Quitting Drinking

Alcohol Free Forever

This powerful guide walks you step-by-step through exactly what you need to do to free yourself from your alcohol addiction without going through AA meetings or expensive sessions. There are three main types of relaxation techniques you can practice when you feel upset and stressed. If you practice regularly, they will become part of your lifestyle and you may find yourself habitually more relaxed as a result. Part 2 will exercise Neuro Linguistic Programming to release thoughts and a technique of progressive muscle relaxation also negative situations. Because of the mind body connection, exercises to relax the body will also flow through the mind. Much of the stress we feel is because of our resistance to certain feelings or emotions. Alcohol Free Forever is a lifesaver ebook. This guide was extremely eye-opening and the daily emails make it extremely easy to quit and to establish a routine that did not involve alcohol. Read more here...

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Author: Mark Smith
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Alcoholism An addiction disease

Alcoholics are people who can't control their drinking. Untreated alcoholism is a life-threatening disease that can lead to death either from an accident or suicide (both are more common among heavy drinkers) or from a toxic reaction (acute alcohol poisoning that paralyzes body organs, including the heart and lungs) or malnutrition or liver damage (cirrhosis). Alcoholism makes it extremely difficult for the body to get essential nutrients. Here's why No one knows exactly why some people are able to have a drink once a day or once a month or once a year, enjoy it, and move on, while others become addicted to alcohol. In the past, alcoholism has been blamed on heredity (bad genes), lack of willpower, or even a bad upbringing. But as science continues to unravel the mysteries of body chemistry, it's reasonable to expect that researchers will eventually come up with a rational scientific explanation for the differences between social drinkers and people who can't safely use alcohol. It...

Binge drinking A behavioral nono

Binge drinkers are once-in-a-while alcoholics. They don't drink every day, but when they do indulge, they go so far overboard that they sometimes fail to come back up. In simple terms, binge drinking is downing very large amounts of alcohol in a short time, not for a pleasant lift but to get drunk. As a result, binge drinkers may consume so much beer, wine, or spirits that the amount of alcohol in their blood rises to lethal levels, leading to death by alcohol poisoning. Got the picture Binge drinking is not a sport. It's potentially fatal behavior. Don't do it.

Schizophrenia and Alcoholism

I would guess that about 10 percent of all schizophrenic patients are also alcoholic. It's not a big figure if you remember that 10 percent of all adults in North America are probably alcoholic. In other words, the same proportion is present in schizophrenics. If you start the other way, a proportion of alcoholics are, in fact, also schizophrenic. There is an overlap. I think that whether or not they are alcoholic they have to be treated the same way. If they're alcoholic it's vital that they stop drinking. The best way to achieve that is to try to get them to join Alcoholics Anonymous.

Heavy Alcohol Consumption

For most adults, occasional moderate alcohol drinking (one to two drinks per day) is not harmful, and may have health benefits. Moderate alcohol drinking can increase the HDL-cholesterol level in the blood, decrease risk of blood clots, and reduce risk of heart attack.1 However, regular heavy drinking (more than three to four drinks per day) is a health hazard. (A drink is considered a 180-ml glass of wine, 360-ml glass of beer, or 30-45 ml of spirits.) Heavy drinking increases risk of high blood pressure, stroke, liver disease, im mune weakness, and cancer.2,3 Moreover, about one in ten people who drink alcohol become physically addicted.

Can Alcohol Consumption Affect the Metabolism of Other Energy Nutrients

Normal several hours after heavy drinking without eating food. This isn't a big concern when enjoying a glass of wine or two with dinner occasionally or having a couple of beers during the ball game. However, when the quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption increases this can eventually lead to complications.

College Binge Drinking

Alcohol abuse is considered the most significant public health problem facing college students in the United States. It is estimated that more than 500,000 injuries and 70,000 cases of sexual assault a year result from alcohol abuse among students, and more than 1,400 students die each year as a result of their injuries. Two out of every five students report an episode of binge drinking which is usually defined as five or more drinks in a row in any given two-week period. During the 1990s, as government and health organizations be gan to recognize the magnitude of the problem, the U.S. Surgeon General set a goal of reducing binge drinking by 50 percent by the year 2010, and colleges sharply increased alcohol education programs and penalties for excessive or underage drinking. Nevertheless, the rate of binge drinking on college campuses remained virtually unchanged between 1993 and 2001, the year of the last comprehensive study.

GABA and Alcoholism

Alcoholism is a major social, economic, and public health problem Social need and abuse of alcohol induced the development of tolerance and dependence A literature survey on ethanol and alcoholism indicates that GABA is an important target of ethanol in the CNS . Drinking ethanol alters the activity of GABA . Thus, it is speculated that the initial excitatory effect of ethanol may be due to the inhibition of GABAergic activity and decrease of GABA secretion in the brain .45 Some studies (human, animal, and in vitro test) have found an inverse correlation between GABA level in plasma and alcoholism .46-52 Gomez and Barros14 reported a low GABA concentration in the plasma of alcohol abusers and alcoholics Drinking alcohol alters the activity of the GABA-containing system in several ways, and may have a bearing on the clinical syndromes associated with alcohol abuse 53,54 Plasma GABA was lower in alcoholics than in nonalcoholic drinkers . Others have reported a low GABA concentration in...


Although there is a debate among experts over whether alcoholism should be considered a disease, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism recognizes alcoholism as a disease. The risk for developing alcoholism is influenced by a person's genes and lifestyle behaviors. Alcoholism is a chronic disease that lasts for a lifetime. If diagnosed and treated early, however, alcoholism may be completely cured and severe complications prevented. Chronic alcohol abuse increases a person's risk for developing serious health problems, such as liver disease, high blood pressure, heart disease, stroke, cancer (especially cancer of the esophagus, mouth, and throat), and pancreatitis. Approximately two million Americans suffer from liver damage caused by alcohol abuse. About 10 to 20 percent of heavy drinkers will develop cirrhosis of the liver, which is characterized by scarring of the liver and causes irreversible damage. If heavy drinkers do not stop drinking, cirrhosis can cause poor...

Nutrition and Health Status

There is a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertension) in this area, mainly due to the high intake of saturated fats, cholesterol, and sodium. Stomach cancer is also very common due to the high intake of salt and salt-cured foods, especially salted fish. Accidental injuries are the largest cause of death for individuals under forty-five years of age. Suicide and alcoholism are also prevalent, and obesity is on the rise.

Biological Functions Of Gaba

More chloride channels in the tract of the cell membrane on the neuron axon, and increase the chloride penetration of the neuron membrane . Low GABA in plasma is reasonably specific to Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, alcoholism, depression, and menopause. 14 Therefore, GABA is an important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain and CNS15 for being able to decrease the excitation of nerves . GABA-mediated neurotransmission regulates many physiological and psychological functions . Several studies, discussed below, further report that GABA improves hypertension, depression, sleeplessness, alcoholism, release of growth hormones, diabetes, and nervous regression

Lifestyle and Nutrition

The life-expectancy of Russians dropped sharply during the 1990s. Poor nutrition contributed to higher mortality rates, as did high rates of alcoholism. Photograph by Alexander Nemenov. AFP Getty Images. Reproduced by permission. The life-expectancy of Russians dropped sharply during the 1990s. Poor nutrition contributed to higher mortality rates, as did high rates of alcoholism. Photograph by Alexander Nemenov. AFP Getty Images. Reproduced by permission. Some authors believe that economic conditions were the principal determinant of the gap in health status between the East and West. The close relationship between the gross national product per capita and life expectancy is well known, but the inhabitants of Central Europe were less healthy than their wealth predicted. The dramatic changes that occurred after the onset of communism created a toxic psychosocial environment. A loss of personal perspectives, chronic stress, tension, anger, hostility, social isolation, frustration,...

