Food Pyramids Obesity And Diabetes

Food Pyramid Including Corn

An estimated 60 of Americans are overweight and 25 are obese. Obesity can be measured in several ways. One method states that if a person weighs more than 20 of the ideal weight according to the height weight chart, the person is obese. This method does not take into account an athlete who may weigh more than a nonathlete because of muscle, not fat. Another method of measuring obesity is to measure percentage of body fat. If a person's body fat is more than 25 for a man or 30 for a woman, that...

Your Health The Importance Of Brushing Your Teeth

Tooth decay begins when dental plaque, a layer of bacteria, trapped sugars, and mouth debris, sticks to teeth. Plaque provides a safe haven for bacteria to live and metabolize the bits of trapped food. Bacterial waste consists of assorted acids that damage tooth enamel. Once the enamel is damaged, the bacteria break down the proteins of the tooth and cause tooth decay or cavities. Periodontal disease may result if the plaque builds up on the gums. This buildup, called tartar or calculus, may...

Metabolism

First Pass Metabolism

Once nutrients have entered the body cells, they are involved in a wide range of biochemical reactions. Metabolism is the sum of the chemical reactions that occur in cells and the reactions breaking them down. Metabolic reactions either Figure 3.1 Anabolism and catabolism are both metabolic reactions. Anabolism is the creation of larger molecules from smaller ones, while catabolism is the breaking of large molecules into smaller pieces. Both processes are illustrated here. make molecules or...

Digestion In The Small Intestine

Small Intestine Fat Digestion

When acidic chyme enters the duodenum, it triggers several events. The acid, along with short proteins called peptides and fatty acids in the chyme, causes cells at the beginning of the duodenum to secrete intestinal fluid. About 1 to 2 quarts of this digestive fluid is produced each day. The intestinal juice, which contains some mucus, is alkaline and helps to neutralize the acidic nature of chyme and protect the duodenum from the effects of the acid. The chyme also causes the release of two...

Two Year Molars

Second Molars Baby

Amy's teeth, just as with all adults, are her second set of teeth. Every human is born with two sets of teeth that are hidden in the upper and lower jaws. At about six months of age, individuals begin to get their first teeth, called baby or deciduous teeth. The first set of teeth will continue to penetrate through the gums up to about two years of age, until all 20 teeth have emerged. The first set consists of eight incisors, four canines, and eight molars Figure 5.1a . The second set of...

Esophagus

Nasopharynx Oropharynx Hypopharynx

Once the bolus of food passes through the oro- and laryn-gopharynx, it enters the esophagus. This muscular tube, located behind the windpipe, is collapsed when empty. The esophagus is about 10 inches long, starts at the bottom of the laryngopharynx, and ends at the opening of the stomach called the cardiac sphincter. A sphincter is a circular arrangement of Figure 5.3 The structures of the pharynx and esophagus are illustrated here. The pharynx is composed of the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and...

Digestion Absorption and Elimination

Absorption And Elimination

Let's get back to Amy and her lunch mentioned in Chapter 1. She will eat her hamburger, fries, and chocolate shake, but how do these nutrients get to the tissues in the body that need them Digestion is the process of preparing foods to enter the body. This may sound strange, but any foods inside the digestive system are not yet actually in the body. The digestive system is a long tube about 30 feet when relaxed with openings at both ends Figure 4.1 . This tube is contained within the body and...

Accessory Organs The Liver Gallbladder And Pancreas

Gallbladder With Microvilli

The liver and the gallbladder are two important accessory digestive organs that work with the small intestine. The liver Figure 6.3 Villi and microvilli illustrated here act to increase the surface area of the small intestine, thus increasing the potential for nutrient absorption. Villi are finger-like projections on the surface of the intestine, and microvilli are smaller projections stemming from the villi. Figure 6.3 Villi and microvilli illustrated here act to increase the surface area of...

Conversion Chart

Abdominal cavity Peritoneal , 55-56, 94 cramping, 10-11, 32, 67, 90-91 inflammation and disease, 55, 66, 68 wall, 68, 96-97 Absorption, 30, 66 carbohydrate, 67, 81 by cells, 33, 45, 57 lipid, 60-61, 63, 68, 75, 92-93, 95 of nutrients, 38-39, 49-50, 54, 56, 58, 60, 62, 64, 73, 76, 91-93, 97, 101, 104 vitamin, 22, 52, 62, 64, 68, 73, 99 Acetyl group, 26-27, 94,100,103 Acidophilus milk, 91, 94 Adenosine diphosphate ADP , 14, 25, 94 Adenosine triphosphate ATP , 16, 94, 97 production, 13-14, 25-27,...

Structure Of The Digestive Tube

Wall Structure Digestive Tract

Throughout the digestive tube, the walls of the organs are made up of four layers mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, and the serosa or adventitia Figure 4.2 . The innermost layer of the digestive tube is the mucosa. This layer is composed of three parts the epithelium, the lamina propria, and the muscularis mucosae. The innermost part of the mucosa is the epithelium. Most of the epithelial layer is made up of a single layer of cells called columnar epithelial cells. These cells are lined up like...

Regulating Digestion In The Stomach

Food Entering The Stomach

Digestion in the stomach can be stimulated in a variety of ways. The thought, sight, or smell of food can stimulate the stomach to secrete digestive fluids. When food enters the Figure 6.2 Gastric pits, found in the lining of the stomach, contain special cells that secrete chemicals used in digestion. Shown here is a micrograph of gastric pits. Figure 6.2 Gastric pits, found in the lining of the stomach, contain special cells that secrete chemicals used in digestion. Shown here is a micrograph...

Websites

American Gastroenterological Association Foodborne and Diarrheal Diseases-Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases A Voyage Through the Digestive Tract, Colorado State University

Large Intestine Anatomy And Digestion

Large Intestine Haustra Anatomy

The large intestine Figure 7.1 is a tube about 5 feet long and Figure 7.1 The large intestine consists of the cecum, colon, rectum, and anal canal. It is last place where the body will remove nutrients before the waste is excreted. Figure 7.1 The large intestine consists of the cecum, colon, rectum, and anal canal. It is last place where the body will remove nutrients before the waste is excreted. 2.5 inches in diameter. It is wider than the previous sections of the digestive tube and can store...