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Metric to English

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LENGTH

Kilometer

km

1 km 0.62 mile (mi)

1 mile (mi)

1.609 km

Meter

m

1 m 3.28 feet (ft)

1 foot (ft)

0.305 m

Centimeter

cm

1 cm 0.394 inches (in)

1 inch (in)

2.54 cm

Millimeter

mm

1 mm 0.039 inches (in)

1 inch (in)

25.4 mm

Micrometer

pm

WEIGHT (MASS)

Kilogram

kg

1 kg 2.2 pounds (lbs)

1 pound (lbs)

0.454 kg

Gram

g

1 g 0.035 ounces (oz)

1 ounce (oz)

28.35 g

Milligram

mg

Microgram

Pg

VOLUME

Liter

L

1 L 1.06 quarts

1 gallon (gal)

3.785 L

1 quart (qt)

0.94 L

1 pint (pt)

0.47 L

Milliliter

mL or cc

1 mL 0.034 fluid ounce (fl oz)

1 fluid ounce (fl oz)

29.57 mL

Microliter

pL

TEMPERATURE

°C = 5/9 (°F -

■ 32)

°F = 9/5 (°C + 32)

Abdominal cavity (Peritoneal), 55-56, 94

cramping, 10-11, 32, 67, 90-91 inflammation and disease, 55, 66, 68 wall, 68, 96-97 Absorption, 30, 66 carbohydrate, 67, 81 by cells, 33, 45, 57 lipid, 60-61, 63, 68, 75, 92-93, 95

of nutrients, 38-39, 49-50, 54, 56, 58, 60, 62, 64, 73, 76, 91-93, 97, 101, 104 vitamin, 22, 52, 62, 64, 68, 73, 99

Acetyl group, 26-27, 94,100,103 Acidophilus milk, 91, 94 Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), 14, 25, 94

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), 16, 94, 97

production, 13-14, 25-27, 100, 102, 105 Adipose tissue, 18, 94 ADP. See Adenosine diphosphate Adrenal cortex, 21, 94 Adventitia (Serosa), 33-35, 37-38,

48, 94, 104 Albumin, 92, 94 Aldosterone, 21, 94 Amylase, 45, 50-51, 59, 94 Amylopectin, 15, 94 Amylose, 15, 94 Anabolism, 25, 94 Anal canal (Anus), 38, 65-69, 73,

94, 98, 103 Anemia, 20, 92, 94 Anorexia nervosa, 87-89, 94 Antibody production, 35, 45, 95, 101

Appendicitis, 66, 95 Appendix, 66, 95 Atherosclerosis, 68, 81, 95 ATP. See Adenosine triphosphate

Bile salts, 58, 60-61, 95, 101 Bilirubin, 58, 67, 95 BMI. See Body mass index BMR. See Basic metabolic rate Body mass index (BMI), 74 Bolus, 37, 40, 44-46, 49-50, 62, 95 Brunner's glands, 57, 95 Buccinator, 41, 95

Calculus. See Tartar Calorie, 88, 95 empty, 16 need, 29,83, 85-87 Capillary, 56 -57, 95 Carbohydrate, 11, 21, 80, 88, 95 absorption, 67, 81, 90 breakdown, 26, 63 need, 22, 74

types, 14-16, 29-30, 38, 81-83 Carboxypeptidase, 60, 95 Catabolism, 25, 96 CCK. See Cholecystokinin Cecum, 65, 73, 95-96 Cellulose, 16, 96, 103 Cementum, 42, 96 Chief cell, 52, 96, 102 Cholecystokinin (CCK), 59, 96 Cholesterol, 16,19, 57-58, 60, 68, 92, 95, 103 absorption, 32 function, 20-21, 29, 33, 96 types, 99-100

Chylomicrons, 60, 96 Chyme, 37, 50, 54, 56-57, 59, 64,

66, 68-70, 73, 96 Chymotrypsin, 60, 96 Collagen, 17, 96 Colon, 65-67, 73, 96, 104 Colorectal cancer, 68, 71-72, 75,

Colostomy, 68, 96 Columnar epithelial cell, 33, 38,

52, 66, 96 Connective tissue, 35, 37-38,

42-44, 94, 96, 100, 103-104 Covalent bond, 12, 28, 96 Crown, 41-43, 96

Defecation, 68-72, 97 Dehydration, 76, 97 Dental plaque, 44, 97 Dermatitis, 20, 97 Dextrose, 83, 97 Diabetes mellitus, 68, 74-75, 79-83, 86-87, 89, 94, 97 Diaphragm, 47-48, 51, 66, 97, 105

Diet, 32, 59, 96, 98, 102 balanced, 14,16,19, 21 healthy, 74-76, 82, 86-89 supplements, 22, 24, 93 Digestion process, 30, 37-39, 45, 51, 62, 66, 97

products of, 56 -57, 73, 93 protein, 30, 50, 52,102 steps, 10-11, 37, 49, 53-54, 58, 60, 62-64, 67-68 Digestive system, 99,100, 103-105 accessory organs. See Gallbladder, Liver, and Pancreas enzymes, 37-39, 52-54, 58, 62,

