamin K status did not appear to be important (Weber, 2001). 3.21.3 Bone health Despite gaps in knowledge it...
They cannot establish that a particular factor causes a disease. This type of observational study may compare factors found among people with a disease, such as cancer, with factors among a comparable group without that disease or may try to identify factors associated with diseases that develop over time within a population group. Researchers may find, for example, fewer cases of osteoporosis in women who take estrogen after menopause.
A number of health and disease end-points, affecting a large proportion of the population, need to be addressed in developing healthy foods. Some, such as cardiovascular disease, colorectal cancer, osteoporosis, and constipation are associated with a combination of ageing and unhealthy dietary patterns. Others, such as obesity, are largely the result of food processors and marketers successfully providing foods that appeal to the basic human preferences for sweetness and fats, in all age groups. It would be best to design foods with a number of endpoints in mind, and evaluate them with a battery of tests to demonstrate nutritional balance. Producing foods for specific functions or using foods as medicines risks unbalanced nutrient intake.
Cholesterol and triacylglycerol production as previously discussed. Exogenous plant dietary fat supplies a dominance of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids to minimize not only the atherosclerotic diseases, but also several of the rheumatoid states, the mineral problems of osteoporosis, and possibly several types of cancer by the inclusion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA).3,40,41 This protective diet combined with adequate exercise inhibits the initiation of these diseases before they reach the lipid deposition stages by decreasing the initial free radical attack with antiox-idants. For example, in coronary artery disease (CAD), the vegetarian or vegan diet supplies the antioxidant vitamins and minerals from a high
Osteoporosis, Fractures roidectomy.62,63 These data have been used to support the presence of another causal pathway whereby the increased dietary phosphorus-to-calcium ratio of meats contributes to secondary hyperparathyroidism a condition that could potentially contribute to loss of bone mass. Specifically, when the homeostatic balance of serum calcium and phosphorus is altered in favor of increased phosphorus, there is a compensatory release of parathyroid hormone that activates increased calcium resorption from the bone. This mechanism suggests that the high serum phosphorus levels among meat-eaters should produce chronically increased calcium resorption from bone that could decrease skeletal mass and increase risk of osteoporosis and bone fractures. Recent data from clinical studies have shown that even short-term (1-4 weeks) maintenance of high-phosphorus, low-calcium diets among women and men can produce mild hyperparathyroidism.64,65 In a cross-sectional study, Metz reported a...
Menopause signals the end of child-bearing capacity, and is also associated with changes in susceptibility to various chronic diseases, including breast cancer, heart disease, and osteoporosis.66 Differences in age at menopause between vegetarian and omnivorous women, should they exist, could be associated with differences in chronic disease patterns between these groups. Furthermore, some women experience unpleasant symptoms during menopause (vasomotor symptoms such as night sweats and hot flushes, mood swings, insomnia, weight gain, headaches, and fatigue),67 and these symptoms have been observed to differ among women in different cultures.67,68 Whether dietary variables contribute to these differences in symptom experiences has not been clearly established, but there is speculation that they could.68-70 Some of these dietary differences may also exist between vegetarian and omnivorous women. Accordingly, after defining and describing the menopausal transition, available research on...
DXA quantifies bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density of the hip and spine primarily for diagnosing osteoporosis. The differential attenuation of two low radiation energy levels through the body and subsequent computer calculations allow the quantification and total and regional analysis of adipose and soft tissues and estimates of fat mass (FM) and non-skeletal fat-free mass (FFM) (101-103).
While dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, previously DEXA) is most commonly used to assess bone health, it also provides one of the most accurate means for assessing body fat. In fact one of the advantages of DXA is that it also estimates regional body fat, such as in the abdomen, arms, and legs. The name is based on the method. Two X-ray beams with differing energy levels are transmitted at the body. Since the absorption of these beams varies with different tissue, this can used to estimate body fat as well as bone mass. DXA scans are not commonly done for body composition assessment however, if you are have a DXA scan performed for bone health status be sure to ask for your body composition as well. DXA scans for bone health also provide accurate information about body fat percentage and distribution of body fat.
