Lose Belly Fat Diet

My Bikini Belly

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My Bikini Belly Overview


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Exercise Training Effects on Waist Circumference

In randomized, controlled trials that provided a significant increase in exercise volume, either through a large, weekly amount of exercise for a short time period (4900 Kcal wk for 12 weeks Ross et al.44), or a smaller, weekly amount over a long time period (980 Kcal wk for 48 weeks Binder et al.73), or both (2000 Kcal wk for 36 weeks Slentz et al.74), statistically and physiologically significant decreases in waist circumference have been observed. In the randomized, controlled exercise-training study by Kraus' group,74 two amounts of exercise (low dose, 1200 Kcal wk, and high dose, 2000 Kcal wk) combined with a control (no extra Kcal wk through exercise) revealed a clear, strong volume of exercise effect on reductions in abdominal obesity as measured by waist circumference (Figure 4.3). In this study, FIGURE 4.3 Effects of exercise amount and intensity on mean percent changes in waist circumference. * Indicates P < 0.05 compared with controls. Error bars show SE. even the...

Metabolic Syndrome And Exercise

The relatively recent recognition of the metabolic syndrome as a clinically definable entity implies that few studies are available that address the specific effects of exercise training on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. To our knowledge, there is only one exercise-training study that has published data analyzed (post hoc) based on the new ATP III definition of metabolic syndrome. This study is the Heritage Family Study11. The Heritage Family Study was a multicenter study, including a large number of individuals across a large age range (18-65 yr) in African American and Caucasian men and women. Complete data were available on 621 subjects who completed the exercise training. Of these, 105 had metabolic syndrome as defined by ATP III. The race and gender distribution coupled with the wide age range of study participants in this trial makes the findings likely generalizable to a large portion of the U.S. adult population. Furthermore, the research design emphasized close...

The Metabolic Syndrome

The general concept of the metabolic syndrome, which describes a clustering of metabolic abnormalities associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and hypertension, has been recognized for many years.1-4 Despite a definition of syndrome by the World Health Organization (WHO)5, the most commonly used definition is relatively new. In 2002, the National Cholesterol Education Program, in its Adult Treatment Program III (ATP III),6 presented a definition of metabolic syndrome that is commonly accepted in the U.S as a working model of the condition. However, the relative novelty of the condition to the general medical and lay audiences and only recent acceptance of a working definition means that there have been few studies of the prevalence, incidence, and response of metabolic syndrome to commonly available lifestyle interventions, such as exercise training. Several excellent reviews of metabolic syndrome exist.7-10 Hence, rather than presenting yet again a review...

Rationale For Including Cardiorespiratory Fitness In Metabolic Syndrome

This concept is supported by studies from the 50s in carefully performed studies in animals86 and humans.87 Meyers et al. observed that at significant physical activity levels, increases or decreases in physical activity were matched with increases or decreases in food intake. However, below certain minimal levels of physical activity, further decreases in physical activity were not met by further decreases in food intake, but rather by increases in food intake and consequent body weight. They interpreted the data to suggest that a minimal level of physical activity might be necessary for appropriate appetite control. Recent data from our group provides support for this theory. In our study,74 inactive controls gained weight over a six-month period, whereas two different low-dose exercise-training groups (equivalent to 12 miles wk of walking or jogging) lost weight and a higher dose (equivalent to 17 mile wk) lost even more body mass. The data suggest that below a certain level,...

The health risks of obesity

Obesity, and especially abdominal obesity (section 6.2.3), is strongly associated with insulin resistance and the development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (section 10.7). This is largely the result of increased circulating concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (released from plasma lipoproteins by lipoprotein lipase section Non-esterified fatty acids decrease muscle uptake and utilization of glucose and may also antagonize insulin action. Weight loss results in a considerable improvement in glycaemic control in patients with early non-insulin-dependent diabetes.

