Quantitative Amino Acid Requirements of Penaeid Shrimp

Successful studies have recently been completed on determining the amino acid requirements of penaeid shrimp (Table 23.12). Previous attempts to quantify the requirements had resulted in only limited success (Deshimaru and Kuroki, 1974; Akiyama, 1986). This was due primarily to the lack of a water stable diet that would resist leaching while being slowly consumed by the shrimp. Chen et al. (1992) were able to determine the arginine requirement by using a microencapsulated diet. Fox et a I. (1995) cova-lently bound increasing levels of supplemental lysine to wheat gluten in order to determine the lysine requirement in Penaeus varmamei. Millamena et al. (1996a,b, 1997, 1998, 1999) were able to utilize amino acid test diets containing casein, gelatin and crystalline amino acids. The crystalline amino acid mixture was initially coated with gelatinized carboxymethyl cellulose and then k-carrageenan was gelatinized to form a homogeneous gel and added to the completed diet mixture. Feeding of these diets resulted in the typical dose-response curve for each of the indispensable amino acids; however, in most cases, feeding levels above the estimated requirement level resulted in a marked reduction in growth.

Table 23.12. Amino acid requirements (g kg-1 of protein) of penaeid shrimp based on growth studies.

Amino acid

Requirement

Species

Reference

Arginine

53

Penaeus mon odori

Millamena et ai. (1998)

55

Penaeusmonodon

Chen et al. (1992)

Histidine

22

Penaeusmonodon

Millamena et al. (1999)

Isoleucine

27

Penaeus monodon

Millamena et al. (1999)

Leucine

43

Penaeus monodon

Millamena et al. (1999)

Lysine

52

Penaeus monodon

Millamena et al. (1998)

31

Penaeus vannamei

Akiyama (1986)

45-52

Penaeus vannamei

Fox et al. (1995)

Methionine

35

Penaeus monodon

Millamena et al. (1996a)

Phenylalanine plus tyrosine

77

Penaeusmonodon

Millamena et al. (1999)

Threonine

35

Penaeusmonodon

Millamena et al. (1997)

Tryptophan

5

Penaeusmonodon

Millamena et al. (1999)

Valine

34

Penaeusmonodon

Millamena et al. (1996b)

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