What Can Antioxidants Do

To date, numerous studies have shown that antioxidants may protect against the following Macular degeneration Scientists report that a daily mix of antioxidants may slow macular degeneration in people who already have the disease. The recommendations include extra E, C, beta-carotene, and zinc. You may also need to take extra copper, because the zinc can oftentimes interfere with absorption. Free radicals can be Although beta-carotene is still considered a powerful antioxidant, it is no longer recommended in supplemental form. Many years ago, a study found that smokers who took beta-carotene supplements showed an increased risk of lung cancer. However, these findings certainly do not mean that beta-carotene has lost any importance among the antioxidant world. It does mean that until we have further information, people should solely focus on getting beta-carotene from food sources rather than supplemental megadoses. Immunity Researchers theorize that antioxidants might help to...

Antioxidant Vitamins A Closer Look

You've probably read the headlines Antioxidants Promote Health or Antioxidants Prevent Aging. A quick trip through the supermarket shows that many food manufacturers are fortifying food with beta carotene (which forms vitamin A in the body), vitamin C, and vitamin E, as well as selenium (a mineral). Just what are antioxidants They're a handful of vitamins, minerals, carotenoids, and polyphenols present in a variety of foods that significantly slow or prevent the oxidative (damage from oxygen) process and so prevent or repair damage to your body cells. They may also improve immune function and perhaps lower risk for infection and cancer. What makes them unique What foods supply them naturally How might they work in your body And how may antioxidants promote health and reduce chronic disease risk Since antioxidants research is new, there's no conclusive evidence yet on their role in health. However, Rounding Up Free Radicals later in this chapter explains how antioxidants appear to work.

Nonenzymatic Small Molecules Antioxidants

To this group of defence mechanisms belong all antioxidant vitamins and other substances which decrease oxidation in biological systems such as ubiquinone, lutein, lycopene, flavonoids, taurine and plant phenols and indoles. The important issue of these antioxidants is that increasing the dietary intake can raise their concentration in blood and tissues. Concomitantly the antioxidant potential of the body will increase or decrease depending on the supply with daily food. ANTIOXIDANTS AND EXERCISE INDUCED FREE RADICALS ANTIOXIDANTS Antioxidants are compounds that readily donate electrons or hydrogen without themselves being converted into highly reactive radicals. There are several classes of nutritional compounds that can do this Vitamin E is a fat soluble vitamin (alpha-tocopherol) present in cell membranes and lipoprotein particles. It readily reacts with hydroxyl radicals, donates its own hydrogen and thereby terminates the chain reaction, which could be so damaging to membranes....

Fruits and Vegetables A Look at Their Antioxidant Potential

A food's health-promoting benefits likely come from many antioxidants, not just a single antioxidant nutrient or food substance. With this in mind, a scientific scoring method the ORAC (oxygen radical absorbency capacity) score-has been created to estimate the overall antioxidant potential of fruits and vegetables. The higher the ORAC score, the greater the antioxidant potential. Sources USDA Agricultural Research Service, Food and Nutrition Research Briefs (April 1999). Calculated to serving sizes, J. Walsh, The Growing Allure of Antioxidants, Environmental Nutrition (January 2000). Sources USDA Agricultural Research Service, Food and Nutrition Research Briefs (April 1999). Calculated to serving sizes, J. Walsh, The Growing Allure of Antioxidants, Environmental Nutrition (January 2000). Remember The ORAC score offers a scientific method for looking at food in a new way. No guidelines exist to suggest how many ORAC units you need. Be aware A high ORAC value doesn't mean a food...

Day in the Life of an Antioxidant

We've all heard the news Antioxidants reduce your risk for heart disease and certain cancers and boost your immune system. So what exactly are antioxidants and how do they work As you know, every cell in your body needs oxygen to function normally. Unfortunately, the utilization of this oxygen produces harmful by-products called free radicals. Free radicals are also created from environmental pollution, certain industrial chemicals, and smoking. Outside the body, the process of oxidation is responsible for a sliced apple turning brown and the rusting of metal. Inside the body, oxidation contributes to heart disease, cancer, cataracts, aging, and a slew of other degenerative diseases. In other words, free radicals are the enemy. So why isn't everyone falling apart Your cells have their own special defense technique to fight off these radical monsters. What's more, scientists have unfolded compelling evidence suggesting that certain vitamins (specifically C, E, and beta-carotene) can...

Should Endurance Athletes Use Antioxidants Supplements

Oxygen-based free radicals are normally produced by aerobic energy metabolism. During aerobic activities even more free radicals are created as energy expenditure increases several fold. In response, muscle produces and maintains greater levels of antioxidants. In addition, anti-oxidants from foods can incorporate into muscle and help keep free radicals at bay. Food-derived antioxidents include carotenoids, poly-phenolics, vitamin C and E, lipoic acid, and coenzyme Q. However, supplementing excessively large levels of these nutrients is not recommended.

Antioxidant nutrients and nonnutrients Protection against Radical Damage

Apart from avoidance of exposure to ionizing radiation, there is little that can be done to prevent the formation of radicals, as they are the result of normal metabolic processes and responses to infection. There are, however, a number of mechanisms to minimize the damage done by radical action. As the important radicals are oxygen radicals, and the damage done is oxidative damage, the protective compounds are known collectively as antioxidants. Antioxidants such as vitamin E (sections and 11.4), carotene (section and ubiquinone (section owe their antioxidant action to the fact that they can form stable radicals, in which an unpaired electron can be delocalized in the molecule. Such stable radicals persist long enough to undergo reaction to yield non-radical products. However, because they are stable, they are also capable of penetrating further into cells or lipoproteins, and hence causing damage to DNA in the nucleus or lipids in the core of the...

Free Radicals and Antioxidants

Over the past two decades, a persuasive theory of why cells gradually lose function has evolved - the free radical theory of aging. A free radical is a highly reactive molecule whose structure contains an unpaired, unstable electron. Free radicals in the body react with and oxidize nearby molecules and damage cell membranes, fatty acids, proteins, and DNA. Many free radicals are toxic derivatives of oxygen, produced by cell metabolism (as byproducts of energy-producing reactions) or environmental toxins (chemicals, radiation). To help protect themselves against free radicals, our cells evolved a complex array of free-radical defenses, or antioxidants. These antioxidants can neutralize free radicals and protect the cell. (For a detailed discussion of free radicals and antioxidants, see pp. 115). What is particularly intriguing about the free radical theory is that it suggests a practical means of modifying the effects of aging. Boosting levels of natural antioxidant compounds in cells...

What Causes Free Radicals

Thus far we have seen that free radicals are commonly produced during the normal energy-producing reactions within our cells that is, it is part of life. What is less appreciated is the fact that if we increase our metabolism, we also increase free-radical production. So how do we increase our metabolism One of the most common ways is by exercising. It is now known that intense exercise dramatically increases free-radical production and lipid peroxidation. This has been demonstrated in carefully conducted experiments in marathon runners and extreme athletes. There is also some evidence that extreme athletes have a higher incidence of free-radical diseases such as cancer, immune suppression, and cardiovascular disease. Another way our metabolism is increased is by overactivity of the thyroid. Normally, the thyroid gland hormones regulate our metabolism. Overproduction increases metabolism (hyperthyroidism) and underproduction (hypothyroidism) slows metabolism. Persons suffering from...

Why Are Antioxidants Important in Cancer Prevention

Vitamin C, carotenoids, polyphenolic compounds, vitamin E, selenium, copper, zinc, and manganese are very important factors in normal anti-oxidant activities. These factors then become very important in cancer prevention as many cancers begin with free-radical damage to key cell components, such as DNA. All of these factors can be found to some degree in fruits, vegetables, legumes, and whole grains, which probably is a primary reason why people eating a diet rich in these natural foods are at a lower risk of most cancers. Furthermore, people eating a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and legumes tend to eat less fat and exercise more frequently. Whether there is a need for antioxidant supplementation is the subject of much debate. Antioxidants can lower the risk of cancer development by inactivating harmful free radicals.

Antioxidants In Health And Disease

Lycopene is a powerful antioxidant (di Mascio et al., 1989 Sies and Stahl, 1998 Torbergsen and Collins, 2000). Although oxygen is essential to human life, it is also destructive. Rust and rot are both oxidative mechanisms. Many human tissues are also susceptible to oxidation, especially those containing polyunsaturated fats. Exposure to environmental pollutants such as smoking, smog, and irradiation increase oxidation. In fact, most scientists believe that oxidative damage is a major factor in most degenerative diseases of aging, such as heart disease, cancer, and macular degeneration. During life, our tissues would be susceptible to similar processes, except for the intervention of a variety of antioxidants. The antioxidant defense system is a network of vitamins (C, E), minerals (selenium, copper), phytonutrients (beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein), and biological products (bilirubin, coenzyme Q10) that protect tissues from oxidative damage (Jacob and Burri, 1996). Lycopene is an...