Strength of evidence

Repeatedly demonstrated in longitudinal studies in different populations, with a striking gradient of risk apparent with increasing levels of BMI, adult weight gain, waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio. Indeed waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio (reflecting abdominal or visceral adiposity) are more powerful determinants of subsequent risk of type 2 diabetes than BMI (16-20). Central adiposity is also an important determinant of insulin resistance, the underlying abnormality in most cases of type 2 diabetes (20). Voluntary weight loss improves insulin sensitivity (21) and in several randomized controlled trials has been shown to reduce the risk of progression from impaired glucose tolerance to type 2 diabetes (22, 23). Abdominal obesity

Weight Loss and Dieting

Yo-yo dieting may result in a higher risk of heart disease and diabetes. When fat is regained after dieting, it may be stored around the abdomen. Abdominal fat storage, in contrast to fat stored in the leg or hip region, appears to be a risk factor in the development of certain diseases. Yo-yo dieting also may increase your percent of body fat. When you lose weight through dieting, you lose both fat and muscle tissue. However, when you stop dieting, excess calories are stored in the form of fat. Therefore, even if you regain only as many pounds as you lost through dieting, your body is likely to be fattier than it was previously.

Weight Cyclingthe YoYo Problem

If you have weight-cycling history, here's some insight. Most research indicates that weight cycling itself doesn't affect, or lower, your metabolic rate, according to the National Institutes of Health, Weight-Control Information Network. Most people return to their original weight, with the same percentage of lean muscle and fat as before-if their activity level and calorie intake return to the original levels, too. Weight cycling doesn't increase abdominal fat, either. If you adopt a healthier approach to weight loss or maintenance, your past history won't get in the way.

Being physically active

I Exercise reduces the amount of fat stored in your body. People who are fat around the middle as opposed to the hips (in other words an apple shape versus a pear shape) are at higher risk of weight-related illness. Exercise helps reduce abdominal fat and thus lowers your risk of weight-related diseases. Use a tape measure to identify your own body type by comparing your waistline to your hips (around the buttocks). If your waist (abdomen) is bigger, you're an apple. If your hips are bigger, you're a pear.

Dual Energy XRay Absorptiometry

One of the primary advantages of employing DXA for soft-tissue assessment is the capacity to obtain both whole-body and regional analyses. The standard regions that are analyzed include the head, arms, legs, pelvic region, and trunk. For fat mass, assessment of the trunk fat mass is of particular interest given the effect of abdominal fat on the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. For bone-free FFM, the assessment of lean mass in the arms and legs is of particular importance. The vast majority of bone-free FFM in the arms and legs is composed of skeletal muscle, and with the emergence of sarcopenia as an important public health issue, DXA is increasingly being used to estimate muscle mass.34

Personalized Medicine

Chronic stress results in chronic elevations in cortisol and eventually abdominal fat and insulin resistance.38,44 The resulting visceral obesity increases the production of inflammatory mediators such as TNF-a and IL-6. Patients caught in this cycle of inflammation and adiposity may need a clinician's help to reverse the unfavorable environment. Nutritional interventions such as improved-quality carbohydrates, vitamin D, magnesium, and chromium, each discussed in later chapters, can improve insulin sensitivity and, eventually, phenotypic expression.

Dietary and Lifestyle Changes

Menopausal women need to decrease their intake of total fat, saturated fat, and total calories to balance their energy expenditure and prevent weight gain, which is sometimes associated with this period in a women's life. It is believed that, on average, women gain about 1.2 pounds a year, with most of the weight gain in the form of abdominal fat. A study done in the 1990s found that a modest weight reduction program in premenopausal women, including diet and exercise, produced modest weight loss and favorable blood lipid changes that lasted five years through the women's menopausal period. This study (Simkin-Silverman et al.) proved that weight gain during menopause is not only related to hormonal changes, but also to decreased level of physical activity.

Diseasespecific recommendations

A These BMI values are age-Independent and the same for both sexes. However, BMI may not correspond to the same degree of fatness In different populations due, In part, to differences In body proportions. The table shows a simplistic relationship between BMI and the risk of comorbidity, which can be affected by a range of factors, including the nature and the risk of comorbidity, which can be affected by a range of factors, including the nature of the diet, ethnic group and activity level. The risks associated with increasing BMI are continuous and graded and begin at a BMI below 25. The interpretation of BMI gradings in relation to risk may differ for different populations. Both BMI and a measure of fat distribution (waist circumference or waist hip ratio (WHR)) are important in calculating the risk of obesity comorbidities. Source reference 26. a These BMI values are age-Independent and the same for both sexes. However, BMI may not correspond to the same degree of fatness In...