91, 102, 105 problems, 10-11, 32, 48, 55, 64, 66-68, 70-71, 89-93, 97, 99, 101

structures, 31-37, 40, 46, 50, 52, 56, 65, 69-70, 73, 76,81,91, 96

tube, 101, 103-104 Disaccharides, 14 breakdown, 38, 60 types, 15, 29-30, 59, 83, 97 Diuretics, 76, 97 DNA, 97

Elastase, 60, 97

Electrolytes, 60, 70, 97

Electron transport chain, 14, 26 -27,

97, 100, 102 Elimination, 39, 65, 68-69, 71 Enamel, 41,49, 97 Enzymes, 16-17, 55, 97,100

61-63, 90-91,94,102,105 pancreatic, 37, 59-60, 91, 97, 102, 105 Epiglottis, 48, 98 Epithelia, 33, 35, 41, 46-48, 52, 56-57, 60, 69, 98,100-102 Esophagus, 46 -51 Essential fatty acids, 19, 98 Estrogen, 21, 98

Fad diets, 86-87, 98 Fat. See Lipids

Fatty acid, 18-19, 26, 32, 38, 46, 54, 59-60, 67, 80, 92-94, 98, 102-105 deficiencies, 20

Fiber digestion, 68 function, 16 Food guide pyramid, 74, 76, 78-80,

82, 89, 102 Food poisoning, 71 Fundus, 51, 98

Gallbladder, 37, 96

disease, 75, 68, 71,104 Gastric bypass, 76-77 Gastric ulcer, 55 Gastrin, 52, 54, 98 Gastroplasty, 76 Glucagon, 59, 98 Gluconeogenesis, 16, 98 Glycemic index, 82-84, 98 Glycerol, 18, 32, 38, 46, 60, 98, 105 Glycogen, 15-16, 98, 102-103 Glycolysis, 26-27, 98,103 Goblet cells, 33, 38, 46, 52, 66, 99 Growth hormone, 17, 99

Haustra, 67

HDLs. See High-density lipo-proteins

Healthy eating pyramid, 82 -83, 85, 89

78-79,81,89, 99 Heartburn, 48, 99 Heart disease, 68, 70, 75, 81, 86, 89 Hemoglobin, 24, 95, 99 Hemorrhoids, 68, 99 High-density lipoproteins (HDL),

19-20, 99 Hormones, 16-17, 21, 24, 37, 58-59, 62, 94, 96, 98-99, 102, 104

Hydrogen bond, 12, 99 Hydrogen ion, 26, 99,105 Hydroxyl ion, 99 Hypertrophy, 72, 99 Hypopharynx, 47

Ileum, 56-57, 62, 99, 103 Inflammation, 66, 70, 99 Ingestion, 30, 37-38, 40, 62, 85 Insulin, 59, 79-83, 97-99, 102 Intestine, 11, 16, 32, 87, 92,103, see also Large intestine and Small intestine Intrinsic factor, 52, 99,102-103 Ionic bond, 12,100

Keratin, 17, 100 Ketones, 87, 94,100 Krebs cycle, 26-27,100,102

Lactose intolerance, 10-11, 32, 93, 100

symptoms, 90 -91 Lamina propria, 33, 35, 100 Large intestine, 31, 68, 91 and defecation, 69, 73 and digestion, 64, 67, 73 and saliva production, 46 structures, 65 -67, 73, 95 -96, 105

and water absorption, 38-39, 62, 70, 91 Laryngopharynx, 46, 98, 100,103 LDL. See Low-density lipoproteins Lingual lipase, 45-46,100 Lipids (Fats), 10-11, 14,16, 29, 94-96, 98, 100-101, 103-105 absorption, 60 -61, 63, 68, 75, 92-93, 95

in diet, 74, 76, 80-83, 85, 88, 92 digestion, 30, 38,45, 57-58, 62-63 function, 18-22 types, 18-21, 32-33 Liver, 18-19

functions, 11, 16, 21-24, 57-58, 60, 67,81,91-92, 95-96, 99-100 problems, 20 Low-density lipoproteins, 19,100 Loose connective tissue, 35, 100 Lymphatic capillaries, 35, 56-57, 95,100

Lymph nodules, 35, 66, 101, 103 Lymphocyte, 45, 95,101

Malabsorption, 90-91,101 symptoms, 92 therapy, 93 Malnutrition, 89,101 Masseter muscle, 45, 101 Metabolism, 24-29, 64, 75,101 Micelles, 60-61,92-93,101 Microvilli, 57-58, 101 Minerals, 6,11,14,16,21,101 deficiency, 24, 29 function, 22, 24, 29 supplementation, 24 toxicity, 24 types, 24 Monosaccharides, 29-30, 38, 59, 83,90, 97,101,103 types, 14-15 Mouth, 40-41,49, 87 Mucosa, 33-34, 38, 47, 51-52,