What Are Free Radicals and Antioxidants

Over the past decade or so, more and more attention has focused upon free radicals or oxidants and their counterparts, antioxidants. Once we understand free radicals, it is easy to appreciate the importance of nutrients associated with antioxidant activities of vitamins and minerals such as vitamins C and E and selenium, copper, iron, manganese, and zinc as well as other nutrients such as lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin. A free radical is a substance that interacts with other molecules by taking an electron from them or by forcing an electron upon them. In most cases it is the former event. You will remember that earlier we called the process of losing an electron oxidation and the process of gaining an electron reduction. The major difference between proper oxidation and reduction and the damaging activity of free radicals is a matter of acceptability and stability of the molecules that free radicals interact with. Since free radicals often interact with molecules that do not want...

Antioxidants and Exercise Induced Free Radicals

It is generally recognized that free radicals are formed during oxidative energy production processes. During these processes oxygen becomes reduced to form water, while adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is formed from adenosine diphosphate (ADP). Certain physical restrictions dictate that oxygen can only receive one electron at a time while four electrons are required to produce water. This univalent pathway of oxygen reduction transiently leads to the production of free radicals. Addition of one, two or three electrons to molecular oxygen leads to the production of superoxide (O2 ) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hydroxyl radical (OH') respectively. It has been estimated that about 2 to 5 of the total electron flux during normal metabolism 'leaks off' to generate free radicals. Accordingly, intensified respiration during sports activity is accompanied by an enhanced free radical production that can be further augmented by increased body temperature and increased stress hormone levels....

Antioxidants for Preventing Atherosclerosis

For maximum protection, go to 100 mg three times a day, to 600 mg a day in divided doses. CoQIO is a powerful antioxidant that has been shown to reduce oxidation of LDL cholesterol. Take one twice to three times a day. This flavonoid, found in high concentrations in teas, apples and onions, is a powerful antioxidant both on a cellular level and in preventing LDL cholesterol oxidation in blood vessel walls. This flavonoid is a powerful antioxidant against numerous types of free radicals and has very potent anti-inflammatory properties as well. It will reduce the inflammatory response within blood vessel walls, thus reducing atherosclerosis. Vitamin E is the major antioxidant found within the structure of LDL. It also improves blood flow and protects other organs and tissues from free-radical damage. Some may wish to go to 1,000 mg three times a day. Again, take it on an empty stomach. It works in conjunction with vitamin E, as well as other antioxidants. Take one a...

Free Radicals In Sport

Additionally, free radicals may result from energy depletion in skeletal muscle during which ATP is broken down to ADP 2 AMP 2 hypoxanthine, which finally leads to the formation of xanthine and uric acid in red blood cells and endothelial cells, resulting in the liberation of free radicals. This is the xanthine oxidase (XO) pathway. Also the autooxidation of catecholamines as well as the production of nitric oxide, substances that are increased during exercise, lead to free radical production. From animal experiments as well as from surgery in humans it is known that a restriction of blood flow, followed by reperfusion (restoration of blood flow) is accompanied by an enhanced production of free radicals. Similarly, it may be that a significant reduction of the blood flow to the gastrointestinal tract, as takes place during endurance events in a dehydrated state, may cause similar effects. In marathon runners, a condition of gut ischaemia and gut mucosa necroses, leading to bloody...

Antioxidantsyour Ace Against Oxygen Rebels

Before we can appreciate what an antioxidant does for us, we must take another side-trip into chemistry for a glimpse at oxidation and the potential threat it can become to living cells. The encyclopedia tells us that if we could separate out the atoms, oxygen would make up half of the weight of all the rocks in the earth's crust, and eight-ninths of the weight of water. It makes up two-thirds of the weight of the human body.*77 However, you will recall that body processes are not random. According to Dr. Milton G. Crane, researcher at Weimar Institute, Oxidation is meant to occur in a controlled sequence and in a specific setting within the cell chemistry. For oxygen to work in the body, nutrients need to be obtained from the plant products in such a way that they will not be oxidized or burned up at the wrong time or in the wrong place. *79 Dr. Crane uses the analogy that just as it is possible to kindle a fire anywhere in your home to stay warm, a wood stove or fireplace is your...

Early Nutrition and Antioxidant Defenses

Another way that nutrition protects all of us from disease is by fortifying the body's antioxidant defenses. We have already seen the immense destructive power of free radicals it is important to remember that under normal circumstances the cell is undergoing a barrage of attacks by free radicals resulting in the oxidation of the major components of the cell the membrane lipids, the DNA, carbohydrates, and the proteins. These destructive effects are slow and accumulate over many years. For these reasons, it is vital for us to build strong antioxidant defenses early in life, even before birth. For mothers, especially, this means that you must be sure you are adequately supplied with antioxidants and the nutrition necessary to complete the building of the other components of the antioxidant network (antioxidant enzymes and thiols) for both you and your child.

The Role of Zinc in Antioxidant Defence

Zn plays a role in antioxidant defence, protecting cells from the damaging effects of oxygen radicals, which are generated during immune activation. Zn is a component of the cytosolic superoxide dismutase enzyme. Zn also regulates the expression of metallothionein and metallothionein-like proteins in lymphocytes, which have antioxidant activity (Prasad, 1993). Membrane Zn levels are strongly influenced by dietary Zn levels, and Zn concentrations in cell membranes appear to be important in preserving their integrity through poorly defined mechanisms involving binding to thiolate groups. Zn release from thio-late bonds can prevent lipid peroxidation. In addition, nitric oxide induces Zn release from metallothionein, the primary Zn-binding and transport protein in the body, which may limit free-radical membrane damage during inflammation. Indeed, Zn supplementation could prevent pulmonary pathology due to hyperoxia in rats (Taylor and Bray, 1991).

Nonnutrient antioxidants

In addition to these protective nutrients and normal metabolites, a wide variety of compounds that are naturally present in plant foods also have antioxidant action. These are mainly polyphenols, which are capable of forming stable radicals that persist long enough to undergo reaction to non-radical products. However, they are also potentially capable of undergoing non-enzymic redox cycling, leading to increased formation of oxygen radicals.

Rounding Up Free Radicals

Just how do antioxidant vitamins work First let's learn more about oxygen. To produce energy, every cell in your body needs a constant supply of oxygen. For this reason, oxygen is basic to life. There's another side to the oxygen story. When body cells burn oxygen, they form free radicals, or oxygen by-products a free radical is an unstable molecule with a missing electron. Free radicals can damage body cells and tissues, as well as the DNA, your body's master plan for reproducing cells. Environmental factors such as cigarette smoke and ultraviolet light also cause free radicals to form in your body. In your body, the process is similar. Free radicals cause oxidation, or cell damage, as they steal an

Fight Back with Antioxidants

Unfortunately, harmful agents called free radicals are produced when we breathe and process oxygen. In fact, these destructive bad guys can also be produced as a result of pollution, stress, pesticides, asbestos, x-rays, preservatives, exhaust fumes, tobacco smoke, and injury. As discussed in a previous chapter, free radicals trek all over the body and actually destroy the cell's DNA a cancer-promoting activity. The good news is that we naturally protect ourselves by forming antioxidants, substances that help our body's defense system fight off free radicals and preserve healthy cells. Furthermore, we know that certain foods are rich in nutrients that act as powerful antioxidants and might intensify the body's ability to degrade free radicals into harmless waste products that get eliminated before they do any damage.

How Does the Body Protect Itself Against These Nasty Free Radicals

In His divine wisdom, God equipped our bodies with a very efficient system to protect us against destructive free radicals. This system, or network, is composed of many parts that work more efficiently together than alone. In fact, most antioxidants when used alone can actually become free radicals themselves. First, let us see how antioxidants work to neutralize these damaging particles. Chemically, a free radical is a particle possessing an unpaired electron in its outer orbital. To the non-scientist this means nothing. In nature, electrons always prefer to come in pairs. If they don't, they will steal an electron from whatever is close by. This process of stealing electrons is called oxidation. When free radicals are loosed in a cell, the unpaired electron begins to steal electrons from surrounding DNA molecules, proteins, and lipids within the membranes, as I discussed earlier. Antioxidants work by supplying electrons to free radicals, thus sparing the cell's vital components. In...