Are There Different Kinds of Obesity

People exhibiting the upper-body obesity pattern seem to be at a higher risk for heart disease, stroke, diabetes mellitus, and some types of cancers. In this type of obesity more of the fat is found deeper, surrounding internal organs in the abdomen. This fat tissue is referred to as visceral fat and researchers believe that this fat functions a little differently than fat found under the skin. While the reasons for preferential storage of fat in specific sites are still unclear, hormone levels (such as estrogen) and different levels of activity of fat-storing enzymes in different parts of our body probably play the biggest roles. These enzymes are called lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL).

Benefit to Older Adults

In a second study in resistance training elderly subjects, strength gains during the study were similar between the HMB-supple-mented group and the placebo-supplemented group.47 However, HMB supplementation significantly improved functional ability as measured by a get up and go (GUG) test,47 which measures the time to get up out of a chair, walk a set distance, turn around, and return to the chair and sit down again. Decreasing body fat and improving muscle function are both important findings in the elderly. Body fat, and in particular visceral fat storage, is linked to the development of insulin resistance (type II diabetes)48 and cardiovascular disease.49 Additionally, improving functional ability in the elderly should improve the quality of life and may result in decreasing falls, a common cause of injury in the elderly population.

Diet physical activity and cardiovascular disease

The ''lag-time'' effect of risk factors for CVD means that present mortality rates are the consequence ofprevious exposure to behavioural risk factors such as inappropriate nutrition, insufficient physical activity and increased tobacco consumption. Overweight, central obesity, high blood pressure, dyslipidaemia, diabetes and low cardio-respiratory fitness are among the biological factors contributing principally to increased risk. Unhealthy dietary practices include the high consumption of saturated fats, salt and refined carbohydrates, as well as low consumption of fruits and vegetables, and these tend to cluster together.

Future directions for research

It seems clear that regular exercise physical activity has beneficial effects both for preventing and treating type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Particularly promising areas of research are (a) the most effective amounts and intensities of exercise that lead to these benefits in individuals with diabetes (b) investigating the unique role that resistance-training exercise may have on insulin sensitivity and metabolic syndrome and (c) the interactions between exercise, environment, and genetics. We are currently in the early phases of a study of the separate and combined effects of aerobic and resistance exercise on individuals with aspects of the metabolic syndrome (central obesity, dyslipidemia, and sedentary lifestyle). We anticipate that such lines of investigation hold great promise for improving our effectiveness in diagnosing individuals with metabolic syndrome on the road to type 2 diabetes and in ultimately preventing its development in susceptible individuals.

Resting Metabolic Rate And Changes In Body Composition

These data are applicable to masters athletes and may provide motivation for continued participation in sports. Women in particular are concerned with weight gain after menopause. Postmenopausal women have higher body fat levels and more central obesity than premenopausal women, but several investigations reveal that lifestyle, especially physical activity, is more responsible for alterations in body composition than hormone status 17 . Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey also indicated that women age 25 to 55 who met or exceeded the exercise guidelines to be moderately active 5 days a week or vigorously active for 3 days a week had lower body mass index, percent body fat, and waist-to-hip ratios than less active women 18 .

Interactions between early and later factors throughout the life course

Impaired glucose tolerance and an adverse lipid profile are seen as early as childhood and adolescence, where they typically appear clustered together with higher blood pressure and relate strongly to obesity, in particular central obesity (76, 78, 125, 126). Raised blood pressure, impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidaemia also tend to be clustered in children and adolescents with unhealthy lifestyles and diets, such as those with excessive intakes of saturated fats, cholesterol and salt, and inadequate intake of fibre. Lack of exercise and increased television viewing add to the risk (10). In older children and adolescents, habitual alcohol and tobacco use also contribute to raised blood pressure and to the development of other risk factors in early adulthood. Many of the same factors continue to act throughout the life course. Such clustering represents an opportunity to address more than one risk at a time. The clustering of health-related behaviours is also a well described...