GABA and Growth Hormone

The growth hormone (GH) in the human body is produced from the liver and other organs (kidney, heart, skeleton, skin, and brain) . It secretes insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) to stimulate the pituitary gland. The amount of secreted human growth hormone is related to age, drug (amphetamine, heroin), disease (alcoholism, cranial nerve degradation), and mood stress (such as melancholia, anxiety, and insomnia) . As the ratio of GH and IGF-1 changes, the lean body mass (LBM) may shrink, and the adipose tissue increases and the bone density is reduced . 60 Therefore, normal secretion of growth hormone is a good way to keep young

Figure Food Sources Of Vitamin Ci

Vitamin C has been identified as a nutrient that is consumed by American adults in amounts low enough to be of concern. Low intakes of vitamin C tend to reflect low intakes of fruits and vegetables. Deficiencies resulting in scurvy are rare. Scurvy may occur in people with poor diets, especially if coupled with alcoholism, drug abuse, or diabetes.

Thiamin Riboflavin and Niacin

Deficiencies in thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin are rare in the United States, in large part because breads and cereals are enriched with all three nutrients. General symptoms for B-vitamin deficiencies include fatigue, decreased appetite, and depression. Alcoholism can create deficiencies in these three vitamins due in part to limited food intake.

Limit alcohol and tobacco use

Research clearly shows that the disadvantages of drinking alcohol far outweigh any advantages. The health benefits from red wine have been largely attributed to a phytochemical called resveratrol, which can also be found in grapes, grape juice, raisins and peanuts. If you currently do not drink alcohol, there is no reason to start.

Potential contraindications to breastfeeding

Mennella and Beauchamp (1991) demonstrated that significantly less breast milk was consumed by infants of mothers drinking alcohol during a 3-hour period compared to when non-alcoholic beverages were consumed. The habitual ingestion of more than a moderate amount of alcohol ( 0.5 g kg day, equivalent to about 2 drinks) is contraindicated during breastfeeding. The Mother Risk Program (The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto) suggests that if several alcoholic drinks have been ingested, nursing should be postponed at least 1 hour for each drink (personal communication). It takes an adult woman (55 kg) about 1.25 hours to metabolize 10 g of alcohol. Since the average drink contains 10 g of alcohol, a recommendation to wait 1 hour after a drink is reasonable.

Causes of decreased folate status

Dietary folate deficiency has been previously associated with poor socio-economic groups but now is thought to exist in 5-10 of the population of most communities. Intestinal absorption is impaired in those with coeliac disease or tropical sprue which if left untreated can lead to folate deficiency (Scott, 2000) (see also section 3.33). Pregnancy is associated with increased folate catabolism, particularly in the second and third trimesters, when it exceeds intake. Women who enter pregnancy with adequate stores or receive prophylaxis during pregnancy will avoid deficiency. Haemolytic anaemia, a condition with increased cell division, can also lead to folate deficiency (Scott, 2000). Anticonvulsant drug therapy is associated with folate deficiency but the mechanism is not known (Scott, 2000). It was suggested that the drugs cause folate malabsorption or excretion of folate through hepatic enzyme induction but this theory has now been discarded. Chronic alcoholics usually have folate...

The Influence of Zinc on Conditions Involving Immunosuppression

Individuals suffering from sickle-cell disease have depressed peripheral T-cell numbers, decreased CD4+ CD8+ T-cell ratios, loss of DTH, decreased NK-cell activity, decreased production of IL-2 and suppressed activity of thymulin (for references, see Prasad, 2000a). Zn supplementation restores these immunological parameters to near-normal levels. Likewise, in patients with Down's syndrome, Zn supplements restore immediate hypersensitivity, lymphocyte functions and neutrophil chemotaxis, and increase resistance to infection (Bjorksten et al., 1980). Zn supplements also restored DTH in alcoholics and stimulated cell-mediated and humoral immunity in humans and mice with hypo-gammaglobulinaemia (for references, see Shankar and Prasad, 1998).

Rice and Thiamine Deficiency

Today, much of the rice consumed is either enriched with thiamine or parboiled, which leads to retention of thiamine in the matrix of the white rice kernel. Beriberi, as a disease from the consumption of white rice, is now rare if the rice is parboiled or enriched. However, some varieties of polished (white) rice may not be enriched with thiamine. Thus, when thiamine intake from other food sources is limited, thiamine deficiency could still occur. In the United States, thiamine deficiency typically occurs in chronic alcoholics.

Clinical thiamin deficiency

In Wernicke's disease, failure of energy metabolism predominantly affects neurons and their functions in selected areas of the central nervous system. Biochemical lesions that affect TKL and nucleic acid metabolism may cause glial changes. Membranous structures are visibly altered and secondary demyelination follows (Tanphaichitr, 1999). Prolonged alcohol consumption is associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions, including the dense amnesic disorder known as Korsakoff's syndrome. Korsakoff's syndrome is frequently diagnosed in alcoholics after an episode of acute thiamin deficiency. The accepted view within the medical literature is that the etiology of this disorder lies in thiamin deficiency or Wernicke's encephalopathy. However, examination of the published reports of pure thiamin deficiency unaccompanied by chronic and excessive consumption of alcohol shows that, in this group of patients, the rate of progression to Korsakoff's syndrome is low. This result suggests...

Atherosclerosis Hardening of the Arteries

Over the years, doctors have identified many factors that increase stroke and heart-attack risk. These include obesity, diabetes, smoking, heavy drinking, chronic stress, chronic illness, a diet high in saturated fats (especially trans fatty acids, mainly the products of partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils), hypothyroidism, hypertension, and the use of oral contraceptives. Recently, the medical profession has begun to realize that certain infectious organisms may also play a role in atherosclerosis.

Drinking For Some Not Advised

The Dietary Guidelines for Americans advise For those who drink alcoholic beverages, do so sensibly and in moderation. However, some people are wise to avoid alcoholic drinks entirely. Besides the risks mentioned earlier, avoid drinking . . . . . . ifyou 're a teenager or a child. Young people should not drink. That includes new fortified fruit-flavored wines and hard (alcoholic) ciders. Since the risk of alcohol dependence goes up when drinking starts at an early age, kids who drink can set themselves up for the same health-related risks that adults have. For inexperienced teenage drivers, alcohol and driving is a very risky combination. Besides, buying alcoholic beverages is illegal in the United States for anyone under age twenty-one.

What Are Some Concerns with Chronic over Consumption of Alcohol

Long-term alcohol abuse also results in excessive accumulation of lipids and disease in liver cells (fatty liver) as well as other cells throughout the body. Alcohol-related liver disease is the sixth leading killer in the United States. Luckily, the most important liver cells (hepatocytes) can regenerate themselves if the damage is not too severe and the alcohol abuse ceases. Other direct or indirect effects of alcohol abuse include impaired drug metabolism and elevated blood uric acid levels. The latter can lead to gout and kidney stones. Barbiturates, which are sedative drugs (pen-tothal, pentobarbital, seconal), are metabolized and inactivated by one of the same mechanisms that metabolizes alcohol. Since the metabolism of alcohol is given higher priority than the inactivation of barbiturates, these drugs stay active longer and build up in the body. Barbiturates depress the CNS, breathing, and heart activity. Therefore, combining barbiturates with alcohol can be a lethal...

