Abbreviations

AA(s)

amino acid(s)

ADG

average daily gain

AFRC

Agricultural and Food Research

Council

AID

apparent ileal digestibility

AOAC

Association of Official Analytical

Chemists

ASCT

alanine, serine, cysteine (and

other neutral a-amino acids)

transport

Asn

asparagine

Asp

aspartate

ATP

adenosine 5'-triphosphate

BBMV

brush border membrane vesicles

BBSRC

Biotechnology and Biological

Sciences Research Council

BCAA

branched-chain amino acids

BCKA

branched-chain keto acids

BLMV

basolateral membrane vesicles

BV

biological value

CAT

cationic amino acid transport

Clt

citrulline

CNCPS

Cornell Net Carbohydrate and

Protein System

cNOS

constitutive nitric oxide

synthase

CCK

cholecystokinin

cDNA

complementary DNA

CoA

coenzyme A

CP

crude protein

Cys

cysteine

d

day(s)

DC

digestibility coefficient

DCAM

decarboxylated 5-adenosyl-

methionine

DE

digestible energy

DM

dry matter

DMI

dry matter intake

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid

Dopa

3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine

EAA

essential amino acids

EAAT

excitatory amino acid transport

ECP

endogenous crude protein

EU

European Union

EUN

endogenous urinary nitrogen

EUUN

endogenous urinary urea nitro

gen

FRS

fractional synthetic rate

GABA

7-aminobutyrate

GDH

glutamate dehydrogenase

GH

growth hormone

GIT

gastrointestinal tract

Gin

glutamine

Glu

glutamate

Gly

glycine

Gly-Sar

glycylsar cosine

GS-GOGAT

glutamine synthetase-glutamate

synthase

h

hour

HCl

hydrochloric acid

HI

heat increment

His

histidine

HMB

2-hydroxy-4-(methylthiol)butyric

acid

HPLC

high performance liquid chro

matography

IAAP

ideal amino acid pattern

NRC

National Research Council

IEC

ion-exchange chromatography

NSC

non-structural carbohydrates

IGF-1

insulin-like growth factor-1

ODC

ornithine decarboxylase

lie

isoleucine

PDV

portal-drained viscera

IMP

inosine monophosphate (inosi-

PepTl

peptide transporter 1

nate)

Phe

phenylalanine

iNOS

inducible nitric oxide synthase

Pro

proline

Leu

leucine

PRPP

5-phosphoribosyl-l -pyrophos

Lys

lysine

phate

MCP

microbial crude protein

RDP

rumen degraded protein

MDV

mesenteric-drained viscera

RNA

ribonucleic acid

ME

metabolizable energy

RPAA

ruminally protected amino

Met

methionine

acids

min

minutes

RUP

rumen undegraded protein

MP

metabolizable protein

SAA

sulphur amino acids

N

nitrogen

SD

standard deviation

NAD+

nicotinamide adenine dinu-

Ser

serine

cleotide (oxidized)

SMCO

S-methylcysteine sulphoxide

NADP+

nicotinamide adenine dinu-

SPI

soy protein isolate

cleotide phosphate (oxidized)

TDN

total digestible nutrients

NADPH

nicotinamide adenine dinu-

tRNA

transfer RNA

cleotide phosphate (reduced)

Thr

threonine

NDF

neutral detergent fibre

TID

true ileal digestibility

NE

net energy

Trp

tryptophan

NEAA

non-essential amino acids

Tyr

tyrosine

NIRS

near-infrared spectroscopy

UDP

undegraded dietary protein

NO

nitric oxide

UMP

uridine monophosphate (uridy-

NOS

nitric oxide synthase

late)

NP

net protein

Val

valine

NPN

non-protein nitrogen

VFA

volatile fatty acids

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