Geneenvironment Interaction

All evidence so far appears to support a shared genetic and environmental (with diet and exercise being among the most important) contribution to disease predisposition, including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes (Fig. 2). Nevertheless, the relative contribution of each of these two main parameters and the extent of their interaction are difficult to determine, and varies for each condition. It is noteworthy, that although the human genome has not changed significantly over the last few decades, the prevalence of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes are increasing exponentially. Although the genetic and environmental factors have long been studied independently, an increasing effort is now placed on deciphering the gene-environment interaction. Obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes are classic examples of such geneenvironment interactions (261-263). For example, in a cohort of 287 monozygotic and 189 dizygotic young adult male twin pairs, it was...

Association of Obesity with Diabetes

As extensively discussed in section I of this book, obesity and weight gain clearly seem to be associated with an increased risk of diabetes, although there are some studies that don't show the association (44-46). Each year, 300,000 U.S. adults die of causes related to obesity (44). In 2000, the prevalence of obesity was 19.8 percent among U.S. adults (65.5 percent of men and 47.6 percent of women), which was a 61 percent increase from 1991 (44, 45). Weight gain, excess BMI, waist-hip ratio, and waist circumference are major risk factors for diabetes, with the waist circumference displaying the greatest relative risk (44, 47). In a national sample of adults, for every 1-kilogram increase in measured weight, the risk of diabetes increased by 4.5 percent (44). There seems to be an association between race and modification of diabetes risk by BMI, with African Americans having an increased risk at lower BMIs (i.e., adjusted RR for African Americans for Caucasians, it was 2.83 for men...

Table Atp Iii Criteria

Metabolic syndrome is diagnosed when three or more of the following are present. Waist circumference diagnostic purposes, it is not clear that it has much predictive capacity, thus limiting its clinical utility. Most consider metabolic syndrome to be a prediabetic state, as the various components of the condition are invariably associated with some degree of insulin resistance. However, there are relatively little to no definitive data on the conversion rate of individuals with metabolic syndrome to frank diabetes. Also, although the ATP III guidelines provide a useful working definition, it is clear that the five diagnostic criteria are not independent. For example, low-serum HDL cholesterol and high-serum triglycerides tend to track together in individuals. This makes the current scoring mechanism (i.e., the need to have three of the five diagnostic criteria) seem somewhat artificial and negatively impacts its predictive utility. Thus, there is room for further refining the clinical...

Body Mass Index Table

Measuring your waist circumference can be helpful to determine how your body distributes fat. Fat in your abdomen increases your risk for high blood pressure, coronary artery disease, diabetes, stroke, and certain cancers. Measuring your waist circumference can be helpful to determine how your body distributes fat. Fat in your abdomen increases your risk for high blood pressure, coronary artery disease, diabetes, stroke, and certain cancers. Therefore, it can be helpful to assess your health risk by measuring your waist circumference. A measurement of more than 35 inches in women and 40 inches in men is Keep in mind that BMI and waist circumference are just starting points. Other factors also are important. When in doubt, seek a medical evaluation by your physician. A thorough history, examination, and blood studies can clarify whether your weight is having adverse effects on your health. The appropriate plan of action then can be tailored to meet your individual needs.

Exercise Training Effects on Insulin Sensitivity

The metabolic syndrome is conceptually the same as the insulin-resistance syndrome, and the names are essentially interchangeable. That some prefer the term insulin-resistance syndrome is due to the common understanding that an observable decrease in insulin sensitivity is the first detectable aberration in course toward metabolic syndrome. In fact, some deterioration in insulin sensitivity is generally observed prior to elevations in triglycerides levels, decreases in HDL-C concentrations, which in turn precede deterioration in fasting glucose, and glucose-tolerance measures, and perhaps even before clinically significant increases in body weight, body-mass index, and waist circumference are apparent. In fact, as a reflection of this understanding, the WHO includes a resting measure of insulin resistance in its definition of metabolic syndrome (Table 4.2).

Effects of conjugated linoleic acid on body composition

In addition to reducing adipose tissue mass, the t10c12 CLA isomer has been linked to increased insulin resistance in men who have symptoms of the metabolic syndrome.2627 A CLA mixture also appeared to cause hyperinsulinemia in C57BL 6J mice24 that was accompanied by severe adipose tissue ablation and decreased leptin levels. The effects of the CLA mixture on adipose tissue depletion were reversed by continuous leptin infusion. In a follow-up study, decreasing the amount of a CLA mixture from 1 to 0.1 g 100 g diet, while increasing the amount of total fat in the diet from 4 to 34 g 100 g diet, did not lead to lipodystrophy, while fat mass was modestly reduced.25 Insulin resistance was present in the group fed the 1 g CLA 100 g diet, but not present in the 0.1 g CLA 100 g diet group. In men who were supplemented with 3.4 g day of a CLA mixture, purified t10c12 CLA isomer, or olive oil placebo, the t10c12 CLA isomer exerted an increase in insulin resistance that correlated with...