Folic Acid Folate Folacin Vitamin B

Pregnancy is a time of rapid cell multiplication and DNA synthesis, which increases the need for folate. Folate deficiency may lead to neural tube defects such as spina bifida (failure of the spine to close properly during the first month of pregnancy) and anencephaly (closure of the neural tube during fetal development, resulting in part of the cranium not being formed). Seventy percent of these defects could be avoided by adequate folate status before conception, and it is recommended that all women of child-bearing age consume at least 400 micrograms (pg) of folic acid each day from fortified foods and supplements. Other groups at risk of deficiency include elderly persons and persons suffering from alcohol abuse or taking certain prescription drugs.

Reducing Elevated Cholesterol or Triglycerides

While it is much safer than niacin, there is still some risk of liver toxicity. It should be used with caution, especially in those with a history of hepatitis, alcohol abuse and other liver disorders. It is a good idea to obtain a baseline liver function test and to repeat these after three weeks of therapy. The risk of liver toxicity is extremely low.

Cadmium Toxicity in Adults

Like most metals, cadmium tends to accumulate in the body over time. Once absorbed from the gut, it travels to the liver, where it combines with metallothionein molecules, which act to neutralize the metal. From there, the bound cadmium is excreted from the kidney, but if liver functions are impaired (due to disease, hepatitis, alcohol abuse, metabolic disorders, or drug toxicity), the neutralizing protein may be unable to do its job properly, in which case the cadmium is not excreted, but distributed to other organs, including the brain. By middle age, our body cadmium levels may be as high as 20-30 mg.

Toast to Heart Health

Other lifestyle factors may play a role-for example, wine drinkers may be more physically active, and they may drink wine with meals, which may help affect blood lipid (fat) levels. See Red Wine Heart-Healthy in chapter 8. Excessive and binge drinking is risky. Besides potentially leading to high blood pressure, heart failure, and excess calories, too much drinking can lead to stroke, irregular heartbeat, and sudden cardiac death. For pregnant women, drinking is the leading known cause of birth defects. Even moderate drinking isn't advised. Moderate alcohol consumption

What Impact Does Alcohol Have on a Pregnancy

The effects of abusive alcohol consumption during pregnancy are substantial. Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a group of abnormal characteristics common to children born to mothers who drank too much during pregnancy. These characteristics include low birth weight, physical deformities, and poor mental development. It is estimated that more than 7,500 infants are born in the United States each year with FAS, while another thirty to forty thousand show milder signs of FAS. Although many physicians believe that there may be a safe level of alcohol consumption during pregnancy (for example, a glass of wine with dinner occasionally), it is not clear at this time where the threshold lies. It is therefore difficult to make general recommendations. Because of this difficulty it seems much more logical for most women to abstain completely from alcohol consumption during pregnancy.

Top Causes of Death US Population

Many of the leading causes of death in the United States are directly related to diet and excessive alcohol consumption. * Top 10 causes of death according to the National Center for Health Statistics, 1997. t Causes of death in which diet plays a part. i Causes of death in which excessive alcohol consumption plays a part.

Dietary Hazards Caffeine and Alcohol

About 1 of a maternal dose of caffeine (whether from coffee, tea, soft drinks, chocolate, or medicines) is transported into the breastmilk. Infants metabolize caffeine more slowly than adults, and caffeine in breast milk may cause irritability and wakefulness. High intake of alcohol can inhibit milk production. Moreover, infant exposure to alcohol during breast-feeding may have serious adverse effects on development. Ethanol itself readily passes into the milk at concentrations approaching those in maternal blood and can produce lethargy and drowsiness in the breast-feeding infant. Heavy alcohol consumption (more than 4-5 drinks day) by nursing mothers may impair psychomotor development in their infants.10 The effects of occasional light drinking are unknown.

What Factors Are Associated with Hypertension

The relationship between diets high in sodium and hypertension does not seem to exist in everyone and will be realized in only about 10 percent of people with high blood pressure. These people are sometimes labeled salt sensitive. This means that their blood pressure can be reduced by following a low-sodium diet (2 grams of sodium day or less). Finally, smoking and or chronic and excessive alcohol consumption is also associated with hypertension.

Adults Are Faced with a New Set of Nutrition Concerns What Nutrition Based Issues Do Adults Face

While much of this book has discussed nutrition applicable to younger adults, most of the following discussion will focus upon older adults. However, alcohol consumption will first be addressed as the legal drinking age in the United States is 21. Also addressed will be the importance of young adulthood with regard to osteoporosis prevention. And in the next chapter the importance of the younger years of life to preventing heart disease and cancer will be discussed. Young to middle adulthood years are probably the most important years with regard to preventing the most significant diseases plaguing older adults, namely heart disease, cancer, and osteoporosis.

Gene Alcohol Interactions

As with gene-smoking interactions, lipid researchers have long been interested in interactions between genetic factors and alcohol consumption (Hannuksela et al., 1994). Like smoking, recent reports describing gene-alcohol interactions are based on observational studies with information about alcohol drinking derived from medical records or questionnaires involving thousands of subjects (Beulens et al., 2007 Jensen et al., 2008 Vol-cik et al., 2007 Tsujita et al., 2007) (Table 1.2). The genes selected include traditional lipid candidate genes (Tsujita et al., 2007 Jensen et al., 2008 Vol-cik et al., 2007) as well as those involved in alcohol metabolism (Beulens et al., 2007). For the most part, the modulating effect appears to be driven by HDL-C concentrations as reported in earlier work (Hannuksela et al., 1994). Moderate alcohol consumption is positively associated with health, but the potential benefits may not be universal. Knowledge of these studies could help identify subjects...

Use in Prevention and Therapy

Smokers need additional vitamin C to maintain body reserves because of increased breakdown of the vitamin with regular smoking. Vitamin C may help protect the liver from the inflammation, damage, and fat accumulation caused by heavy alcohol consumption.

Vegetarianism And Coronary Heart Disease A Observational Studies

Data on mortality rates in Western vegetarians are available from the early study reported by Phillips et al.76 and from four other cohort studies that included a large proportion of vegetarians. Two of these studies were conducted among Seventh-Day Adventists in California, two among members of the Vegetarian Society and others in Britain, and one among the readers of vegetarian magazines in Germany. A pooled analysis of original data from these five cohort studies was published recently48,52 and included data for 76,000 men and women (of whom 28,000 were vegetarians). Importantly, the vegetarians and the non-vegetarians in each study had a shared interest in healthy living or a similar social religious background. All results were adjusted for age, sex, and smoking, and a random effects model was used to calculate pooled estimates of effect for all studies combined. Further adjustments for body mass index, alcohol consumption, exercise, and education level had little effect on the...

Alternative Explanations for Low Cancer Risk in Vegetarians

Alcoholic beverage consumption is also associated with increase in cancer risk for several types of cancer. Cancer of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, and liver are associated with excess alcohol consumption and, in some instances, alcohol may act synergistically with tobacco in cancer initiation.66

The Metabolic Syndrome

On the basis of the IDF definition, almost 40 of US adults are classified as having the metabolic syndrome (83) . Although environmental factors such as smoking, low economic status, high intake of carbohydrates, no alcohol consumption, and physical inactivity can play a role in the development of the metabolic syndrome, a series of evidence indicates that there is also a genetic component involved. Specifically the metabolic syndrome has different prevalence between men and women, and among ethnic groups, as well as different concordance rates between monozygotic twins. Furthermore, there is increased incidence in individuals with a parental history of metabolic syndrome, and a general familial clustering of the metabolic syndrome and its components (83-91).