Lysine, like most other AAs, is a building block of body proteins. Among the indispensable AAs, lysine is present in the greatest amounts, at 93.0 and 38 mmol dl in tissues and serum, respectively (see Table 15.3). Carnitine, a compound responsible for transport of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria for oxidation, is synthesized in the liver and kidneys from lysine and methionine.32 Lysine is also required for collagen synthesis and may be central to bone health.3334 Lysine's effects
The most important function of estrogen with respect to bone health is related to estrogen's suppressing effect on osteoclast activity 79 . As mentioned previously, osteoclasts are bone cells that tear down bone in the process of bone resorption. In the hypoestrogenic state, the female athlete likely exhibits accelerated bone resorption through the impact of irregular or absent menstrual cycles. In addition, a direct effect, through low energy availability, may be possible 80 . Some studies have shown that athletes, at risk for
Copper was identified as an essential trace element, first for animals1 and subsequently for humans2 when anaemia was successfully treated by supplementing the diet with a source of copper. Since then the full significance of its role in biological systems has continued to unfold as it has been identified in a large number of vital metalloproteins, as an allosteric component and as a cofactor for catalytic activity. These proteins perform numerous important roles in the body, relating to the maintenance of immune function, neural function, bone health, arterial compliance, haemostasis, and protection against oxidative and inflammatory damage. However, the accurate assessment of copper status is problematic. Functional copper status is the product of many interacting dietary and lifestyle factors, and an adequate marker of body copper status has yet to be identified. Accurate measurement of dietary copper intake is difficult because while a number of dietary factors are known to limit...
Physical activity at any stage of the life cycle is associated with a decreased prevalence of cardiovascular disease, colon cancer, type 2 diabetes, and overweight, and it decreases mortality rates from all causes. Specifically in lactation, regular activity improves cardiovascular fitness, plasma lipid levels, and insulin response 14 . Regular activity also has the potential to benefit psychosocial well-being in lactation, such as improving self-esteem and reducing depression and anxiety. Other potential benefits include promotion of body weight regulation and optimizing bone health. Engagement in regular activity by the mother may also encourage the same in her offspring, promoting a healthy lifestyle and body weight management for the entire family.
For children and adults, fluoride, a mineral, helps harden developing tooth enamel and so protects teeth from decay. It's also important for bone health. Many municipal water systems contain a natural supply of fluoride. But in areas where fluoride levels are low, the water system may be fluoridated to levels recommended by the U.S. Public Health Service. The optimum fluoride level is 0.7 to 1.2 parts fluoride per million parts water.
Appeared to show higher protein intakes caused an excretion of calcium, which would ultimately lead to bone loss, recent studies have debunked that assertion. On the matter of bone loss, the review paper concludes, for bone health the established views of risk of high protein intakes are not supported by newly-emerging data, with benefit indicated in the elderly.
The passage of Title IX legislation in 1972 provided enormous opportunities for women to reap the benefits of sports participation. For most female athletes, sports participation is a positive experience, providing improved physical fitness, enhanced self-esteem, and better physical and mental health 1 . Nonetheless, for a few female athletes, the desire for athletic success combined with the pressure to achieve a prescribed body weight may lead to the development of a triad of medical disorders including disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (BMD) known collectively as the female athlete triad 1,2 . Alone or in combination, the disorders of the triad can have a negative impact on health and impair athletic performance.
Fig. 4.8 Calcium supplementation increases bone density during lactation and weaning. Effects of calcium supplementation and lactation in 389 women on the change in bone mineral density of the lumbar spine during the first 6 months postpartum and postweaning. Significant differences were found between the calcium and placebo groups in the nonlactating women during the first 6 months, and forthe calcium and placebo groups in both the lactating and nonlactating women after weaning. (Adapted from Kalkwarf HJ, et al. N Engl J Med. 1997 337 523) Fig. 4.8 Calcium supplementation increases bone density during lactation and weaning. Effects of calcium supplementation and lactation in 389 women on the change in bone mineral density of the lumbar spine during the first 6 months postpartum and postweaning. Significant differences were found between the calcium and placebo groups in the nonlactating women during the first 6 months, and forthe calcium and placebo groups in both the lactating and...
Calcium supplementation may be suggested if the average daily intake of calcium is less than 600 mg. Calcium intake is of particular concern among pregnant women under the age of twenty-five, since bone mineral density is still increasing in these women. Calcium supplements, if recommended, should be taken with meals. Additionally, vitamin D may be necessary if sunlight exposure is minimal. For vegetarians, the current recommendations also include a daily supplement of 2 mg of Vitamin B12.