Insulin Resistance In Obesity

The metabolic syndrome is a condition characterized by hyperinsulinemia, hypertension, visceral obesity, dyslipidemia, and glucose intolerance, which leads to increased risk of coronary-artery disease and type 2 diabetes. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) indicated that 45 percent of the U.S. population over age 50 has metabolic syndrome, and, because of the increase in the prevalence of obesity, the incidence of the metabolic syndrome has increased by 60 percent over the last decade.

Cholesterol metabolism

Obesity, often resulting from chronic excess of dietary energy, is strongly linked to both increased inflammatory status and type 2 diabetes.48 Visceral obesity, dyslipi-demia, and insulin resistance are all conditions that, when they occur simultaneously, comprise what is termed the metabolic syndrome, increasing the risk for both diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Weight loss has been shown to decrease insulin concentration and increase insulin sensitivity.49 Obesity can be influenced by a variety of factors, including genetics, metabolism, environment, and socioeconomic status. Obesity is positively correlated to excess energy intake and low levels of physical activity. In addition, both the degree of total fat consumption and the type of fat consumed play a role in obesity. Dietary fat intake is a significant predictor of sustained weight reduction and progression of type 2 diabetes in high-risk subjects.50 Short-term studies suggest that very high intakes of fat (> 35 of...

For Medical Interventions

Although we realize that obesity is associated with adverse health outcomes, we do not fully understand the mechanisms underlying these associations. New genes linked to obesity have been discovered and novel neuroendocrine mechanisms have been proposed. Although scientific developments in basic and translational research over the past decade have greatly advanced our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development of the metabolic syndrome and associated abnormalities, as discussed in detail herein, much more needs to be done in the not so distant future.

Noodlin over Carb Headlines

Limited research notes that carbohydrate-rich foods may cause weight gain in insulin-resistant people. For these individuals, it's speculated, the body reacts to sugars and starches by overproducing insulin-and so causing too much carbohydrate to be stored as fat. However, most of us don't gain weight on a high-carbohydrate diet, unless it provides excess calories. The real culprits for weight are inactivity, high-fat eating, and uncontrolled portion sizes from any source of food, including bread, pasta, and other grain products. See Insulin Resistance Syndrome, or 'Metabolic Syndrome' in chapter 22.

North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition Naspghan

Nutrition and the Metabolic Syndrome A Twenty-First-Century Epidemic of Obesity and Eating Disorders Lack of sufficient nutrition is the main problem of billions of persons in the underdeveloped world, while excessive caloric intake leading to obesity is becoming more and more prevalent in Western societies of affluence. As a result, obesity, which leads to the metabolic syndrome and is thus closely associated with significant morbidity and mortality from diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancers, to mention a few, is considered the epidemic of our century in Western societies.

Epidemiology Trends In Children And Adults

Recent evidence indicates that in addition to long-recognized genetic and environmental factors, including nutrition and exercise, social networks are closely associated with and may play an important role in the spread of obesity. What are the links between significant interpersonal relationships, human behavior, and the pathogenesis of obesity and its complications What is their impact on obesity prevention and treatment in societies of affluence, as well as in developing societies Also, how does inappropriate nutrition lead to obesity and how is obesity linked to morbidity and mortality A considerable amount of work is currently underway to identify and characterize the environmental, social, genetic, cognitive, sensory, metabolic, hormonal, and neural factors leading to obesity and associated comorbidities. The end result is the significant growth of specific clusters of knowledge in each one of the above specific scientific areas over the past 15 years, none is currently...