Transport And Metabolism

Dietary factors profoundly influence lipoprotein levels and metabolism, which in turn alter an individual's susceptibility to atherosclerosis. Dietary fat, CH, fiber, protein, alcohol consumption, and energy balance all have major impact. Classic studies originally revealed that consumption of saturated fats elevated circulating total and LDL CH levels in humans (45). Plasma cholesterol-raising effects of SAFA, particularly myristic (C14 0) and C16 0 acids, are well established. Newer technologies that reduce saturated fat content in dairy products result in lower plasma CH levels when these products are consumed by humans ( 46). The CH-raising effect is believed to occur because the regulatory pool of liver CH is shifted from CE to free CH when hepatocytes become enriched with C14 0 and C16 0 acids. Higher levels of free CH in the liver suppress LDL receptor activity, driving up circulatory levels. Postmeal accumulation of VLDL is more prolonged in individuals consuming diets rich in...

Strength of evidence

While vitamin E intake appears to have no relationship to risk of CVD, there is convincing evidence that myristic and palmitic acids, trans fatty acids, high sodium intake, overweight and high alcohol intake contribute to an increase in risk. A ''probable'' level of evidence demonstrates a decreased risk for a-linolenic acid, oleic acid, NSP, wholegrain cereals, nuts (unsalted), folate, plant sterols and stanols, and no relationship for stearic acid. There is a probable increase in risk from dietary cholesterol and unfiltered boiled coffee. Possible associations for reduced risk include intake of flavonoids and consumption of soy products, while possible associations for increased risk include fats rich in lauric acid, p-carotene supplements and impaired fetal nutrition. The evidence supporting these conclusions is summarized below. There is convincing evidence that low to moderate alcohol consumption lowers the risk of coronary heart disease. In a systematic review of...

Pregnancy and Alcoholic Beverages Dont

If you're trying to conceive or you're already pregnant, health experts advise to avoid beer, wine, or other alcoholic beverages completely. A safe level for alcohol intake during pregnancy is unknown. Health experts don't know if babies differ in their sensitivity to alcohol. As a reminder, alcoholic beverages carry a label warning about the dangers of drinking during pregnancy and its relation to birth defects. (1) ACCORDING TO THE SURGEON GENERAL, WOMEN SHOULD NOT DRINK ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES DURING PREGNANCY BECAUSE OF THE RISK OF BIRTH DEFECTS. (2) CONSUMPTION OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES IMPAIRS YOUR ABILITY TO DRIVE A CAR OR OPERATE MACHINERY, AND MAY CAUSE HEALTH PROBLEMS.

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a birth defect caused by a mother's alcohol intake during pregnancy. The symptoms of FAS are mental retardation, poor growth, facial defects, and behavioral problems. It is one of the leading causes of mental retardation in children. The effects are lifelong. Fetal alcohol effects (FAE) is a less severe set of the same symptoms. FAS is found in infants of all races and ethnic groups. Since it is not known how much alcohol a pregnant woman must drink to cause the syndrome, it is recommended that women not drink alcohol at all during pregnancy. see also Alcohol and Health Pregnancy.

Moderate drinking Some benefits some risks

1 The American Cancer Society's Cancer Prevention Study 1 followed more than one million Americans in 25 states for 12 years to find that moderate alcohol intake had an apparent protective effect on coronary heart disease. Translation Men who drink moderately lower their risk 1 Contrary to popular opinion, a 15-year, 1,700-person heart disease study at the Institute of Preventive Medicine, Kommunehospitalet in Copenhagen, Denmark, showed that older men and women who regularly consumed up to 21 drinks of wine a week were less likely than teetotalers to develop Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia. Similarly, a recent 12-year, 1,488-person survey at Johns Hopkins University in Maryland suggests that regular, moderate drinkers score better over time than teetotalers do on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), a standard test for memory, reasoning, and decision making.

Keep the immune system working properly

When magnesium deficiency does occur, it is usually due to disease or medications. Poorly controlled diabetes and a high alcohol intake increase the excretion of magnesium. Signs of chronic magnesium deficiency include muscle twitching, cramps, weakness, depression, blood clots, and other symptoms. If severe, it can cause muscle spasms, hallucinations, and even sudden death.

Red Wine Heart Healthy

Does drinking lead to weight gain Probably not for moderate drinkers. In fact, a few scientific studies suggest that the body uses energy (calories) from alcohol differently than energy from other sources. Although it supplies calories, alcohol isn't a nutrient. On the contrary, because alcohol may interfere with nutrient absorption, heavy drinkers may not benefit from all the vitamins and minerals they consume. Unless juice or milk beverages are mixers, alcoholic beverages themselves supply few if any nutrients. more nutritious foods and drinks. For the casual or moderate drinker, this may not be much of a problem malnutrition is a significant concern for very heavy drinkers.

Poison Toxin Sources

But slowly in mature people Acute lead poisoning Colic, cramps, diarrhea or constipation, leg cramps, and drowsiness The most severe form of lead poisoning, encountered in infants and in heavy drinkers of illicitly distilled whiskey is characterized by profound disturbances of the central nervous system and permanent damage to the brain damage to the kidneys and shortened life span of the erthrocytes

Can Eating More Flavonoids Lower the Risk of Heart Disease

Researchers in the United States, Finland, and around the world have determined that people who eat or drink less of flavonoids have a higher death rate from heart disease. Some of these flavonoids may act to decrease the level of total and LDL-cholesterol in the blood, while others may decrease free-radical activities, thereby protecting LDL from oxidation as well as helping to protect the walls of the arteries. So again, eat more fruits, vegetables, and whole grains and, if you like, enjoy a glass or two of red wine daily or a few times a week.

The functionality of meat

Typical Western omnivorous diets over the last 40 years have been relatively high in protein and fat with insufficient dietary fibre, fruit and vegetables. Meat intake is by definition the key difference between vegetarian and omnivorous diets, thus comparative studies have tended to exaggerate the health benefits of a vegetarian diet so reinforcing a negative health image for meat. It has long been recognized (Burr, 1988) that although vegetarianism seems to confer some protection against heart disease, it is not clear if this is due to abstinence from meat or high consumption of vegetables. Meat intake has provided a marker for a generally 'unhealthy' diet in the past (American Dietetic Association, 1993 COMA, 1991 Sanders and Reddy, 1994 Thorogood, 1994). Furthermore, vegetarians have tended to be more health conscious, they traditionally smoke less, consume less alcohol, tea, and coffee, and tend to exercise more, thus their good health could be attributed to any or a combination...