Even more devious, New Zealand fluoridationists originally included the city of Napier as an unfluoridated control. Then suddenly, without explanation, they dropped Napier from the study. Why Because tooth decay rates in unfluoridated Napier actually declined even more than the fluoridated city, and researchers couldn't let the public know that, so they just eliminated the problem from the study. Similar deceptions were used in the Grand Rapids, Newburgh, Evanston and Brantford studies in the United States. This is not only bad science but criminal behavior, since by then studies had demonstrated that fluoride was associated with dental fluorosis, skeletal fluorosis, osteoporosis, increased cancer rates, lower fertility, weakened bones, genetic damage, and even damage to the brain. There was, and is, absolutely no justification for adding fluoride to drinking water
Calcium Vitamin D Osteoporosis failure possible abnormal lipid metabolism Arrythmogenic, particularly with digoxin can worsen heart failure and increase symptoms of fatigue may accelerate atherosclerosis Hypertension, smooth muscle hypertrophy, and increased effects of endothelin arrythmogenesis, long QT, torsades de pointes, and ventricular fibrillation osteoporosis common in CHF patients hypocalcemia-induced cardiomyopathy Contractile dysfunction, particularly in combination Hypocalcemia is potentially proarrhythmogenic. It is associated with QT prolongation4 and torsades de pointes5 and hypocalcemic-associated ventricular fibrillation has been reported.6 Patients with heart failure demonstrated increased bone turnover and a higher incidence of osteoporosis.7 Hypocalcemia can lead to cardiomyopathy, usually in young children with congenital causes for the hypocal-cemia, but the response to calcium supplementation can often be dramatic.8-10 Patients with chronic heart failure have...
The skeleton undergoes a lifelong process of constant restructuring, a process determined mainly by stress forces at the attachment points of ligaments and tendons. When increased force is applied to a stress point, the bone responds by depositing more calcium-containing matrix at that site. Otherwise, the bone might snap. This principle may explain why heavier women are less likely to suffer from osteoporosis than skinny women heavier women's bones are always under stress.
And a reduction in bone mineral density. Increases the risk of nutrient deficiencies. Promotes glycogen depletion, resulting in poor exercise performance Typically function by suppressing appetite and may cause a slight increase in metabolic rate (if they contain ephedrine or caffeine). May induce rapid heart rate, anxiety, inability to concentrate, nervousness, inability to sleep, and dehydration. Any weight lost is quickly regained when use is discontinued Weight loss is primarily water, and any weight lost is quickly regained when use is discontinued. Dehydration and electrolyte imbalances are common and may disrupt thermoregulatory function and induce cardiac arrhythmia Laxatives or enemas Weight loss is primarily water, and any weight lost is quickly
Handbook of Drug-Nutrient Interactions, edited by Joseph I. Boullata and Vincent T. Armenti, 2004 Nutrition and Bone Health, edited by Michael F. Holick and Bess Dawson-Hughes, 2004 Diet and Human Immune Function, edited by David A. Hughes, L. Gail Darlington, and Adrianne Bendich, 2004
Other examples of conflicting claims include labels advertising foods as high in fiber, without specifically indicating the presence of high levels of salt, sugar, or other nutrients. Also, labels advertising dairy products as high in calcium, and thus offering protection from osteoporosis, are often missing information relating to the high fat content and its possible contribution to the risk of heart disease. osteoporosis weakening of the bone structure
If you are a masters athlete who has the desire to remain active for years to come, you may wonder if your nutrition needs differ from those of younger athletes. To date, research suggests that older athletes have no significantly different nutrition needs other than to optimize their sports diet so they'll have every possible edge over the younger folks. Your biggest nutrition concern should be to routinely eat quality calories from nutrient-dense, health-protective foods in order to reduce the risk of heart disease, cancer, osteoporosis, and other debilitating diseases of aging. food at each meal (including soy or lactose-free milk products), you'll invest in bone health. Having strong muscles attached to the bones is also essential, so be sure to do strengthening exercises such as lifting weights at least twice a week.