Mechanism of the Effect of Oxidants and Antioxidants on Inflammation and Immune Function

Otz Glutathione

There is a growing body of evidence that antioxidants suppress inflammatory components of the response to infection and trauma and enhance components related to cell-mediated immunity (see Hughes, Chapter 9, Prasad, Chapter 10, and McKenzie et al., Chapter 12, this volume). The reverse situation applies when antioxidant defences become depleted. Unfortunately, NFkB also activates transcription of the genes of some viruses, such as HIV. This sequence of events in the case of HIV accounts for the ability of minor infections to speed the progression of individuals who are infected with HIV towards AIDS, since, if antioxidant defences are poor, each encounter with general infections results in cytokine and oxidant production, NFkB activation and an increase in viral replication. It is thus unfortunate that reduced cellular concentrations of GSH are a common feature of asymptomatic HIV infection (Staal et al., 1992). Oxidant damage to cells will indirectly create a pro-inflammatory effect...

Antioxidant Properties Of Wine

A number of in vitro studies have reported that wines possess intrinsic antioxidant activity. Maxwell et al. (1994) reported that red wines themselves had about 30fold greater antioxidant activity than normal human serum, and the contribution of various polyphenols to the total antioxidant activity of red wine has been described (Rice-Evans et al., 1996). It was also observed that the total reactive antioxidant potential of red wines was 6 to 10 times higher than white wine (Campos and Lissi, 1996). Antioxidant properties of wine have also been observed in vivo. For example, in nine healthy subjects who drank 300 mL of red wine, 18 and 11 increases in serum antioxidant capacity was observed after 1 h and 2 h, respectively, but less than the 22 and 29 increases seen at these times in subjects who took 1000 mg ascorbic acid (Whitehead et al., 1995). Lesser increases in serum antioxidant capacity were observed if the subjects drank white wine, or apple, grape, or orange juice. Plasma...

Increased Antioxidant Capacity and Genomic Stability

The traits described thus far are acquired in the course of tumor progression via alterations in the genomes of cancer cells, resulting from DNA damage. Cells are exposed to a variety of oxidizing agents, termed reactive oxygen species (ROS), coming from exogenous and endogenous sources that can damage DNA. Oxidative damage of DNA, if left unrepaired, can lead to base mutations, single and double strand breaks, DNA cross-linking, chromosomal breaks and rearrange-ments.50 An estimate of the daily rate of oxidative damage to DNA is 104 hits per cell in humans.51 Normally there is a balance between oxidizing and antiox-idizing molecules in the body and mutations in specific genes are kept in check by a number of DNA monitoring and repair systems that work to prevent and reverse alterations in specific genes.50 However, an imbalance in the system due to overproduction of free radical oxidants or an inadequacy of antioxidants, can lead to oxidative damage of large biomolecules, including...

Dietary sources of antioxidant vitamins

The most important antioxidant in cell membranes is a-tocopherol, the major member of the vitamin E family. This molecule acts as a 'chain-breaking antioxidant', intercepting lipid peroxyl radicals and so terminating lipid-peroxidation chain reactions. Vitamin E is found in many dietary fats and oils, especially those containing PUFA (Table 9.2). Thus, the dietary intake of vitamin E is related to the intake of PUFA. Intakes among adults in the UK vary between 3.5 and 19.5 (median 9.3) mg a-tocopherol equivalents day-1 for men and Table 9.2. Dietary sources of antioxidant vitamins. between 2.5 and 15.2 (median 6.7) mg day-1 a-tocopherol equivalents for women (Department of Health, 1991). Another group of lipid-soluble compounds that can act as antioxidants are the carotenoids, such as p-carotene, lycopene and lutein, found in highly pigmented fruits and vegetables (Mangels et al., 1993). The major water-soluble free radical scavenger is ascorbic acid (vitamin C), which also plays a...


Our bodies have evolved several lines of antioxidant defense against free radicals. Antioxidants are able to interact with and reduce free radicals. By donating electrons, antioxidants convert the radicals to stable, nontoxic metabolites.3 Both individual antioxidants and antioxidant enzyme systems are important in free-radical scavenging. Four of the major antioxidants are essential micronutrients (vitamins C, E, beta-carotene, cysteine), while two can be synthesized in limited amounts by the body (glutathione and coenzyme Q10). Riboflavin and the trace elements selenium, copper, zinc, manganese, and iron are essential components of the major antioxidant enzymes. The major antioxidants The major antioxidants Major antioxidant enzymes and their vitamin and trace-element components Major antioxidant enzymes and their vitamin and trace-element components Antioxidant enzymes Most antioxidants scavenge free radicals by donating an electron. In the process the antioxidant is oxidized. For...

Antioxidant Teams

As unsaturated fatty acids are more prone to free-radical attack, many researchers contend that diets containing more unsaturated fatty acids will increase the need for vitamin E. One fate of diet-derived fatty acids is to become part of phospholipids in cell membranes. In fact, the more unsaturated fatty acids found in the diet, the more unsaturated fatty acids found in cell membrane phospholipids. They argue that as we shift our fatty acid intake to more unsaturated fatty acids, such as the poly-unsaturated ra-3 and ra-6 fatty acids, we may need to provide these fatty acids with adequate antioxidant escorts (for example, vitamin E). Other antioxidants such as vitamin C are not as impressive in directly protecting unsaturated fatty acids. This is because their water solubility keeps them more involved in the watery intracellular fluid rather than the lipid portion of cell membranes. Does Vitamin E Work with Other Antioxidants in a Team-Like Manner It should be recognized that other...

Antioxidants and SCD

The issue of the effect of dietary antioxidants on the risk of CHD in general and on SCD in particular is more controversial. Regarding vitamin E, for instance, the most widely studied dietary antioxidant, discrepant findings between the expected benefits based on epidemiological observations2930 and the results of clinical trials3132 were published. In a recent controlled trial, a significant decrease in nonfatal AMI and a nonsignificant increase in cardiovascular mortality (in particular the rate of SCD)

Good Dietary Sources

A diet rich in fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains, nuts, and seeds provides a balanced intake of antioxidants.13 In addition, many foods contain non-nutritive antioxi-dants that may be important in protection from oxidative stress.14,15 However, it is very difficult to obtain the recommended amounts of many of the antioxidants using only food sources. For example, to obtain 200 mg of vitamin E one would need to eat 2 kg of peanuts or 300 g of sunflower seed oil. To obtain 500 mg of vitamin C in a day, one would need to eat more than 0.5 kg of oranges or broccoli. Supplementation with a complete antioxi-dant formula is an efficient way to maintain antioxidant levels in the body. Non-nutritive antioxidants in the diet Non-nutritive antioxidants in the diet Antioxidants Fig. 3.24 Interdependence of the principal antioxidants. Fig. 3.24 Interdependence of the principal antioxidants.

What the Heck Is a Free Radical

You have probably heard the ads on TV about the importance of antioxidants, but have only vaguely understood what they do or what oxidation is. Oxidation is a common, everyday process from rusting of metal left out in the weather to our need for oxygen to breathe. At the same time, oxygen is a powerful destroyer of life. All of us are aware that without oxygen we would quickly die however, few of us are aware that this same life-giving oxygen is slowly killing us and making us sick. During this carefully regulated chemical process, some of the electrons escape and act as very reactive particles we call free radicals. (About 95 percent of the oxygen that enters our cells goes to mitochondria, the powerhouse of the cell, but 3-5 percent of this oxygen escapes in the form of free radicals.) These particles can damage any part of the cell with which they come into contact. You can visualize them as red-hot particles bouncing in all directions within the cell, burning the DNA, the cell...

Is Alcohol Good or Bad for Our Health

This may be one of the few books that even considers calling alcohol a nutrient. However, it does nourish our body by providing energy, and research has suggested that ingesting small amounts of alcoholic beverages daily is associated with a lower occurrence of heart disease. Alcoholic beverages contain antioxidants and other health-promoting nutrients. For instance, wine contains many polyphenolics substances such as EGCG (epigallocatechin gallate) as well as resveratrol that function as antioxidants and in other ways have a positive impact on aspects of health. This notion serves as the basis of the French Paradox, whereby the French have a dramatically lower incidence of heart disease despite eating and activity patterns that aren't that much different from Americans. The major difference appears to be based on the greater wine consumption.

What Is in My Food Besides Natural Components

Many if not most manufactured foods contain food additives used to improve taste, texture, appearance, shelf life, safety, or nutritional value of the product. Some of the general food additive categories include antioxidants, antimicrobials, coloring agents, emulsifiers, flavoring agents, sweeteners, pH controllers, leavening agents, texturizers, stabilizers, enzymes, and conditioners. All food additives were tested for safety and received approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This process can take years.

What Is a Whole Grain

The bran makes up the outer layers of the grain. It supplies antioxidants, B vitamins, trace minerals, and dietary fiber. The germ is small but very important. It sprouts, generating a new plant. It has B vitamins, vitamin E, trace minerals, antioxidants, and essential fats. Most foods with significant amounts of fiber such as legumes (dry beans), whole-wheat bread, strawberries, and broccoli are packed with carbohydrates (complex or simple) and other essential nutrients. For example, many fruits and vegetables contribute antioxidant vitamins (beta carotene and vitamin C), which may help protect against some cancers. Whole grains contain antioxidant nutrients (such as vitamin E and selenium), iron, magnesium, zinc, and B vitamins. And legumes supply protein as well as B vitamins and iron. Foods with more fiber often have less fat, too. Most fiber-rich foods are loaded with phytonutrients that offer a wide range of health-promoting benefits. Consider this besides fiber, whole-grain...