Caffeine What Sources How Much

Excessive caffeine intake is individual. Caffeine sensitivity depends on the amount and frequency of caffeine intake, body weight, physical condition, and overall anxiety level, among other factors. Tolerance to caffeine develops over time. A regular coffee drinker may not notice the effects as quickly as someone who drinks an occasional cup. For most healthy adults, moderate amounts of caffeine 200 to 300 milligrams a day, from about two to three cups of coffee pose no physical problems. For kids, use common sense. No evidence shows that caffeine in levels normally found in food and beverages are harmful or that kids are any more sensitive to caffeine than

Nonfoods Effect on Breast Milk

An occasional alcoholic drink probably won't affect your baby or interfere with nursing, but heavy drinking may inhibit your letdown reflex. Alcohol in breast milk may cause your baby to be less alert. In excess, it may affect brain development. The Dietary Guidelines advise Alcoholic beverages should not be consumed by lactating women. Alcohol passes into breast milk drinking alcoholic beverages can decrease milk production. For a celebration drink, do so after breast-feeding, or postpone nursing for at least two hours.

Etiology and pathophysiology

Echogenicity Pancreas Ultrasound

While the majority of adult cases of pancreatitis are related to either alcohol consumption or gallstone disease, the causes of pediatric pancreatitis are more varied. In adolescent females, gallstone pancreatitis is not uncommon. However, young children with this disease have often been exposed to a recent trauma, infection, or medication as the inciting event. Recurrent pancreatitis in childhood can be attributed to hereditary pancreatitis, an anatomic variant of the pancreatic or biliary tree, or an underlying systemic or metabolic disorder. Alcoholism

Physical Examination Techniques

Scarlet Tongue Niacin Deficiency

Alcohol Misuse (260) Crohn's Disease (194) Malnutrition involving iron, riboflavin, B6, or zinc deficits. neuropathology from 74 chronic alcoholics who presented only mental, neurological, and GI symptoms at death (185). Although pellagra is frequently related to alcohol or malabsorption (186,187), use of non-fortified grains like rice and corn as primary energy sources, combined with low protein diets, can expedite niacin deficiency. Pre-formed niacin is derived primarily from fortified breads and cereals (188). Food intake data from rice-eating PD patients (189) tallied thiamin, niacin, and riboflavin intakes between 50 and 83 of the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA).

Small for Gestational

Small for gestational age, also known as intrauterine growth retardation, is defined as an infant or fetus smaller in size than expected, meaning a weight in the bottom tenth percentile for a particular age. Small for gestational age is believed to be related to placental insufficiency, infectious disease, congenital malformations, drug and alcohol abuse, and cigarette smoking. Other risk factors include maternal hypertension, first pregnancies, and exposure to environmental toxins. It is considered to be one cause of low birth weight (less than twenty-five hundred grams, or five pounds eight ounces). It is not synonymous with prematurity, which is defined as birth before thirty-seven-weeks gestation. see also Infant Mortality Rate Low Birth Weight Infant Pregnancy.

Beer as Part of the Diet

Beer (and other forms of alcohol) differs in its signi cance, acceptability and importance from culture to culture. At one extreme the prophet Mohammed forbade his followers to drink alcohol, thereby establishing a point of difference from Christianity. The Koran speaks of alcohol as being an 'abomination and the work of Satan' (5 90). Conversely, the Kofyar of northern Nigeria believe that 'man's way to god is with beer in hand' (Netting 1964). In the Aztec nation, religious worshippers were obliged to get drunk for fear of displeasing the gods (Thompson 1940). In India, the various deities demand different approaches to the use of alcohol. Indeed, in some areas of India, alcohol is replaced by infusions of hashish (Carstairs 1957). What better illustration might one use to stress the need for tolerance of others' customs and beliefs and of what is or is not acceptable Perhaps the rst person to conduct a serious study of the impact of abstinence, moderation and excessive drinking on...

Sources of Calcium Phosphorus and Sodium

Most diets will contain some added salt, usually in the form of sodium chloride. Where iodine is not added as a separate ingredient, iodized salt must be used. In most countries the various salt forms are differentiated by color, with common salt being a natural white color and iodized salt being red. Cobalt iodized salt is often used in diets for swine and ruminants, and this can be used without any problems for poultry. This type of salt is usually colored blue. Because high levels of sodium chloride can lead to increased water intake, then a substitution of sodium bicarbonate for a portion of this chloride salt has been shown to be beneficial. Under these condition, up to 30 of the supplemental salt can be substituted with sodium bicarbonate without loss in performance, and such birds often produce drier manure. For substitutions of sodium bicarbonate for sodium chloride above 30 , care must be taken to balance dietary chloride levels, since under commercial conditions it is often...

Simple and Complex Carbohydrates

Until we have a definitive answer, the safest bet is to simply drink less soda. The most likely answer is that the excess calories associated with drinking too many soft drinks made with high-fructose corn syrup are the fattening culprit, more so than the HFCS itself. I'm sure you can find a far better way to spend the 150 calories the equivalent of 10 teaspoons of sugar in each can of soft drink

The global burden of chronic diseases

While age, sex and genetic susceptibility are non-modifiable, many of the risks associated with age and sex are modifiable. Such risks include behavioural factors (e.g. diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use, alcohol consumption) biological factors (e.g. dyslipidemia, hypertension, overweight, hyperinsulinaemia) and finally societal factors, which include a complex mixture of interacting socioeconomic, cultural and other environmental parameters.

Potential Explanations For The Antiobesity Effect Of A Vegetarian Diet

While data indicate that vegetarians may weigh less than other population subsets, it does not necessarily follow that it is their avoidance of meat that is responsible. Vegetarians are also more likely to adopt other healthy life-style habits, such as regular exercise and reduced alcohol consumption, that also impact their lack of obesity. There is some evidence, however, that eating more vegetables and abstaining from meat does play a significant role in their leaner profiles. A study by Kahn and others of 79,000

Micronutrients Alcohol

Alcohol can cause widespread cell damage and fat peroxidation in the liver.8 Supplements may help protect against oxidative damage. Vitamin C may help detoxify alcohol9 May help reduce damage to the liver and lessen symptoms related to alcohol withdrawal in heavy drinkers12 B vitamins are poorly absorbed and their activation is impaired by alcohol. Most heavy drinkers are deficient in many B vitamins Deficiency is very common in heavy drinkers and can produce heart and neuromuscular problems The main enzymes that detoxify alcohol are dependent on zinc, thus zinc deficiency impairs abilityto breakdown alcohol, increasing potential

Intersection of the nutrition science and clinical axes defining the response phenotype

In addition, care should be taken to identify environmental factors that can influence the 'response phenotype' through gene-environment interactions (such as smoking, alcohol consumption and physical activity). The latter is described in detail in Chapter 1.

Antioxidant Properties Of Wine

The most significant in vivo effects of red wine consumption on inhibiting LDL oxidation was observed in 17 healthy men given 400 mL of red or white wine for 14 d. Plasma collected from red wine drinkers at the end of the study was about 20 less likely to peroxidize than plasma collected at baseline, and LDLs isolated from these subjects were more resistant to oxidation effects independent of plasma vitamin E or 6-carotene concentrations (Fuhrman et al., 1995). However, this study has come under question because the results obtained far exceeded the clinical benefit obtained previously by dietary or pharmacologic interventions to prevent LDL oxidation (De Rijke et al., 1996). In addition, other studies have reported no significant change in LDL oxidation lag times after acute or subchronic (10-28 d) consumption of red wine despite marked increases in plasma levels of red wine polyphenols (Sharpe et al., 1995 De Rijke et al., 1996 Caccetta et al., 2000). Hein, H.O., Suadicani, P.,...

Figure The Dash Eating Plan

Excessive alcohol intake can raise blood pressure and cause resistance to antihypertensive therapy. Hypertensive patients who drink alcohol-containing beverages should be counseled to limit their daily intake to one drink per day for women and two drinks per day for men. One drink equals IV2 ounces of 80-proof whiskey, 5 ounces of wine, or 12 ounces of beer.

