Lysine

The lysine requirement values for fish are summarized in Table 23.7. In general, lysine appears to be the first-limiting amino acid in feedstuffs commonly used in formulating feeds for warmwater fish (Robinson et ah, 1980b) and perhaps other fish as well. Therefore, more requirement values have been reported for this amino acid. The requirement appears

Table 23.7. Lysine requirements (g kg-1 of protein) of various fish species.

Fish

Requirement

Type of diet

Reference

African catfish

57

Purified

Fagbenro etal. (1998b)

Atlantic salmon

40

Semipurified

Anderson etal. (1993)

32-36

Semipurified

Berge et al. (1998)

Blue tilapia

43

Purified

Liou (1989)

Catla

62

Purified

Ravi and Devaraj (1991)

Channel catfish

51

Purified

Wilson etal. (1977)

50

Purified

Robinson etal. (1980b)

Chinook salmon

50

Semipurified

Halver et al. (1958)

Chum salmon

48

Purified

Akiyama et al. (1985a)

50

Purified

Akiyama and Arai (1993)

Clarias hybrid

48

Purified

Unprasert (1994)

Coho salmon

38

Purified

Arai and Ogata (1993)

Common carp

57

Purified

Nose (1979)

European sea bass

48

Semipurified

Tibaldi and Lanari (1991)

Gilthead sea bream

50

Semipurified

Luquet and Sabaut (1974)

Hybrid striped bass

4.0

Purified

Griffin etal. (1992)

4.0

Semipurified

Keembiyehetty and Gatlin (1992)

Japanese eel

53

Purified

Arai (in Nose, 1979)

Japanese flounder

46

Semipurified

Forster and Ogata (1998)

Milkfish

40

Semipurified

Borlongan and Benitez (1990)

Mozambique tilapia

41

Practical

Jackson and Capper (1982)

Nile tilapia

51

Purified

Santiago and Lovell (1988)

Rainbow trout

37

Purified

Kim etal. (1992b)

42

Purified

Walton etal. (1984a)

42

Semipurified

Pfeffer etal. (1992)

61

Semipurified

Ketola (1983)

Red drum

44

Semipurified

Craig and Gatlin (1992)

57

Semipurified

Brown etal. (1988)

Red sea bream

44

Semipurified

Forster and Ogata (1998)

Rohu

59

Purified

Khan and Jafri (1993)

57

Purified

Murthy and Varghese (1997)

Yellowtail

41

Practical

Ruchimat etal. (1997b)

to range from 40 to 50 g kg-1 of dietary protein for most fishes. The values of 57 for common carp and 57-59 and 62 g kg-1 for rohu and catla, respectively, both Indian major carps, may indicate that carp have a higher lysine requirement than other fishes. The value of 61 g kg-1 of dietary protein for rainbow trout appears to be out of line since two other investigators have reported much lower values.

Serum-free lysine levels were useful in confirming the lysine requirement in channel catfish originally determined at 240 g crude protein kg-1 diet (Wilson et al., 1977); however, serum-free lysine levels provided little indication of the lysine requirement when reevaluated at a 300 g crude protein kg-1 diet (Robinson et al., 1980b). Walton et al. (1984a) observed good agreement between the lysine requirement values determined by either growth studies or amino acid oxidation studies in rainbow trout.

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