How Does Olive Oil and Oleic Acid Impact Heart Disease

Olive oil contains antioxidants such as phenolic compounds (for example, hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, oleuropein) and other nutraceuticals that can promote a healthier cardiovascular system. Olive oil doesn't raise cholesterol levels and contains antioxidants that can protect arteries.

Food Whats in Store for

Doughnut-shaped peaches for something new . . . hummus, guavajuice, or pad Thai for ethnic adventure . . . multigrain cereal with flaxseed, orjuice with added antioxidants for their health benefits. You'll find these foods alongside your traditional favorites in today's supermarkets.

Vitamin and Mineral Needs

Any increased vitamin and mineral needs can be met by eating according to the Food Guide Pyramid (Chapter 3, Figure 3-1). Particularly, increase the number of fruits and vegetables you eat as these foods are good sources of many vitamins and minerals, as well as antioxidants (see Chapter 3, Table 22, Table 2-3, and Appendix A). Antioxidant (see Glossary) nutrients may protect you from environmental stressors and may accelerate your recovery from exhaustive exercise. Fresh fruits and vegetables also provide potassium, which is lost during prolonged strenuous exercise (see Table 2-3).

Related titles from Woodheads food science technology and nutrition list

Antioxidants in food practical applications (ISBN 1 85573 463 X) J. Pokorny, N. Yanishlieva and M. Gordon Antioxidants are an increasingly important ingredient in food processing, as they inhibit the development of oxidative rancidity in fat-based foods, particularly meat and dairy products and fried foods. Recent research suggests that they play a role in limiting cardiovascular disease and cancers. This new book provides a review of the functional role of antioxidants and discusses how they can be effectively exploited by the food industry, focusing on naturally occurring antioxidants in response to the increasing consumer scepticism over synthetic ingredients.

The DRIs Dietary Reference Intakes

Because scientific knowledge regarding diet and health has increased, the Food and Nutrition Board has recently expanded its framework and developed the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for several vital nutrients. It is forecasted that over the next three to four years additional groups of nutrients including phtyoestrogens, antioxidants and phytochemicals will also be slated for review toward DRI development. These new DRI standards include the RDAs as goals for intakes, plus three new reference values the estimated average requirement (EAR), the tolerable upper limit (UL), and the adequate intake (AI). On the two reference charts provided here, you'll notice that some nutrients are listed as DRIs, some as RDAs, an some as AIs a bit confusing but all you'll need to understand is the actual recommended amount.

Dietary Prevention Of Sudden Cardiac Death

In the absence of a generally accepted definition, SCD is usually defined as death from a cardiac cause occurring within 1 hour from the onset of symptoms.1 The magnitude of the problem is considerable because SCD is a very common, and often the first, manifestation of CHD and accounts for about 50 of cardiovascular mortality in developed countries.1 In most cases, SCD occurs outside a hospital and without prodromal symptoms. We shall now examine whether diet (more precisely, certain dietary factors) may prevent (or help prevent) SCD in patients with established CHD. We will focus our analyses on the effects of the different families of fatty acids, antioxidants, and alcohol.2

In General What Substances in Food May Be Important in Cancer Prevention

As mentioned several times, people who eat more fruits, vegetables, legumes, and whole grains are at a lower risk for various cancers. It now appears that many other factors in these foods, beyond the established nutrients, impact the development of cancer. These substances include phenols, indole, aromatic isothiocyanates, carotenoids, fibers, terpenes, polyphenolic, and organosulphur compounds. Many of these substances have been studied in cell cultures and also in animals and appear to be very promising. Together with vitamin and mineral antioxidants such as vitamins E and C and copper, selenium, zinc, and manganese these

Beyond Calories and Protein What Special Nutrients Are in Infant Formulas

In addition to providing energy and protein, many infant formulas are iron fortified and contain a complement of vitamins and minerals to improve their composition. Recently, DHA and ARA (arachidonic acid) have been included to some infant formulations. These fatty acids are richly found in the brain and other neurological tissue and are believed to be important for proper neurological and cognitive development. Additionally, some formulas contain antioxidants as well as bacterial strains such as bifidobacteria, which are important for properly functioning digestive tract.

Micronutrients Cervical Dysplasia

Antioxidant formula 3000 ig for women who have an abnormal Pap smear showing cervical dysplasia 800 ig for prevention 5 mg for women who have an abnormal Pap smear 0.4 mg for prevention Should contain ample beta-carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C, as well as selenium (see pp. 118 for recommended levels of antioxidants) May help reverse dysplasia.27,28 High doses of vitamin A should only be taken with the advice of a physician May reverse dysplasia.29-31 Should be taken as part of a vitamin B complex May help reverse cervical dysplasia. Low intake of antioxidants increases risk28,32,33

Fruits Vegetables and Atherosclerosis

Barry Halliwell and his co-workers, some years ago, examined the advanced atherosclerotic plaques from autopsied persons and measured their free-radical content using sophisticated methods. They found that the crud from these arteries contained high levels of iron and copper, both of which are powerful free-radical generators, in addition to other oxidation substances. In other words, the crud was a hot spot of free-radical activity. The question that arose was is this a late event, or did these free radicals play a part in the process itself Examination of very early atherosclerotic lesions (fatty streaks) yielded the same findings. LDL cholesterol has its own internal antioxidant protection system. Key to this protection is vitamin E, a very powerful and efficient antioxidant, especially in protecting fats from oxidation. Normally, there are six molecules of vitamin E incorporated in LDL's molecular structure. But, the LDL molecule contains other antioxidants that also play a...

The Ultimate in Functional Foods Fruits and Vegetables

Or come in a clever, man-made package, but they are the quintessential functional foods. Manufacturers may try, but fruits and vegetables represent the truly natural health food. Fruits and vegetables pack in the nutrients while remaining light in calories. Loaded with antioxidants, phytochemicals, and physiologically active components that protect us from illness and promote health, fruits and vegetables are superstars. Individual stars include tomato products as rich sources of the cancer-risk reducer lycopene, broccoli's famed association with reducing risk of certain cancers, and berries' ability to boost antioxidant defenses. On the whole, fruits and vegetables have been shown to shine by cutting a fruit and veggie enthusiast's cancer risk in half compared to their produce naysayers.

Vitamins and Minerals

Electron from body cells to become stable. Over time, that may lead to cell dysfunction and contribute to the onset of health problems such as cancer, artery and heart disease, cataracts, age-related macular degeneration, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and some deterioration that goes with aging. Antioxidants in your body counteract the action of free radicals. Three antioxidant vitamins appear to neutralize free radicals beta carotene and other carotenoids, vitamin C, and vitamin E. Some enzymes that have trace minerals selenium, copper, zinc, and manganese and some phytonutrients act as antioxidants, too. As scavengers, antioxidant vitamins mop up free radicals by donating an electron of their own. The result Antioxidants may control free radicals or convert them to harmless waste products that get eliminated before they do damage. Antioxidants even may help undo some damage already done to body cells. Each antioxidant has its own biological job description. Being water-soluble,...

Have You Ever Wondered

Working as antioxidants, they help protect naturally present nutrients in foods essential fatty acids (linoleic and linolenic acids) and fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K). Studies verify the safety of BHA and BHT as GRAS ( generally recognized as safe ) substances. Citric acid, a natural component of citrus fruits, works as an antioxidant, helping food keep its color. Coating sliced apples with lemon juice does the same thing keeping the apple from turning brown. Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) does this, too. Antioxidants (to prevent rancidity or discoloration) . . . in baked goods, cereals, fats, oils, processed foods, salad dressings, and high-fat foods such as chips and doughnuts, among others.

What Is the Composition of Sport Drinks

Sport drinks provide fluid, energy, and electrolytes and possibly other nutrients such as protein, amino acids, calcium, magnesium, B-complex vitamins, and antioxidants. The energy in sport drinks is provided largely in the form of carbohydrates such as glucose, sucrose, fructose, corn syrup, maltodextrins, and glucose polymers. Maltodextrins and glucose polymers are mostly cornstarch that is partially broken down. Glucose and fructose are monosaccharides, whereas corn syrup is derived from cornstarch, which has been partially broken down to short, branching chains of glucose. Maltodextrin is just a few glucose molecules linked together with a branching point. Glucose polymers may just be short chains of glucose. Carbohydrates usually make up about 6 to 8 percent of the sport drink. Recently protein and amino acids have been formulated into sports drinks with research suggesting better hydration, performance, and recovery. Time will tell whether these ingredients provide more benefit...