Flowing down the hatch from mouth to stomach

How much alcohol dehydrogenase your body churns out is influenced by your ethnicity and your gender. For example, Asians, Native Americans, and Inuits appear to secrete less alcohol dehydrogenase than do most Caucasians, and the average woman (regardless of her ethnicity) makes less ADH than the average man does. As a result, more unmetabolized alcohol flows from their tummies into their bloodstreams, and they're likely to become tipsy on smaller amounts of alcohol than an average Caucasian male would need to drink.

High Risk Groups

While alcohol abuse and alcoholism affect virtually every segment of the population, certain groups are at greater risk. Young adults between the ages of eighteen and twenty-nine have the highest prevalence of alcohol abuse, and persons who begin to drink at an early age, especially before the age of fourteen, have a greater risk for developing problems with alcohol. Persons with a family history of alcohol abuse or alcoholism are also more likely to experience alcohol-related problems. In the United States, American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI ANs) have the highest rates of current and heavy drinking of all racial or ethnic groups. Deaths from chronic liver disease and cirrhosis are nearly four times greater among AI ANs compared to the general U.S. population. They also have a higher prevalence of drunk driving compared to the general U.S. population. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the U.S. Department of Agriculture recommend that alcohol be consumed in...

Alcoholic Beverages

(1) ACCORDING TO THE SURGEON GENERAL, WOMEN SHOULD NOT DRINK ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES DURING PREGNANCY BECAUSE OF THE RISK OF BIRTH DEFECTS. (2) CONSUMPTION OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES IMPAIRS YOUR ABILITY TO DRIVE A CAR OR OPERATE MACHINERY, AND MAY CAUSE HEALTH PROBLEMS. . . . if you can't moderate your drinking. As part of a lifelong commitment, recovering alcoholics and problem drinkers should abstain from any alcoholic drink. Because of the genetic link to alcoholism, people with alcoholism in their family are wise to moderate their intake of alcoholic beverages, too or avoid them. . . . if you're pregnant or trying to get pregnant. In the United States, drinking during pregnancy is the leading known cause of birth defects. Fetal alcohol syndrome is characterized by mental retardation, and by behavioral and psychosocial problems. While there's not enough proof that an occasional drink is harmful, even moderate drinking may have behavioral and mental consequences. No safe level has been...


Watson initiated and directed the National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Alcohol Research Center at the University of Arizona College of Medicine. The main goal of the center was to understand the role of ethanol-induced immunosuppression on immune function and disease resistance in animals. Dr. Watson attended the University of Idaho and graduated from Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah, with a degree in chemistry in 1966. He completed his Ph.D. program in biochemistry at Michigan State University in 1971. His postdoctoral schooling in nutrition and microbiology was completed at the Harvard University School of Public Health and included two years of postdoctoral research experience in immunology. Dr. Watson is a member of several national and international nutrition, immunology, and cancer societies and research societies on alcoholism. Victor R. Preedy, Ph.D., is a professor in the Department of Nutrition and Dietetics at King's College in London. He...

Alcohol and Health

About 7 percent of Americans abuse alcohol or suffer from alcoholism. Alcoholism can be identified through four symptoms (1) a craving or strong urge to drink alcohol, (2) not being able to stop drinking, (3) physical dependence, and (4) tolerance. Physical dependence occurs when an individual depends on the presence of alcohol to function normally. Tolerance occurs when the same amount of alcohol results in a lesser effect therefore, more alcohol must be consumed in order to feel the same effect. Alcohol abuse differs from alcoholism in that it does not include a strong craving for alcohol, the loss of control over one's drinking, or physical dependence. Individuals may have a problem with alcohol abuse if they exhibit one or more of the following symptoms work and money problems, drinking while driving, being arrested due to drinking, exhibiting violent or aggressive behaviors, or continuing to drink despite the problems that result from drinking.

GABA and Depression

Murphy et al . 36 found that during the treatment process for menopause disorder by estrogen replacement (such as estradiol), expression of the GABA receptor, GAD of the hippocampus neuron, and synthesis of GABA decreased in the rat brain Even for alcoholism, the GABA content in plasma decreased and the symptoms of neurosis (anorexia, sense of pain) and mental disorder (depression, mania, anxiety) were significant 37 Therefore, supply of GABA and enhancement of activity of the GABA receptor improve depression 30,31


Osteoporosis is a multi-factorial disorder characterized by bone loss over an extended period of time. As a result of the decrease in bone density, the risk of fracture at various sites increases, making osteoporosis one of the most debilitating diseases known to mankind. Over the years, improved nutritional status and the advancements made in the field of medicine and science have caused a significant increase in the aging population and the prevalence of osteoporosis-related fractures.6 Currently, osteoporosis is considered one of the major public health problems in the United States, affecting over 20 million people annually. The percentage of hospitalization due to osteoporotic fractures is on a steady rise and is accompanied by an escalating cost of treatment that has surpassed 10 billion dollars a year.7-9 Considering the magnitude of the condition, it is imperative to understand the etiology and risk factors of the disease in order to develop treatment and prevention...


Be associated with iron overload, including alcoholism, heavy smoking, African siderosis, sideroblastic anemia and thalassemia. Due to persistently high concentrations of iron, liver disease eventually appears. The constant free-radical generation caused by high free iron levels in the liver leads to liver cell destruction and fibrosis.

Major Minerals

Dietary deficiency is unlikely for most major minerals, except in starving people or those with protein-energy malnutrition in developing countries, or people on poor diets for an extended period, such as those suffering from alcoholism, anorexia nervosa, or bulimia. Most people in the world consume a lot of salt, and it is recommended that they moderate their intake to prevent chronic diseases (high salt intake has been associated with an increased risk of death from stroke and cardiovascular disease). However, certain conditions, such as severe or prolonged vomiting or diarrhea, the use of diuretics, and some forms of kidney disease, lead to an increased loss of minerals, particularly sodium, chloride, potassium, and magnesium. Calcium intakes tend to be lower in women and vegans who do not consume dairy products. Elderly people with suboptimal diets are also at risk of mineral deficiencies because of decreased absorption and increased excretion of minerals in the urine.


Mineral supplementation may also be appropriate for people with prolonged illnesses or extensive injuries, for those undergoing surgery, or for those being treated for alcoholism. However, extra caution must be taken to avoid intakes greater than the RDA or AI for specific nutrients because of problems related to nutrient excesses, imbalances, or adverse interactions with medical treatments. Although toxic symptoms or adverse effects from excess supplementation have been reported for various minerals (e.g., calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, and selenium) and tolerable upper limits set, the amounts of nutrients in supplements are not regulated by the

Vitamin B

Since vitamin B12 is well conserved in the body, it is difficult to become deficient from dietary factors alone, unless a person is a strict vegan and consumes a diet devoid of eggs and dairy for several years. Deficiency is usually observed when B12 absorption is hampered by disease or surgery to the stomach or ileum, damage to gastric mucosa by alcoholism, or prolonged use of anti-ulcer medications that affect secretion of intrinsic factor. Age-related decrease in stomach-acid production also reduces absorption of B12 in elderly persons. These groups are advised to consume fortified foods or take a supplemental form of vitamin B12.