55-57, 63, 66, 70, 100-101, 104 Muscularis mucosae, 33 -35, 38, 46-48, 50, 66, 101

Nasopharynx, 46-47,101 Nitrogen balance, 18,101

Nucleic acid, 50, 59-60, 97, 101-102 Nucleotide, 13, 60,102 Nutrients, 10, 70, 74-75

absorption, 38-39, 49-50, 54, 56, 58, 60, 62, 64, 73, 76, 91-93, 97, 101, 104 digestion, 30, 49-50, 57, 60,

64-65, 73 elimination, 30 function, 12-21, 29 types, 14-24, 29-30, 38, 93

Orbicularis oris, 40, 102 Oropharynx, 40, 44, 46-47,102 Osmotic pressure, 92, 94, 102 Osteoporosis, 89, 102 Oxidative phosphorylation, 26,102

Palate, 41, 48 Pancreas, 11, 57, 94-95 function, 58-59, 62, 81 secretions, 37-38, 60, 62, 91, 96-98, 102, 104-105 Pancreatic lipase, 59-61,102 Papillae, 44,102 Parietal cells, 52, 54, 99,102 Partially hydrogenated fat, 80, 102 Pepsin, 52, 54, 102 Pepsinogen, 52, 96, 98,102 Peptic ulcer, See Gastric ulcer Peptides. See Proteins Periodontal ligament, 43, 102 Peristalsis, 35-36, 46, 48-49,

69-70, 103 Peritoneal cavity. See Abdominal cavity Peritonitis, 55, 103 Pernicious anemia, 52, 103

Peyer's patches, 57, 103 pH, 87, 103 saliva, 45 stomach, 48 Pharynx, 36-37, 46-47, 49,

102-103 Phospholipids, 58,103

function, 18 Phytosterol, 21,103 Plaque, 19-20, 103 Polysaccharides, 14, 29, 96,103-104

types, 15 -16 Propulsion, 30 Prostate, 72,103

breakdown, 25, 32, 37, 54, 58-60, 62-63, 96-97 deficiency, 17, 92 digestion, 30, 50, 52, 102 function, 16-19, 22, 33, 94-95, 100

supplements, 18 Pyruvic acid, 26-27, 94,103

96, 103-104 Regurgitation, 48 Rugae, 51,103

Salivary glands, 103

enzymes, 45, 50-51, 59, 94, 100 function, 45 -46, 49 saliva, 45-46, 50-51, 62 types, 45 Salmonella, 70-71, 104 Saturated fat, 18-19, 32, 80-81, 98,

102, 104 Sebaceous gland, 40, 104 Secretin, 59, 104 Serosa. See Adventitia

Shigella, 70,104 Small intestine, 31, 65-66, 70 and absorption, 38-39, 50, 57-58, 64, 67, 73, 90, 95, 101, 104 and digestion, 37, 49, 51-52, 54, 56-57, 59-60, 63, 104 portions, 76, 96, 99-100, 105 and saliva production, 46 and water absorption, 62, 91 Smooth muscle, 35, 104 Sphincter, 69, 104

cardiac, 46-48, 50-51, 56 pyloric, 56 Squamous epithelial cell, 33, 41,

46-47, 104 Staphylococcus, 104 Starch, 14, 30, 37, 94, 103-104 digestion, 45, 49-51,59 types, 15, see also Amylose and Amylopectin Steatorrhea, 92,104 Steroids, 18, 20, 104 Stomach, 11, 31, 34, 36-38, 46-49, 59, 66, 76-77, 87,91 function, 50-56, 62 Stretch receptors, 54,104 Stroke, 19, 22, 33, 68, 78, 81, 89, 104 Submucosa, 33-36, 38, 47, 55-57,

62, 95, 104 Substrate phosphorylation, 25, 104 Swallowing, 40 -49

Tartar (Calculus), 44, 95, 105 Teeth, 40-44, 49 Teniae coli, 66, 105 Testosterone, 21, 105 Thorax, 97, 105 Thyroid gland, 24, 75,105 Tongue, 45, 48-49 taste buds, 44

Tonsils, 44-45,105 Trace metals, 24, 60, 93,105 Triglycerides, 19, 29, 38, 46, 49, 54, 80, 94, 98,100,102,105 digestion, 50, 57, 59-60, 92-93 composition, 32 function, 18, 26 Trypsin, 60, 105

Unsaturated fat, 18, 33, 80-81, 98,105

Uvula, 41

Villi, 56, 58, 60, 63, 66, 105 Vitamins, 11,14,16, 21,105 absorption of, 22, 52, 62, 64,

68, 73, 99 deficiency, 23-24, 29, 92 function, 22 -23, 29 supplementation, 22, 24, 93 toxicity, 23-24 types, 22-24, 64, 83,91-92

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