Metabolic transit and in vivo effects of Maillard reaction products

11.6.2 Antioxidant activity An important primary effect of browning is the formation of antioxidants, compounds that are able to delay or prevent oxidation processes, typically involving lipids. Such antioxidants greatly affect the shelf-life of foods but may also benefit health (Halliwel, 1996), especially in the prevention of cancer (Kim and Mason, 1996), cardiovascular disease (Maxwell and Lip, 1997) and ageing (Deschamps et al, 2001). The formation of antioxidants in browning has been observed in several different systems, for example sugar amino acids model systems (Lignert and Eriksson, 1981), model melanoidins (Hayase et al, 1990), and honey lysine model systems (Antony et al, 2000). They have also been seen in heated or roasted foods, such as coffee brews (Nicoli et al, 1997). However, the processing conditions should be chosen very carefully in coffee, for example, the antioxidant activity increases with roasting up to the medium-dark roasted stage, then decreases with...

Health Benefits Not Related To Nutritional Essentiality

Associations observed subsequently between diet composition, intakes of various individual diet components, and the incidence of heart disease and cancer have implicated food constituents such as fatty acids, fiber, carotenoids, various nonnutrient substances in plants, and high intakes of some essential nutrients (especially vitamins E and C, which can function as antioxidants) as factors influencing the risk of developing these diseases ( 6) (see CMp.te.L76,, .Chapter and CMp.t.e,r 8 1). This has led to proposals for modifying the criteria for essentiality or conditional essentiality to include dietary constituents reported to reduce the risk of chronic and degenerative diseases or to improve immune function, and for considering such effects of high intakes of essential nutrients as part of the basis for establishing RDIs (2, 3, 4, 5 and 6). Food Constituents Desirable for Health. A straightforward way of avoiding these problems is to treat food constituents that exert desirable or...

How To Eat Raw In The City

And nuts protects the body from pollution. If we are totally purified on a raw-food diet containing little or no fats, pollution can filter into us (things move from areas of greater concentration to areas of lesser concentration). By eating nuts we provide a dense fat substance which moves into the lymph and thickens our tissues - this protects us. Nut fats also provide us with more antioxidants to protect against free radicals formed from city toxins.

Prevention and nutrition

As was stated earlier, there are no well-established methods of primary prevention for preeclampsia, although numerous supplements have been studied regarding their ability to impact its occurrence. Thus far, randomized controlled trials do not support routine prenatal supplementation with magnesium, omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidants (vitamins E and C), or calcium to prevent preeclampsia 21-24 .

What Is A Free Radical

A free radical is an atom or molecule, capable of existing independently for an extremely short period of time, which contains one or more unpaired electrons. An overview of different free radicals also called reactive oxygen species is given in Table 9. Some free radicals are very reactive chemically and thereby carry the potential for extensive damage to the organism in which they are generated. Free radical reactions involve the donation or acquisition of a single electron. This tends to create another radical ANTIOXIDANTS AND EXERCISE INDUCED FREE RADICALS Table 9 Reactive oxygen species

Cysteine and Glutathione

The amino acid cysteine contains a sulfur group that allows it to function as an important antioxidant. Cysteine can function independently as an antioxidant, or it can be combined with glutamic acid and glycine in liver cells to form glutathione. Glutathione is a principal water-soluble antioxidant in cells and the blood.1 The dietary supply of cysteine is a primary determinant of how much gluta-thione is synthesized in the body, and supplements of cysteine can boost tissue levels of glutathione. Antioxidant and detoxification function. Cysteine, alone or as part of glutathione, is a potent antioxidant, protecting against free radical damage.2 Glutathione, working with the enzyme glutathione peroxidase (a selenium-containing enzyme), detoxifies free radicals, drugs, and toxic chemicals. It also recycles oxidized vitamin E and vitamin C, conserving body stores of these antioxidants.3

How Important Are Blood Lipids in Determining the Risk of Heart Disease and Stroke

On the other hand, HDL-cholesterol seems to decreases the risk of heart disease and it is often referred to as the good cholesterol. Researchers believe that the virtuous nature of HDLs is due to their ability to gather some of the cholesterol associated with atherosclerotic plaque. This could slow the progression of atherosclerosis. In addition, HDLs carry antioxidants which can reduce LDL oxidation.

Neurological Disorders

The aging population worldwide yields concern for an increased prevalence of dementia. Hypothetical reasons exist for lifelong dietary patterns influencing the most common forms of dementia. Harman has elucidated a theory that free radicals might be involved in the onset of dementia.97 Vegetarian diets high in antioxidants may confer protection against free radicals and thus reduce the risk of senile dementia.98 Multi-infarct dementia may also be related to the consumption of cholesterol and different fatty acids. Ghadirian et al.110 performed a case-control study of MS in Montreal and showed a protective effect with dietary patterns that included fiber, vegetable protein, vitamin C, vitamin E, thiamin, riboflavin, calcium, and potassium. These components of plant foods offer protection via regulatory processes of the nervous system or by acting as antioxidants in contrast to an increased risk with high-energy and animal-food intake. Alternatively, Sinclair has suggested that the...

The Relationship between Diet Physical Activity and Cancer

While the exact mechanisms by which diet is related to cancer have not been completely understood, research has shown that food plays a role in cancer prevention. For example, populations whose diet includes at least five servings of fruits and vegetables a day have lower rates of some of the most common cancers. Fruits and vegetables contain many antioxidants and phytochemicals, such as vitamins A, C, and E, and beta-carotene, which have been shown to prevent cancer. It is not completely clear, however, whether it is individual phytochemicals, or a combination of them, or the fiber in fruits and vegetables that result in reduced risk of cancer. Studies have shown the risk of prostate cancer drops for men who eat tomato products, possibly because of the phytochemical lycopene. In addition, it has been shown that colon cancer declines among those who drink green tea, which contains antioxidants and phytochemicals, and who regularly eat soy products and foods rich in selenium, an...

Essential fatty acids and other specific fatty acids

In the context of wound healing, the obvious role for essential fatty acids is on modulation of inflammation and the immune response.112-114 An examination of the literature in this area will uncover some conflicting data as to the benefits of essential rn-3 and rn-6 fatty acids in wound healing. One study in essential fatty acid deficient (EFAD) rats found that the healing rate of partial-thickness cutaneous burns was significantly decreased compared to controls.115 However, this study also found that healed single dorsal skin incisions were stronger in control animals, but there was no difference between the groups when ventral skin incisions with underlying fascial incisions were measured. These results would suggest that the type of wound or wound location and regional environment (adipose tissue ) may influence healing. Another study on cutaneous wound healing in EFAD rats concluded that essential fatty acids were not necessary for cutaneous wound repair.116 In this study, there...

Causes of maternal mortality and the link with nutrition

The sections that follow describe the evidence linking maternal nutritional deficiencies to maternal mortality. Specifically, the association between anemia and maternal mortality and hemorrhage is examined, including the efficacy of iron supplementation and other interventions in reducing maternal anemia. The role of calcium and antioxidants in the prevention of hypertensive disease and preeclampsia, and the efficacy of magnesium sulfate in the prevention of eclampsia is reviewed as well as the link between sepsis and infection and maternal vitamin A and zinc deficiencies. Finally, causes of obstructed labor and nutritional factors related to maternal stunting with focus on growth in childhood and adolescence are discussed.

Types of CAM Modalities

Included among the nutrition approaches that make up the biologically-based modalities is the use of dietary supplements. Dietary supplements may be botanical (herbal) supplements or nutritional supplements, which include vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, enzymes, metabolites, nonpre-scription hormones, glandular extracts, and various amino acids, fatty acids, and other nutrients.

Coronary heart disease CHD

Although observational studies have provided support for the potential health benefits of antioxidants, there remains a deficiency of direct experimental evidence from randomised trials. In the ATBC study, mentioned earlier (see section 3.6), there was not only no reduction in lung cancer or major coronary events, there was in fact an increase in lung cancer (ATBC Cancer Prevention Study Group, 1994). What was more startling was an unexpected increase in death from haemorrhagic stroke associated with vitamin E supplementation (50mg day). Some more positive results emerged from a study carried out in China where 130 000 adults from Linxian Province, who did not have cardiovascular disease at entry, were randomly assigned to receive daily vitamin E (30 mg), b-carotene and selenium supplements or placebo. During the 5.2 years of follow-up, there was a 9 decrease in 'deaths from any cause' without any significant reduction in cardiovascular events. However, the dose of vitamin E was...