Preparing To Detox

It's a great idea to let your family, friends and workmates know that you are starting a detox. This will help you socially - in fact, we find that most people are extremely interested to know what it involves and usually want to try it themselves, especially once they notice how sparky you look after a couple of weeks. If you are invited out it is best to warn your host you are not drinking alcohol and have a few dietary restrictions.


The complete adult children of alcoholics sourcebook Adult children at home, at work and in love. Deerfield Beach, FL Health Communications. www.alcoholics-anony-mous.org, All these Web sites offer helpful resources for people who want to stop their problem drinking and for their loved ones.

GABA and Epilepsy

Epilepsy is a congenital or acquired chronic brain disease . The disease is induced from abnormal discharge in brain cell by factors including (1) incomplete brain development (2) injured brain (such as traumatic brain injury TBI or brain injury during birth) (3) meningitis, encephalitis, and phrenitis (4) stroke (from brain injury or CNS injury), cerebral atrophy, or metabolic brain disease and (5) brain tumor or other diseases . Furthermore, patients may experience seizure when they suddenly stop taking drugs, do not sleep enough, are fatigued, overdrink, are alcoholics, suffer stress from sound or light, have a hormone effect (periods or menses), or are uncomfortable (cold and fever), among others .74


Vitamin C is destroyed by heat, and thus not present in pasteurized and commercially processed foods. Children and teenagers who consume too many processed foods and few fresh fruits and vegetables may be getting inadequate amounts of vitamin C. (In 1914, an increased incidence of scurvy among infants was attributed to consumption of heated (pasteurized) milk and vitamin C-deficient commercially processed foods.) Though rare, scurvy is now frequently observed among elderly persons, alcoholics, and malnourished adults. In addition, smokers have higher requirements for vitamin C, and are therefore more at risk.


Beriberi is a clinical manifestation of thiamin deficiency. Symptoms include nervous system abnormalities (e.g., leg cramps, muscle weakness), limb swelling, elevated pulse, and heart failure. Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is a related condition (with symptoms such as a jerky gait, disorientation, and impaired short-term memory) that occurs among alcoholics. SEE also Nutritional Deficiency Vitamins, Water-Soluble.

Alcohol and SCD

The question of the effect of alcohol on heart and vessel diseases has been the subject of intense controversy in recent years. The consensus is now that moderate alcohol drinking is associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality, although the exact mechanism(s) by which alcohol is protective are still unclear. In contrast, chronic heavy drinking has been incriminated in the occurrence of atrial as well as ventricular arrhythmias in humans an effect called holiday heart because it is often associated with binge drinking by healthy people, specifically during weekends. Studies Few human studies have specifically investigated the effect of alcohol on SCD. The hyperadrenergic state resulting from binge drinking and from withdrawal in alcoholics seems to be the main mechanism by which alcohol induces arrhythmias. In the British Regional Heart Study, the relative risk of SCD in heavy drinkers ( 6 drinks per day) was twice as high as risk in occasional or light drinkers.26 However, the...

Thiamin Vitamin B

Thiamin functions as the coenzyme thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) in the metabolism of carbohydrate and in conduction of nerve impulses. Thiamin deficiency causes beri-beri, which is frequently seen in parts of the world where polished (white) rice or unenriched white flour are predominantly eaten. There are three basic expressions of beriberi childhood, wet, and dry. Childhood beriberi stunts growth in infants and children. Wet beriberi is the classic form, with swelling due to fluid retention (edema) in the lower limbs that spreads to the upper body, affecting the heart and leading to heart failure. Dry beriberi affects peripheral nerves, initially causing tingling or burning sensations in the lower limbs and progressing to nerve degeneration, muscle wasting, and weight loss. Thiamine-deficiency disease in North America commonly occurs in people with heavy alcohol consumption and is called Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. It is caused by poor food intake and by decreased absorption and...

Diet Dementia

It is estimated that about one-quarter of all dementias are caused by nutritional factors that are, at least partially, reversible.9 Deficiencies of severalB vitamins - niacin, vitamin B12, thiamin, and folate - can cause dementia.9,14,15 Chronic heavy alcohol consumption can also produce dementia - large amounts of alcohol have a direct toxic effect on brain cells. Because multi-infarct dementia is caused by small strokes, the same dietary changes that were recommended for prevention of high blood pressure and stroke (see pp. 180) can decrease risk of this disorder and also slow down progression of the disease in affected individuals by preventing more strokes.16,17 Often, because of their disability and poor dietary habits, demented patients develop nutritional deficiencies that can sharply accelerate their disease.9

Diet Ulcer

Dietary factors play a central role in ulcer frequency and severity.3,4 High intakes of sugar and refined carbohydrate can contribute to ul-cers.5 Milk, traditionally recommended to reduce acidity, actually produces only a transient rise in pH. This is often followed by a large rebound increase in acid secretion, which can worsen ulcers. Heavy alcohol consumption can cause erosions and ulceration of the stomach lining. Both decaffeinated and regular coffee can aggravate heartburn and ulcers. Food sensitivities (such as allergy to cow's milk) may contribute to ulcer formation identifying and avoiding the offending foods often improves healing and may prevent recurrence.6 Raw cabbage juice contains large amounts of S-methylmethionine and glutamine, two amino acids that can accelerate healing of ulcers.

Lifestyle Factors

International differences in breast cancer occurrence might be partly explained on the basis of lifestyle factors, such as diet and alcohol consumption. Among the dietary factors, the most of the studies have focused on diet content of fat and fiber. As for micronutrients, phytoestrogens have been largely and still inconclusively investigated. Alcohol consumption has shown a moderate effect on breast cancer risk. The existing evidence about dietary components and alcohol intake in affecting breast cancer risk is discussed in detail further in the following chapters of this manuscript.


Some of the factors that may contribute to elevated homocysteine levels include smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, excessive coffee drinking, a sedentary life lifestyle, and a deficiency of folate, and or vitamins B6 and B12 in the diet. What's more, medications that interfere with folate, and vitamins B6 and B12 can ultimately lead to increased homocysteine levels.

Diet Infertility

In men, poor nutrition - a diet high in refined carbohydrates, saturated fat, and processed foods and low in important micronutrients -may reduce sperm number and motility. To help increase sperm quality, the diet should emphasize high-quality protein, whole grains, and fresh fruits and vegetables. Heavy alcohol consumption (more than 3 drinks per day) can impair fertility.6 Overweight men are more likely to have low testosterone levels and lower numbers of sperm.

Vitamin A Toxicity

Most acute cases of vitamin A toxicity have occurred in infants given massive doses of the vitamin, usually from 50,000-4,000,000 IU over a short period of time.541 Most adult cases involved doses greater than 100,000 IU a day over prolonged periods of time. Risk below this level is most often seen with associated medical disorders, such as low body weight, protein malnutrition, alcohol consumption, and ascorbic acid deficiency. Between 1976 and 1987, fewer than ten cases per year were reported in the United States. Obviously, vitamin A toxicity is not a big problem in this country. Doses between 5,000-10,000 IU are, without question, safe. Concern has been raised recently by the ATBC and CARET clinical trials involving beta-carotene supplementation and a link to increased cancer rates of the lungs and prostate in those exposed to asbestos or engaged in heavy smoking and or heavy alcohol consumption. It should be noted that those who only smoked occasionally did not show an increased...

