In the degradation of amino acids, the carbon skeletons follow distinct pathways (see Chapter 4). Those amino acids that are broken down to pyruvate or key intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle have the potential to yield glucose via phosphoenolpyruvate. These amino acids are referred to as glucogenic. Those amino acids that yield acetyl CoA or acetoacetyl CoA are classified as ketogenic since the latter two compounds are the precursors of ketone bodies. Some amino acids are both ketogenic and glucogenic (Table 1.2). Only leucine and lysine are exclusively ketogenic. In dogs, hepatic gluconeoge-nesis may be reduced by administration of amino acids with glucose prior to and during ^x^t* oi se (Hamada et al, 1998, 1999).
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