Preeclampsia and Gestational Diabetes

Frequently, GDM and preeclampsia go hand in hand. Several studies suggest that obesity may be at the metabolic core of these conditions. For example, regardless of treatment type or degree of glucose control, Yogev et al. 34 reported that the risk for developing preeclampsia in women with GDM was significantly greater in obese (10.8 ) versus normal weight women (8.2 ). Notably, in this study the risk of preeclampsia escalated in obese women with poor glucose control (14.9 ), suggesting that tighter glucose control in women with GDM may decrease risk. Barden et al. 35 found that late-onset preeclampsia in women with GDM was more likely to develop in women who were not only obese but had preexisting hypertension, more severe insulin resistance, subclinical inflammation, and a family history of diabetes and hypertension. Similar to the metabolic syndrome in the nonpregnant state, this clustering of risk factors suggests that obese women with GDM and preeclampsia may be at greater risk...

Gene Diet Interactions

Candidate genes (Santos et al., 2006 Corella et al., 2007b Robitaille et al., 2007b Li et al., 2007 Morcillo et al., 2007 Shen et al., 2007 Sofi et al., 2007 Scacchi et al., 2007) (Table 1.3). The average number of subjects included in observational gene-diet interaction studies is much lower than those reported for interactions with alcohol, smoking and physical activity and these numbers have not changed much in recent years. The main outcomes examined in gene-diet interactions have included primarily plasma lipids, but also body mass index (BMI), inflammatory markers and other measures of the metabolic syndrome. Moreover, each report is limited to one single locus and, even those that examine multiple loci (Santos et al., 2006) do not attempt to examine more complex but more realistic situations involving gene-gene-nutrient interactions.

Measurement Method Principles

Classification of adiposity status in adults according to BMI and waist circumference Note NA not applicable. All underweight individuals have a low waist circumference and virtually all class II and class III obese individuals have a high waist circumference. the body is an important determinant of obesity-related health risk. In particular, the two abdominal fat depots abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue are involved in the pathogenesis of numerous cardiovascular disease and diabetes risk factors.12,13 The accumulation of excess visceral adipose tissue is believed to be of particular relevance. In this regard, waist circumference is a simple anthropometric measurement that is an approximate index of abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue content.16 Furthermore, changes in waist circumference reflect changes in abdominal fat.19 Thus, waist circumference is a useful clinical tool that can be used to identify individuals at increased health risk due to...

Peripheral Signals In The Regulation Of Food Intake

Regulation Food Intake

(54) and leptin-deficient subjects with diabetes and insulin resistance (57). Low doses of leptin administered either i.v. or i.c.v. increased glucose utilization and decreased hepatic glycogen storage in wild-type mice (72). Furthermore, leptin therapy selectively depletes visceral fat stores and stimulates insulin sensitivity in rats (73). These findings indicate that leptin is a naturally occurring insulin sensitizer. Indeed, addition of leptin to cultured human hepatocytes stimulates signaling along the phosphatidyl inositol 3' kinase pathway, one of the mediators of insulin action (74). Reversal of lipotoxicity may be another mechanism for the insulin-sensitizing effects of leptin (75). There is a marked variability in plasma leptin levels (even among persons of comparable adiposity), at least part of which may relate to differences in insulin sensitivity (48, 76).

Saturated Fats vs Unsaturated Fats

Monounsaturated fat (monos) and polyunsaturated fats (polys) are considered the good fats. At the other end of the fat spectrum are saturated and trans fats, known to increase the risk for atherosclerosis and heart disease. When monos or polys are substituted for saturated fats or trans fats in the diet, they can lower total blood cholesterol and triglycerides (fats in the blood) and raise healthy, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL, the good cholesterol) levels in the blood. They also improve insulin sensitivity and help regulate blood pressure. Saturated fats and trans fats, on the other hand, are the bad fats. These fatty acids raise blood cholesterol levels and markers of inflammation, and are linked to excess belly fat. Excess saturated fat is associated with increased risk for heart disease, diabetes, and certain cancers.

Nutrition And Metabolism Book

Research on obesity spans a wide range of disciplines, from molecular biology to physiology to epidemiology and translational research to clinical medicine. This book attempts to review comprehensively, for practicing clinicians and scientists alike, our current understanding of how nutrition interacts with the genetic substrate as well as environmental-exogenous factors, including physical activity or the lack thereof, to result in insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, the causation, epidemiology, clinical presentation, prevention, and treatment of the most common manifestations of disease states associated with the metabolic syndrome are reviewed. After presenting the Scope of the Problem, the first major part of the book is devoted to Genetics and Pathophysiology, the second part of the book presents the Public Health Perspective of the most prevalent problems associated with nutrition and the metabolic syndrome, whereas the third major part of the book...