Nutritional Status

Anemia, riboflavin deficiency, and calcium deficiency are common nutritional problems in the rural and urban areas of many islands, while heart disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and other chronic diseases are on the rise. This is primarily due to a transition from traditional nutritious diets of fresh fruits, vegetables, poultry, and seafood to a diet with large amounts of imported and highly refined Western foods that are low in fiber and high in fat and sugars. Cigarette smoking, an increase in alcohol consumption, and a decreased level of physical activity are also contributing factors.

Diet Psoriasis

In psoriasis, metabolism of essential fatty acids (EFAs) in the skin is abnormal. Production of EPA and DHA, the omega-3 fatty acids derived from dietary linolenic acid (see pp.89) is impaired (see Fig. 5.1 ).12 Skin synthesis of GLA from linoleic acid is also abnormal. To provide ample polyunsaturated fatty acids, regular consumption of high-quality, cold-pressed nut and seed oils is important. The diet should also be low in saturated fat and hydrogenated fat.13 Vegetarian diets can sometimes dramatically improve psoriasis. They tend to be low in protein, which can aggravate the condition, and high in EFAs. Food sensitivities should be determined as they may promote psoriasis - in some cases careful food-elimination diets can lead to dramatic improvement of the condition (see pp.205). Alcohol consumption can aggravate psoriasis in certain individuals.

Risk Factors

Among more prosperous urban Africans, for example those in South Africa, the prevalence of obesity in women, but not in men, is higher than that in white women.38 The prevalences of hypertension and of diabetes approach, exceed in the latter, such in white populations.3940 Smoking rates have increased, with the rise far more evident in men than in women.41 Alcohol consumption too has risen, again far more so in men than in women.42 As already indicated, physical activity, understandably, is progressively decreasing in urban dwellers, especially in the better circumstanced.

Human Studies

In an investigation of the influence of alcohol on serum carotenoid levels, no statistical effect was detected between serum carotenoids (including P-cryptoxan-thin) in alcholics (n 95) before or after withdrawal from alcohol consumption or in comparison with control subjects (n 118) (Lecompte et al., 1994). For women having high-risk type human papilloma virus, the adjusted mean concentration of serum carotenoids including P-cryptoxanthin was on average 24 lower for those in the highest risk categories (Guiliano et al., 1997). Among elderly patients with type II diabetes, serum levels of the carotenoids P-cryptoxanthin (p 0.02), P-carotene (p 0.01), and lycopene (p 0.002) were inversely associated with age (Polidori et al., 2000).


Besides additions to the diet, it is suggested that women suffering from PMS should avoid caffeine, in the form of soft drinks, coffee, or chocolate refined sugars sodium and saturated fats. Drinking plenty of water is a complement to cutting back on sodium. The effects of alcohol are usually magnified in premenstrual women, and therefore it is also advised that alcohol consumption be decreased or stopped totally.

Diet Alcohol

Heavy alcohol intake causes inflammation of the lining of the stomach and intestines, reducing absorption of vitamins and minerals.4-6 It also damages the pancreas, which impairs production of digestive enzymes and Alcoholic beverages are high in calories (a glass of beer or wine contains 120-150 cal), and alcoholic drinks have little nutritional value otherwise. If a person drinks three to four glasses of wine or beer each day, alcohol will provide 15-20 of the energy in the diet. When trying to maintain a steady weight or lose weight, limiting alcohol intake is one of the best ways to cut calories. Heavy alcohol intake during pregnancy, especially during the first 3 months, can cause birth defects and mental retardation in the in-fant.7 No one knows how much alcohol is safe during pregnancy, and many experts feel even one drink per day is harmful. The safest course for a pregnant women is probably complete abstention during early pregnancy and only very rare intake in later...

Diet Insomnia

Although alcohol has a sedative effect that can hasten sleep onset, heavy alcohol intake often produces light, unsettled sleep and increases nighttime awakening. Because alcohol can interfere with deep sleep, alcoholic nightcaps should generally be avoided A better bedtime drink is a glass of warm milk. Milk is rich in tryptophan and calcium, both of which have a calming effect and may improve sleep quality.

Diet Cancer

Burned or darkly browned foods, such as heavily roasted or barbecued meats Nitrites and nitrates (food preservatives used to give processed meats a pink color) Pesticides and other agrochemicals Regular heavy alcohol intake Processed meats (such as sausages, luncheon meats, smoked, pickled, or salt-cured meats) Rancid (oxidized) fats, such as fat used repeatedly for deep-fatfrying Old, mouldy foods particularly potatoes, peanuts, mushrooms, sprouts Artificial food dyes Heavily chlorinated drinking water

Osteoporosis Is

You can't control some risk factors for osteoporosis genetics, family history, gender, hormonal status, race ethnic heritage, age, and body frame weight. You can control other risk factors what you eat, physical activity, cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, and using medications to help protect against osteoporosis.

Diet Hypertension

Chronic high alcohol intake (more than two to three drinks per day) increases risk of hypertension and stroke.11 Alcohol is one of the most common causes of hypertension in the industrialized countries. Individuals who drink regularly and have high blood pressure can often see a significant drop in blood pressure after a few days of abstention.

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Opioid antagonists such as naloxone influence the eating of pleasant-tasting food such as chocolate, in both animals (2327) and humans (2830, 39, 40). It is widely believed that drugs of addiction influence mechanisms in the brain that have as their normal function the control of some rewarding activity, such as eating or drinking (94). Opioids play an important role in the initiation and maintenance of drug dependence (95) in the limbic forebrain they are associated with drug craving and relapse following withdrawal. Alcohol craving in both animals and humans is reduced after taking naltrexone (95). Heroin (96), alcohol (97) and nicotine (98) addictions are all associated with the perception of a sweet taste as more pleasant.

Functional Beverages

Will energy drinks really give you more energy High caffeine and carbs are the so-called power behind their marketing hype. It's not the ideal drink for athletes, or for grab-and-go energy. Extra caffeine may give a boost at first, but with too much caffeine, performance may suffer see chapter 19 for more about beverages for athletic performance. The concentrated sugar content can slow the body's absorption of water, so energy drinks aren't the best fluid replacers. And as a mixer in alcoholic drinks, the stimulating effect of caffeine may mask the effects of too much alcohol-a potential danger. Energy drinks sold as nutritional supplements, with the potentially dangerous stimulant ephedrine, were banned by FDA in 2004 although there have been legal challenges to this ruling.

For A Hangover

Process all ingredients through a juicer. Drink immediately. Alcohol destroys the B vitamins. Romaine lettuce, broccoli and spinach contain excellent quantities of the B complex, including thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3), pantothenic acid (B5), pyridoxine (B6), folic acid (B9). I used to be quite a social drinker before I became a raw-foodist. As I began eating significant quantities of raw foods, I no longer would feel hangovers after a night of drinking with friends.


Among the common types of diets people follow are food-focused, celebrity, exchange, and supplement-based diets. Food-focused plans, such as the grapefruit diet, the banana diet, or a wine drinker's diet, emphasize consumption of only one, or a few, foods. Celebrity plans generally have the backing of a celebrity, and exchange plans lump together into food groups items with similar calories, carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Some diets incorporate a commercial meal, snack bar, food, or beverage that must be purchased.

How Much Is Enough

As you can see in table 1.4, calcium needs vary according to age, with growing teens needing four servings and most adults three servings. This may seem like a lot if you are not a milk drinker, but even weight-conscious athletes can easily consume the recommended daily minimum of three servings of low-fat dairy foods for only 300 calories. Try to get at least half, if not all, of your calcium requirements from food.

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