Healthrelated roles of Pcarotene

3.6.1 P-Carotene as an antioxidant The ability of carotenoids to act as antioxidants can be measured in vitro, ex vivo, or in vivo. LDL isolated from an individual who has been supplemented with carotenoids and then evaluated for its antioxidant activity is an extension of an in vivo study, i.e. ex vivo. However, when carotenoids are added to plasma and then the oxidisable value of the LDL is measured it is more like an in vitro model (Krinsky, 2001). Many studies report using the ex vivo method of measuring the oxidisability of the LDL particles after feeding increased amounts of carotene-containing foods. However, when using fruits and vegetables the outcome is variable and difficult to interpret because they also contain vitamin C, polyphenols and flavonoids, which are also potential antioxidants. One study which gave additional dietary fruits and vegetables to subjects reported an increase in the resistance of LDL to oxidation (Hininger et al, 1997) while two other studies found...

Eat Your Fruits and Vegetables

The advice you've likely given kids applies to you, too Eat your fruits and vegetables Colorful and nourishing, they're mostly nutrient rich and provide plenty of phy-tonutrients. Along with their many health-promoting benefits, their fiber can help overcome constipation. Their potassium may help counter the effects of sodium on blood pressure, and their antioxidants may provide anti-aging properties that may reduce disease risk.

Markerassisted Selection

A distinct advantage of both conventional plant breeding and marker-assisted selection is that metabolic pathways, enzyme structures, or catalytic mechanisms do not need to be well defined (Schmidt-Dannert et al., 2000). It has been a long-held presumption, with no supporting evidence, that increasing the nutrient content might lower crop yield (Ruel and Bouis, 1998). It should be feasible to alter phytochemi-cal or nutrient content without altering yield, because phytochemicals make up a very small percentage of a plant's dry weight (

Role Of Flavonoids In Cardiovascular Disease

In addition to alcohol, evidence that dietary flavonoid intake was inversely related to mortality from coronary heart disease has been supported by recent epi-demiologic studies (Knekt et al., 1996 Hertog et al., 1993a, 1995, 1997 Rimm et al., 1996). In the Zutphen Elderly study, Hertog et al. (1993a, 1997) showed that after adjustment for age, weight, certain risk factors of coronary artery disease, and intake of antioxidant vitamins, the highest tertile of flavonoid intake, primarily from tea, onions, and apples, had a relative risk for heart disease of 0.32 compared with the lowest tertile, assigned a relative risk of 1.0. It should be noted that wine was not a significant contributor to flavonoid intake in these studies. At present it is not possible to distinguish from these epidemiologic observations whether the protective effect is related to polyphenols in general, consumption of certain foods high in these compounds, or other dietary components. Thus the evidence supporting a...

Mercury Exposure in Adulthood

Pregnant women with numerous dental amalgam fillings should protect themselves and their babies by taking supplemental antioxidants, especially selenium and alpha-lipoic acid. They should also avoid taking megadoses of vitamins to avoid possible toxic effects to the baby. I would suggest 100 ug of selenium a day, double RDA levels of the B vitamins, 25 mg alpha-lipoic acid a day, 400 IU natural form vitamin E (mixed tocopherols), and 400 mg of magnesium a day.

Complex Metabolic Disease

Take vitamins C and E and the carotenoids, for example. LDL contains, deep in its core, six vitamin E molecules, which act as built-in protection against oxidation. Normally, this is a very effective mechanism. Vitamin E, for example, can scavenge a powerful free radical called peroxyl ten thousand times more powerfully than it can fat molecules. But, there is a problem. The inner core of the LDL molecule is liquid and can contain free radicals that escape the fat-soluble vitamin E. This is where water-soluble vitamins come into play vitamin C and carotenoids, both water soluble, can enter this area and neutralize these free radicals, preventing the vitamin E from being oxidized. Once again, this process demonstrates the importance of the antioxidant network, and why you should take all of the antioxidants, not just one or two.

Fruits And Vegetables A Population Studies

A host of cancer-preventive and cardio-protective phytochemicals have been identified in these foods (see Table 14.1).21 Some of these phy-tochemicals may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease by improving blood flow, inhibiting LDL oxidation, inhibiting platelet aggregation, interfering with cholesterol absorption and modulating cholesterol metabolism. The phytochemicals effectively involved in these processes include the carotenoids, flavonoids, tocotrienols, terpenoids, isoflavones, phytosterols, and various sulfur compounds from the Allium herbs. Furthermore, many of these phytochemicals block various hormone actions and metabolic pathways that are associated with the development of cancer stimulate the immune system block the formation of adducts between DNA and a carcinogen induce phase I enzymes (such as cytochrome P-450) and phase II enzymes (such as glutathione-S-transferase) and have antioxidant activity.1,11,20,22-28 Hundreds of carotenoids have been identified in...

Detoxification In The Body

The two phases of detoxification occur quite rapidly and rely on the presence of particular amino acids, vitamins, minerals and other nutrients for smooth action. If there is a deficiency of any of these nutrients, the process may be impeded. If there is a load of toxins to be dealt with, and the liver is not functioning at its best, or is already overloaded, the process may not be completed properly. It is essential for both phases to work correctly for optimum detoxification to occur. If not, such as when the body is overloaded with toxins, the numbers of free radicals created during the process may cause cellular damage within the body, especially if there are inadequate supplies of antioxidants to prevent this damage. In addition, unprocessed toxins will recirculate in the body,

Did You Stop to Think

On the label, 100 percent juices, such as orange juice, won't list sugar and water as separate ingredients. They're naturally present in juice. Sometimes tart juices, such as cranberry, are blended with other juices, water, and sweeteners to make them more pleasing. Some juice drinks are flavorful blends, such as cranberry-mango or tangerine-grapefruit. A nutritional difference between fruit juices and fruit drinks is that fruit juices often contain more of other important nutrients and phytonutrients, such as folate in orange juice or antioxidants in blueberry juice.

Nutrition and Disease

The wide use of olive oil in food preparation throughout the Mediterranean region contributes to a diet high in monounsaturated fatty acids and cultures commonly known for lower blood pressure among their populations. Recent research has produced scientific proof that a Mediterranean diet (which includes olive oil) is not only generally healthful, but that consuming olive oil can actually help lower harmful low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (often referred to as bad cholesterol). Olive oil contains antioxidants that discourage artery clogging and chronic diseases, including cancer. antioxidant substance that prevents oxidation, a damaging reaction with oxygen

Treatments and Remedies Benefits and Disadvantages of Each

The results of human experiments designed to study the effect of soy products on alleviating symptoms during menopause are new and inconsistent, but promising. In addition, the isoflavones in soy products are strong antioxidants and may be effective in reducing the risk of CHD in women of menopausal age. antioxidant substance that prevents oxidation, a damaging reaction with oxygen

Long chain fatty acids

Feeding fish oil (rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) including EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) suppresses dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colonic tumours in rats (Latham et al., 1999). Curiously, feeding DHA to ApcD716 mice resulted in fewer intestinal polyps in females but not in males (Oshima et al., 1995). Several PUFAs are cytotoxic to epithelial cells, and apoptosis may be an important element of this cytotoxicity (Johnson, 2001). EPA induces apoptosis in CRC cell lines, and the protection against CRC afforded by the fatty acids in fish oils may result from greater diversion of crypt cells with DNA damage to apoptosis (Latham et al., 1999). Induction of apoptosis by these n-3 PUFAs may be signalled by lipid peroxidation products especially in tumour cells that overexpress P450 (Stoll, 2002). The hypothesis that apoptosis is due to increased oxidative stress is supported by the observation that the effect is amplified by depletion...

Nuts Seeds And Oils

Nuts, especially peanuts, are a good source of saponins which are reported to have both anticarcinogenic activity and hypocholesterolemic activity.135,136 Most nuts and oilseeds are a good source of phenolic acids (such as caffeic and ellagic acids). In particular, pecans and walnuts have high levels of the cancer-preventive ellagic acid,71 the majority of which is lost when the nuts are blanched.137 Typically, nuts also contain 300-500 mg of phytates per ounce.138 Phytates are known to reduce the risk of various cancers and reduce cell proliferation.139 Nuts are also rich in tannins, which are water-soluble polyphenolic compounds.49 Tannins have antioxidant, mutagenic and antimicrobial activities. Some are reported to possess anticarcinogenic activity.140 Tannins have also been reported to decrease blood lipid and blood pressure levels and modulate immunore-sponses, depending on the amount and type of tannins consumed.140 With such an array of cancer-preventive substances in nuts, it...