Tools to Test if You Are Overly Fat or Underweight

Waist Circumference Waist measurements are becoming the new best predictor of risk for developing heart disease and diabetes. The waist measurement is indirectly assessing the amount of visceral or deep belly fat you have. This fat is dan gerous because it is most closely linked with high blood pressure, abnormal blood lipids, insulin resistance, and inflammation. In fact, elevated waist circumference is fast becoming one of the best predictors for overall health and well being. Waist Circumference Male Female Waist circumference and not body mass index explains obesity-related health risk. To measure your waist, a tape measure should be snug horizontally around the level of the top of your iliac crest (hip bones), where your waist would be narrowest. Take the measurement as you exhale a normal breath. For men, waist circumference should be less than or equal to 35 inches. Women should strive for a waist circumference of up to 31 inches. This is a sign also that you may be...

Potential Explanations For The Antiobesity Effect Of A Vegetarian Diet

Individuals followed for over 10 years showed that the one habit that seemed to prevent the development of abdominal obesity was eating vegetables. Those who consumed 19 or more servings of vegetables per week did not succumb to an increase in central girth, while those who ate meat (beef, pork, or lamb) more that seven times per week did.26

Exercise Training Effects on Fasting Plasma Glucose

One cannot discuss the effects of exercise training on progression to diabetes in individuals without mention of the results of the Diabetes Prevention Program.66 In this study, the effects of pharmacologic therapy (metformin) and lifestyle interventions (exercise training at the level of ACSM CDC recommendations of 30 minutes per day most days of the week, diet, and weight loss for a total of 7 percent body weight) were compared with usual care. The results revealed that the lifestyle intervention reduced the risk of progression to diabetes in this population by 58 percent compared with usual care. The effects of metformin, although statistically and clinically significant, were less impressive in reducing rate of progression to diabetes, which it did by 31 percent compared to usual care. Granted, this trial did not study the effects of exercise alone, but it points out the utility of lifestyle interventions in individuals with metabolic syndrome.

Waistto Hip Ratio

Waist-to-hip ratio is defined as the measurement of waist circumference divided by hip circumference (for example, a waist measurement of 33 and a hip measurement of 44 give a ratio of .75). It is used as a risk-factor assessment tool for heart disease, hypertension, and type-2 diabetes. Excess body fat is considered a risk factor for the degenerative diseases, particularly abdominal fat, and the waist-to-hip ratio is used to determine the risk. A waist circumference of more than 40 inches in men and more than 35 inches in women, or a waist-to-hip ratio of more than 1.0 for men and more than 0.8 for women, indicate an increased risk for the above diseases. see also Anthropomorphic Measurements Weight Management.

Physical Activity

Burning only an extra 100 calories a day by walking briskly for about 20 minutes will lead to a weight loss of about 10 pounds a year, while burning an extra 300 calories by walking briskly for about 60 minutes a day will lead to a weight loss of about 30 pounds. Physical activity contributes to weight loss, decreases abdominal fat, increases cardiorespiratory fitness, and helps with maintenance of lost weight. Any aerobic exercise, such as swimming, bicycling, jogging, skiing, or dancing, leads to these benefits, but for most obese people brisk walking seems to be the easiest activity to do. Other forms of exercise, such as resistance training or lifting weights, can also be helpful in a weight loss program. Finding ways to be more active every day, such as walking up a flight of stairs rather than taking the elevator, or walking somewhere rather than driving, can help a person burn calories without much effort.


An additional measurement, waist-to-hip ratio (B), takes this into account. Waist circumference is measured while standing, between the lower edge of the lowest rib and the upper edge of the pelvis. The hip circumference is measured at the level of the greater trochant-ers. A ratio above 0.88 in women and above 1.0 in men indicates an android or abdominal fat distribution pattern, which is particularly closely associated with cardiovascular complications and other illnesses. If the ratio is low, the gynoid type prevails, with a lesser health risk. The waist-to-hip ratio is a particularly valuable tool for determining whether weight reduction is necessary in case of moderate overweight. Waist circumference in centimeters