The second most frequently cited claim of fluoride's health benefits is that it strengthens bones. Many doctors have even suggested it as a treatment for osteoporosis. But carefully conducted studies have demonstrated conclusively that not only does it not strengthen the In one review of all articles reporting on the use of fluoride to treat postmenopausal osteoporosis, Dr. Louis Avioli, professor at the Washington University School of Medicine, concluded that the use of fluoride was accompanied by so many complications and side effects that it was not worth using in cases of postmenopausal osteoporosis, especially since it increased the risk of hip fractures and other stress fractures in the arms and legs. Another interesting study by Dr. Mary Fran Sowers and co-workers examined 827 women aged twenty to eighty years in three rural Iowa communities over a five-year period for bone mineral density and incidence of fractures.131 The study was unusual for several reasons. First, they...
To produce the same estrogenic effect as one molecule of estradiol. Every phytoestrogen molecule that hooks onto an estrogen receptor displaces a stronger estrogen molecule. As a result, researchers suggested that consuming isoflavone-rich foods such as soy products may provide post-menopausal women with the benefits of estrogen (stronger bones and relief from hot flashes) without the higher risk of reproductive cancers (of the breast, ovary, or uterus) associated with hormone replacement therapy (HRT). The theory was supported by the fact that the incidence of breast and uterine cancer, heart disease, osteoporosis, and menopausal discomfort is lower in countries where soy a primary source of phytoestrogens is a significant part of the diet.
Since calcium is essential to health and has come under greater scrutiny as more is known about osteoporosis, the possible effect of oxalate interfering with the availability of calcium takes on a greater significance. Indeed, there are examples in calcium deficiency during which, if insufficient calcium is present to provide for its various non-bone functions, the body can withdraw more calcium from the bones than is being deposited, leading to potentially serious reductions in bone strength (11).
Without question calcium is one of the most recognizable and popular minerals. Perhaps this is well deserved, as calcium is about 40 percent of total body mineral weight and about 1.5 percent of total body weight. Furthermore, calcium tends to be portrayed as a hero for protecting the human body from osteoporosis. However, most people really do not understand how calcium functions. Calcium is found in foods and the body as an atom with a +2 charge (Ca++ or Ca2+). Calcium atoms, therefore, are most stable after they have given up two electrons (see Chapter 1). Because of this heavy positive charge, calcium strongly interacts with substances bearing a negative charge. This allows it to form mineral complexes found in bone and teeth as well as interact with proteins to make things happen in certain cells. How Does a Calcium Deficiency Impact Bone Health A deficiency of calcium results in bone abnormalities. If the deficiency occurs during growing years, poor bone mineralization will...
The latest scientific evidence on the nature and strength of the links between diet and chronic diseases is examined and discussed in detail in the following sections of this report. This section gives an overall view of the current situation and trends in chronic diseases at the global level. The chronic diseases considered in this report are those that are related to diet and nutrition and present the greatest public health burden, either in terms of direct cost to society and government, or in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). These include obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, osteoporosis and dental diseases.
Beyond balance studies, other research studies involving the relationship between the essential nutrients and the body are reviewed to help determine the RDA. For example, the RDA for many nutrients during the years of rapid growth and during pregnancy must account for balance as well as an additional amount of a nutrient to allow for these periods of rapid growth. Furthermore, RDA determinations do not take into consideration acute disease, medications, or exercise training. Only recently have RDA considerations included chronic diseases such as osteoporosis and heart disease. However, at this time the RDAs and AIs are still considered to be below a level that would optimally support the prevention of several major diseases such as heart disease and cancer.
There is no evidence to suggest that athletes should consume more than the RDA for vitamin A or beta-carotene. Since vitamin A is stored in the body, it can have negative health effects. Studies show that excessive amounts can reduce bone-mineral density, among other negative effects. This hormone vitamin is unique in that the body can generally manufacture enough on its own if the skin is exposed to adequate sunlight. Vitamin D is essential for calcium metabolism and bone health. Emerging research shows it to be involved in a much wider spectrum of body functions, from helping prevent certain types of cancer and type 2 diabetes. However, there has been little research to investigate the effects of physical activity on vitamin D requirements or the effects of vitamin D on exercise performance. While there is no evidence that athletes are at special risk for vitamin D deficiency or that they need additional vitamin D, it is important for athletes in weight-sensitive sports (gymnasts,...