Lifestyle and Nutrition

It is widely believed that chronic stress can aggravate the development of chronic diseases. However, the reasons for the high cancer and CVD mortality in Eastern Europe are (with the significant exception of male smoking) not yet known. It is possible that in communist countries the effect of traditional risk factors has been intensified unidentified factors. Hypothetically, such factors can comprise psychosocial disorders, alcoholism, environmental pollution and specific nutritional deficiencies (e.g., very low intake of antioxidant vitamins, folic acid, and bioflavonoids). Very low blood levels of antioxidants, especially of vitamin C and selenium, were found in various regions of Central and Eastern Europe between 1970 and 1990. antioxidant substance that prevents oxidation, a damaging reaction with oxygen Finnish and Russian epidemiologists compared the plasma ascorbic-acid concentrations among men in North Karelia (Finland) and in the neighboring Russian district. Almost all...

Vitamin C and immune function

One of the major problems in assessing the beneficial effects of dietary components on the immune system is the lack of a reliable marker of immune function that is known to be indicative of a long-term beneficial effect in terms of reducing the incidence of degenerative disorders in later life. Although not an immunological one, one recent study does provide an excellent example of the potential need to maintain adequate intakes of antioxidant nutrients in the middle years of life to prevent the accumulative damage caused by ROS being made manifest in later years. Jacques et al. (1997) examined the cross-sectional relationship between age-related lens opacities and vitamin C supplement use over a 10-12-year period in women without diagnosed cataract or diabetes. Use of vitamin C supplements for 10 years or more was associated with a 77 lower prevalence of early lens opacities and an 83 lower prevalence of moderate lens opacities, compared with women who did not use sup plements....

Vitamins and Vascular Disease

As I stated earlier, one of the earliest observations, somewhere around the early 1930s, was that persons with the highest intakes of vitamin C had the lowest incidences of heart attacks and strokes. The more we learn about vitamin C, the more we can begin to appreciate its almost miraculous health effects. This water-soluble vitamin does a lot more than just strengthen collagen tissue and act as an antioxidant, it also plays a vital role in immunity, controls brain levels of neurotransmitters, acts as an energy source, protects the nervous system from glutamate toxicity, and has antiviral and antibacterial properties. Its role in building collagen tissue is also very important in protecting our blood vessels, since collagen gives them their strength. Deficiencies in vital antioxidants, and an increase in free radicals and lipid peroxidation products, have been found to worsen as the damage to the heart increases. One study of twenty patients with heart failure found that as...

Diabetes and Neurological Problems

Because of the continual increased production of free radicals and lipid peroxidation in diabetics, it is vital to increase the body's supply of glutathione. Oral glutathione is poorly absorbed and is better supplied by taking N-acetyl L-cysteine (NAC). Alpha-lipoic acid also increases glutathione levels in cells, including brain cells. In addition, alpha-lipoic acid increases energy production and removes excess iron from the tissues (by chelation). Alpha-lipoic acid is found naturally in all cells, and exists in two forms an oxidized form called alpha-lipoic acid, and a reduced form known as dehydrolipoic acid or DHL A. The latter is the most powerful antioxidant form. Following ingestion, alpha-lipoic acid form is quickly converted to DHLA, which is not only a powerful and very versatile antioxidant, but can regenerate other antioxidants, increase cellular glutathione levels, and force glucose into cells without the aid of insulin. I have used it in both type I and II diabetics...

Strength of evidence

Antioxidants, folate, and flavonoids Even though antioxidants could, in theory, be protective against CVD and there is observational data supporting this theory, controlled trials employing supplements have been disappointing. The Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation trial (HOPE), a definitive clinical trial relating vitamin E supplementation to CVD outcomes, revealed no effect of vitamin E supplementation on myocardial infarction, stroke or death from cardiovascular causes in men or women (24). Also, the results of the Heart Protection Study indicated that no significant benefits of daily supplementation of vitamin E, vitamin C and b-carotene were observed among the high-risk individuals that were the subject of the study (25). In several studies where dietary vitamin C reduced the risk of coronary heart disease, supplemental vitamin C had little effect. Clinical trial evidence is lacking at present. Observational cohort studies have suggested a protective role for carotenoids but a...

AOhd Analogs In The Treatment Of Cancer

Also discussed in detail the possible mechanistic basis for the observed synergy or additive effect of deltanoids in several different tumor types. Evidence available from the literature on the potentiation of deltanoid effects with other differentiation agents, plant derived compounds, antioxidants, and other agents is presented in the review article by Danilenko and Studzinski.94

Nutrition and Hypertensive Disease of Pregnancy

Oxidative stress has been proposed to have a potential role in the two-stage model of preeclampsia 54, 56, 57 . The first stage in this model is reduced placental perfusion, resulting from abnormal implantation or other pathologies. The second stage involves the maternal hypertensive inflammatory response that may be influenced by environmental factors and oxidative stress 56 . Trophoblastic cells isolated from the placenta of preeclamptic women have increased superoxide generation and decreased superoxide dismutase activity, supporting the hypothesis that increased oxidative stress plays a role in the pathology for preeclamptic placentae 58 . In a small randomized, placebo-controlled trial, daily vitamin C (100 mg) and E (400 IU) from 16 to 22 weeks of gestation significantly reduced the risk of preeclampsia 59 . The plasminogen activator inhibitor ratio (PA1 PA2), which is elevated in preeclampsia, significantly decreased due to supplementation, suggesting a reduction in endothelial...

Selection of methodology

The study of whole foods, fats and certain micronutrients and how these could influence immune function is currently under development. Fundamental observation of human PEM has shown that generalized malnutrition leads to impaired immune response and susceptibility to infection (see Chandra, Chapter 3, this volume). However, direct examination of how dietary intake of any particular nutrient affects the immune response is a complex undertaking. Table 2.1 includes four studies on dietary intake. Labeta et al. (2000) addressed the fundamental question of how human milk might activate the neonatal immune system by molecular mimicry through the isolation and sequencing of a relevant polypeptide. Fawzi et al. (2000) focused on how a whole food, specifically tomatoes, may protect against morbidity and mortality, an idea that has come from studies implicating antioxidants as improving immune function (see Hughes, Chapter 9, this volume). The relationship held true even with correction for...

Fish n Fatty Acids and SCD

Support for the hypothesis of a clinically significant antiarrhythmic effect of n-3 PUFA in the secondary prevention of CHD, as put forward in DART,3 came from two randomized trials testing the effects of ethnic dietary patterns (instead of effects of a single food or nutrient), i.e., a Mediterranean type of diet and an Asian vegetarian diet, in the secondary prevention of CHD.1819 The two experimental diets included high intake of essential alpha-linolenic acid, the main vegetable n-3 PUFA. While the incidence of SCD was markedly reduced in both trials, the number of cases was very small and the antiarrhythmic effect cannot be entirely attributed to alpha-linolenic because the experimental diets were also high in other nutrients with potential antiarrhythmic properties, including various antioxidants. The GISSI Prevenzione Trial was aimed at helping address the question of the health benefits of foods rich in n-3 PUFA (and also in vitamin E) and their pharmacological substitutes.25...

Can Endurance Performance Be Improved with Coenzyme Q

Coenzyme Q, also known as CoQ10 and ubiquinone, can be found in the cells as a key component of the electron-transport chain. It also functions as an antioxidant and it has been used as a supplement by many individuals who are taking statin drugs. Some of the earlier studies regarding the effects of supplemental CoQ10 on athletic performance were positive however, more recent and better designed studies have failed to show a significant performance benefit of CoQ10 supplementation. However, CoQ10 might be a desirable supplement for antioxidant protection for athletes.

Use in Prevention and Therapy

Riboflavin functions as an antioxidant throughout the body and may be especially important in the lens of the eye. Ample intake of riboflavin can reduce the risk of developing cataract. As a cofactor of glutathione reductase, riboflavin helps maintain the body's supply of reduced glutathione, an important antioxidant.1

Supplements for Heart Health

Questions arise about the role of vitamin supplements to enhance heart health. Living healthfully could be so much easier if we could just take a pill that could compensate for both suboptimal eating and suboptimal genetics. Unfortunately, the vitamin and antioxidant studies that looked for reduction in heart disease saw few benefits and even potential harm from taking high doses of beta-carotene, selenium, and vitamin E. The same goes for folate and other B vitamins research results have been disappointing. Hence, the AHA highly encourages you to get your vitamins and antioxidants from fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and vegetable oils. The right foods can be powerfully health promoting See chapter 11 for more information about vitamin supplements.

Recommended Daily Intakes

Oral glutamine supplements are normally taken in the range of 2-12g day. To enhance glutathione synthesis and antioxidant protection, glutamine should be taken with cysteine and selenium.1 Antioxidant system. Glutamine increases levels of glutathione in the liver and intestine, enhancing the antioxidant defenses of these tissues.1

Figure Summary Of Fatsoluble Vitamins

Cornea and retina), vision Epithelial cells that form skin and protective linings of lungs, gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract, and other organs Reproduction Growth and development Bone and teeth development Immune system function Antioxidant Antioxidant especially helps red blood cells and cells in lungs and brains Immune system function Nervous system function Protection of vitamin A from oxidation Like beta-carotene and vitamin E, vitamin C is an important antioxidant in the body. For example, it prevents the oxidation of iron in the intestine so that the iron can be absorbed. Its antioxidant properties have made variations ofvitamin C widely used as a food additive. It may appear on food labels as sodium ascorbate or calcium ascorbate. Neither of these substances has vitamin C activity.