As with BMI, a number of factors influence fat distribution. For a given level of total fat, men have more abdominal and visceral fat than women,43 older adults have more abdominal and visceral fat than younger adults,43,44 Caucasians have more abdominal and visceral fat than African-Americans,43 and physically inactive and unfit individuals have more abdominal and visceral fat than physically active and fit individuals.45

What Are Lipids

Inside of the body, they require special transport shuttles to circulate. Fat also has its own cell type specifically designed for storage. These cells are called adipocytes, or more commonly fat cells, and large collections of adipocytes are called adipose tissue. Adipose tissue is found under the skin (subcutaneous fat) and in deeper deposits (visceral fat) such as in the abdomen, around vital organs, and throughout skeletal muscle.

FToxic seeds

Ii) Castor bean (Ricinus communis) - Many legume seeds contain a protein fraction which is capable of agglutinating red blood cells. These compounds are referred to as lectins and they vary widely in their degree of specificity to types of red blood cells and also their degree of toxicity. Such legumes must be degraded by heat treatment in order to detoxify them and so enhance their nutritive value. Castor bean was one of the first such legumes to be investigated and a lectin called ricin was isolated which is extremely poisonous. However, the steaming of castor meal for 1 hour will reduce the toxicity of the meal to 1 2000 of its original level. Toxicity is seen as progressive paralysis starting with the legs and progressing to complete prostration. With the exception of blood-stained mucus in the droppings, clinical signs are indistinguishable from those of botulism. A pale swollen mottled liver is often seen with petechial hemorrhages present on the heart and visceral fat.


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Table Who Criteria

Metabolic syndrome is diagnosed when the individual has diabetes, IFG, IGT, or HOMAa insulin resistance AND AT LEAST TWO of the following Waist-to-Hip Ratio Waist-circumference measures, although attempting to account for differences in women and men, clearly do not account for other differences in body habitus that might influence the normalization of this measure. For example, should a waist circumference of 92 cm be equally applicable in a woman that is 152 cm (60 in) tall as it is in a woman that is 183 cm (72 in) tall Further, gender differences can be striking in the contribution of waist circumference to metabolic abnormalities. We have observed that women have less visceral fat (unpublished data), lower triglycerides, and much lower serum concentrations of small dense atherogenic low-density LDL cholesterol than do men, even given similar waist circumferences (STRRIDE data Table 4.3).12 Similar observations can be made for African Americans when compared with Caucasians, i.e.,...

Type Diabetes

Diabetes mellitus represents a group of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. The pathogenic processes involved in the development of diabetes range from autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic P cells with consequent insulin deficiency to abnormalities that result in resistance to insulin action (164). There are two main etiopathogenetic categories of diabetes (1) type 1 diabetes, which is caused by deficiency of insulin secretion and rises independently of obesity or the metabolic syndrome (will be covered in Sect. 3), and (2) type 2 diabetes, which is caused by a combination of resistance to insulin action and inadequate compensatory insulin secretion. Type 2 diabetes, or noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, is the most frequent form of diabetes, accounting for 90 of the disease prevalence, with an estimated 150 million affected people worldwide (165,166). Overall, type 2 diabetes is...

Types of Diabetes

Genetics and environmental factors are the main contributors to type 2 diabetes. Physical inactivity and adoption of a Western lifestyle (particularly choosing foods with more animal protein, animal fats, and processed carbohydrates), especially in indigenous people in North American and within ethnic groups and migrants, have contributed to weight gain and obesity. In fact, obesity levels increased by 74 percent between 1991 and 2003. Increased body fat and abdominal obesity are associated with insulin resistance, a precursor to diabetes. Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) are two prediabetic conditions associated with insulin resistance. In these conditions, the blood glucose concentration is above the normal range, but below levels required to diagnose diabetes. Subjects with IGT and or IFG are at substantially higher risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease than those with normal glucose tolerance. The conversion of individuals with...


Cardiovascular Risk in the Asia-Pacific Region from a Nutrition and Metabolic Point of View Abdominal Obesity. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 10(2) 85-89. McKeigue, P. M. Shah, B. and Marmot, M. G. (1991). Relation of Central Obesity and Insulin Resistance with High Diabetes Prevalence and Cardiovascular Risk in South Asians. Lancet 337 382-386.

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Lose The Belly Fat

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