Can Vitamin E Help Prevent Heart Disease

Vitamin E provides some protection against heart disease as it circulates throughout the body aboard lipoproteins. As discussed, one of the primary factors associated with atherosclerotic development is the oxidation of fatty acids and proteins in LDL to form oxidized LDL. Vitamin E may provide some antioxidant protection for these molecules. Several large population research studies indicate that people with higher intake levels had a lower incidence of heart attacks and death related to heart disease. Supplementation of 200 International Units of vitamin E daily is recommended in addition to food sources.

Micronutrients Cancer

Supplementation reduces risk of cancer.5,6 An essential component of antioxidant enzyme systems that can protect cells and DNAfrom oxidant damage. Deficiency increases risk of cancer An antioxidant that protects cells and DNAfrom oxidant damage.10 Particularly effective in reducing risk of lung cancer11 and stomach cancerfrom processed meats containing nitrites12 An antioxidant that protects cell membranes and DNAfrom oxidant damage. May reduce risk of cancer6,13-15 Fig. 5.20 Antioxidant vitamins and colonic polyps. Fig. 5.20 Antioxidant vitamins and colonic polyps.

Effects of other nutrients that might have an impact on glutathione status

Vitamin B6, although having no antioxidant properties, plays an important part in antioxidant defences, because of its action in the metabolic pathway for the formation of cysteine, which, as indicated earlier, is the rate-limiting precursor in glutathione synthesis. Vitamin B6 status has widespread effects upon immune function (Rall and Meydani, 1993). Vitamin B6 deficiency causes thymic atrophy and lymphocyte depletion in lymph nodes and spleen. Antigen processing is unaffected. However, the ability to make antibodies to sheep red blood cells is depressed. In human studies, the ability to make antibodies to tetanus and typhoid antigens is not seriously affected. Various aspects of cellmediated immunity are also influenced by vitamin B6 deficiency. Skin grafts in rats and mice survive longer during deficiency, and guinea pigs exhibit decreased delayed-hypersensitivity reactions to bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) administration. Deficiency of vitamin B6 is rare in humans but can be...

Biochemical functions

Vitamin C can act both as an antioxidant and a pro-oxidant. AA can readily donate electrons to quench a variety of reactive free radicals and oxidant species and is easily returned to its reduced form by electron donors such as glutathione, flavonoids, tocopherol and NADPH (Zeigler et al, 1996 Xu and Wells, 1996). Vitamin C can scavenge hydroxyl, peroxyl and superoxide radicals as well as reactive peroxide, singlet oxygen and hypochlorite species (Bendich et al, 1986 Sies and Stahl, 1995). Vitamin C is believed to be of fundamental importance as an antioxidant in tissues. The evidence suggests that it protects against plasma lipid and low density lipoprotein peroxidation by scavenging peroxyl radicals from the aqueous phase before they can initiate lipid peroxidation, which it does by regenerating oxidised vitamin E to the active reduced form (Thurnham, 1994). In vitro vitamin C is rapidly lost when plasma is exposed to peroxyl radicals, cigarette smoke or activated neutrophils and...

Cell Culture And Epidemiological Studies Of Betacarotene Cancer And Heart Disease

Over 250 epidemiological studies of cancer or heart disease risk have shown that high dietary intakes of beta-carotene rich fruits and vegetables were associated with lower risk of premature disease and death (Ziegler, 1991). Beta-carotene was linked to the prevention of cancer, heart disease, macular degeneration, and premature aging in these studies (Burri, 1997 Erdman et al., 1996). Cell culture, animal, human, and in vitro studies showed that beta-carotene was an effective antioxidant (Dixon et al., 1998 Dugas et al., 1999 Lin et al., 1998 Lowe et al., 1999). Furthermore, it was more powerful in gap-junction formation than lycopene (Bertram et al., 1991 Zhang et al., 1992), and inhibits cholesterol synthesis by the same mechanism as lycopene (Aviram and Fuhrman, 1998 Fuhrman et al., 1997).

Do fiCarotene and Other Carotenoids Decrease the Risk of Heart Disease

Fruit and vegetables are endowed with carotenoids, many of which provide antioxidant support in the fight against heart disease. Being fat-soluble, carotenoids circulate throughout the body aboard lipoproteins and provide protection against oxidation (which promotes atherosclerosis). Several large population studies have reported that the incidence of heart disease is lower in people who eat a diet rich in these substances and have higher levels in the blood. However, which carotenoids are more

Can Garlic Help Prevent Heart Disease

Garlic has sulfur-containing substances including allicin and its breakdown products diallyl sulfides, which are purported to have medicinal properties. There are several reasons to believe that garlic can play a role in preventing heart disease. First, garlic-derived compounds lessens the activity of the key enzyme in cholesterol formation. However, garlic supplementation has not consistently been shown to lower blood cholesterol levels. Researchers have determined that garlic might be an inhibitor of blood clot formation, which is a principal cause of heart attacks, as well as having anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Considered together there is strong reason to believe that garlic can play a contributing role in promoting a healthy cardiovascular system.

Increasing the Brains Energy Supply

Mitochondria produce about 95 percent of energy within cells a lifetime of damage to delicate membranes and DNA within these structures leads to significantly impaired energy production throughout the body and the brain. Fortunately, improving lipids in the membrane, especially DHA, goes a long way in repairing this damage. This is done by improving diet and with special supplementation. In addition, increasing your antioxidant protection (mainly vitamins, minerals, and flavonoids) can reduce further damage to this energy-generating system. Several special supplements that stimulate mitochondria are available without prescription, and can dramatically improve energy production, thereby improving brain function. I have discussed CoQIO throughout this book this substance is the first in a line of five compounds that constitute mitochondria's energy-supplying cycle called the electron transport system. CoQIO is severely deficient in Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's.481 In addition to...

For The Flu Or A Cold

Peel the oranges, but maintain the white pith. Remove any stems from the figs (figs should be soft and ripe). Skin the papaya and remove all seeds. Be sure all fruits are at room temperature -putting cold refrigerated food into the body can weaken an already compromised immune system. Place all items in a blender. Add distilled water if necessary to thoroughly blend all ingredients. Drink this blend 3 times throughout the day, abstain from other foods. Oranges and papayas are alkaline fruits which provide excellent calcium and are rich in vitamin A (beta-carotene) and vitamin C (which, among other things, is an antioxidant). Flus and colds are typically caused by too much toxicity in the body, leading to a weakened immune system. These fruits help cleanse the gastro-intestinal tract of toxicity and simultaneously nourish the body. Figs are especially excellent mucus dissolvers and are ranked with an acid-binding value of 27.81(one of the highest ratings of any food) in Ragnar Berg's...

EC Other Trace Minerals

Manganese is a part of enzymes that help form bones. It also functions as a cofactor for many enzymes involved in the metabolism of carbohydrate, fat, and protein as well as other metabolic processes. Manganese is also part of an enzyme that acts as an antioxidant. It is found in many foods, especially whole grains, dried fruits, nuts, and leafy vegetables. Too much or too little manganese is rare in healthy people.

Potential Functions Of Lycopene In The Human Body

Like essential nutrients, lycopene is not made in the human body however, unlike essential nutrients, lycopene does not seem to have a unique, irreplaceable function. Historically, millions of people survived without eating lycopene, since lycopene would have rarely been a part of pre-Columbian European and Asian diets. No known reduction of disease or increase in lifespan has been associated with the introduction of lycopene-rich foods into an area. No human study has shown a characteristic or identifiable physiological consequence from lycopene deprivation however, this is not surprising, since no study has ever been designed to identify a characteristic deficit caused by lycopene deprivation. Stronger evidence is that no in vitro or in vivo experiment has shown any evidence for a unique or irreplaceable function. Lycopene is associated with antioxidant status (Sies and Stahl, 1998 Stahl et al., 1998), gap-junction formation (Bertram et al., 1991 Stahl et al., 2000), and inhibition...

Can Eating More Flavonoids Lower the Risk of Heart Disease

However, the details and recommendations are still a little out of reach at this point. Flavonoids (isoflavones or isoflavonoids, flavones, flavonols, catechins, and anthocyanins) are a class of chemicals produced by plants and are often called polyphenolic compounds with respect to their molecular structure. Onions, citrus, some teas, and red grapes (red wine) contain a flavonoid called quercetin which is a potent antioxidant and seems to favorably impact blood pressure.