Natural Remedies For Abdominal Distension
Intestinal gas is a common complaint and a normal side effect of eating a high-fiber diet. If your eating plan has been typically low in fiber, minimize the discomfort that comes with bulking up. Increase your fiber intake slowly over several months. Drink enough water, too, to help reduce the effects of intestinal gas and prevent impacted stools. If you need more relief from intestinal gas, several nonprescription products may help. Products containing charcoal, which are taken at the end of a meal, help absorb gas in the intestines. They can interfere with the absorption of medications, however, and are not recommended for children. Products with a food enzyme called alpha-galactosidase help convert gas-producing carbohydrates to more easily digestible sugars. They're sold in the form of tablets or drops taken before a meal. Products with simethicone help relieve gas symptoms but do not prevent them. This substance works by breaking large pockets of gas in the intestines into...
When one begins The Sunfood Diet, fermentations may occur which form gas and flatulence in the intestinal tract. This may have several causes which are listed below 4. Overeating apples and pears (or their juices). These foods contain large quantities of pectin and other bowel cleansing compounds which can increase flatulence. 5. Undereating sodium-residue foods - especially greens (kale, celery, dandelion, spinach). These foods cool the intestines. When the intestines are heated by too much potassium or sulfur residue foods, flatulence results.
Reducing sugars such as glucose and lactose participate in Maillard reactions, which will be discussed further in section 14.3. The shear forces during extrusion can also create reducing sugars from complex carbohydrates as well as from sucrose and other sugars. Sucrose losses of up to 20 were found in protein-enriched biscuits (Noguchi and Cheftel, 1983). While sucrose loss may affect product color and flavor, there is an opportunity to reduce the content of indigestible oligosaccharides that can cause flatulence. Sucrose, raffinose and stachyose decreased significantly in extruded pinto bean high-starch fractions (Borejszo and Khan, 1992). Corn-soy snacks had lower levels of both stachyose and raffinose compared to unextruded soy grits and flour, but values were not corrected for the 50-60 corn present (Omueti and Morton, 1996). Starch and stachyose were lower in extruded peas compared to raw peas (Alonso et al, 2000), but an increase in total free sugars did not fully account for...
People (like pigs and chickens) don't produce the enzymes (for example, alpha-galactosidase) necessary to efficiently break down stach-yose, raffinose, and verbacose. So, similar to lactose in lactose intolerant people, these carbohydrates remain intact in our small intestine and move into the colon. In the colon, gas-producing bacteria breakdown (ferment) these carbohydrates producing the gases methane (CH4), CO2 and H2 which lead to bloating, cramping, and flatulence. A product available in stores called Beano is an enzyme preparation (including alpha-galactosidase) that will digest these carbohydrates when it is ingested just prior to the legume-containing meal.
The gases produced in lactose-intolerant people can lead to bloating, cramping, and flatulence. Furthermore, as lactose moves through the digestive tract it will hold onto water, which softens feces and possibly produces diarrhea. These discomforts are collectively referred to as lactose intolerance. To deal with lactose intolerance, many people add a product called Lactaid (lactase enzyme) to their milk to predigest the lactose. Lactaid milk containing pre-digested lactose is also available. This appears to be an effective method of adapting to lactose intolerance.
As fiber reaches the colon, bacteria begin to breakdown (ferment) some of the fibers for energy and in the process produce gases such as carbon dioxide, methane gas, and hydrogen gas. These gases often lead to uncomfortable bloating and flatulence associated with higher fiber intakes. Soluble fibers are more fermentable than insoluble ones. In addition other molecules, such as short-chain fatty acids, are produced by bacteria, which can be absorbed into the body. These fatty acids yield a small amount of energy and health benefits. Therefore, foods or supplements providing psyllium, beta-glucan (oats or barley), inulin, FOS, cellulose, guar gum, xanthan gum, and oligosaccharides will be fermented and you can expect gas production.
GERD in adolescents is more adult-like. Heartburn is the predominant GER symptom, occurring weekly in 15-20 15,68 and daily in 5-10 of subjects.16 Atypical symptoms such as epigastric pain, nausea, flatulence, hiccups, chronic cough, asthma, chest pain, hoarseness and earache, account for 30-60 of presentations of GERD.1,16 GERD is diagnosed in 50 of the adult patients with chest pain and in 80 presenting with chronic hoarseness and asthma.69 The incidence of GERD in this group with atypical symptoms is determined by the selection (bias) of the patients.
Despite appropriate treatment this serious complication of Hirschsprung's disease can develop at any stage and may be the presenting condition. Profuse, often bloody diarrhea with abdominal distension is the main presenting symptom. Vomiting and fever may be present and the child may become rapidly unwell and dehydrated. Treatment is initially with fluid resuscitation and intestinal decompression by means of a nasogas-tric tube. Rectal examination should be performed as it may produce an explosion of foul-smelling gas and stools which aids diagnosis and intestinal decompression. The bowel is rested, during which time parenteral nutrition may be considered. Our practice is to give enteral vancomycin, targeting Clostridium species which are often implicated.
Although not completely understood, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) seems to be more common these days than the sniffles. With symptoms ranging from excessive gas, cramping, bloating, and intermittent bouts of constipation and diarrhea, IBS (also called a spastic colon) usually has nothing to do with food allergies or intolerances. It's more likely a functional problem with the muscular movement of your intestines. In fact, it's generally diagnosed when the serious gastrointestinal ailments are ruled out. Some doctors say that people can even bring it on with anxiety or nerves.
If you can't stomach milk and you experience bloating, nausea, cramping, excessive gas, or a bad case of the runs after eating a dairy food, you are not alone. In fact, an estimated 30 to 50 million Americans suffer from some degree of lactose intolerance, which is the inability to digest the milk sugar lactose. In fact, I once had a client tell me he visited so many restrooms while touring through Europe he was ready to write The Complete Idiot's Guide to European Bathrooms.
As explained previously, different types of nerve endings, giving rise to sensations of flatus, urge to defecate and pain, sense the arrival of fecal material into the rectum. This sensory information is important for initiating the defecation process. Abnormalities in rectal sensation are believed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of constipation. Children usually report that they do not feel the sensation or urge to defecate. Several studies have investigated rectal sensitivity in children with constipation. In these studies, rectal sensation is determined by inflation of a rectal balloon, measuring the volume at which the sensation of urge is perceived. These studies showed impaired rectal sensation in a subgroup of patients with constipation. In the majority of children, however, rectal sensation was normal and present after insufflation of only 20 ml of air in the balloon. Rectal volumes are obviously age-dependent, with a barostat (an insufflatable rectal balloon...
And or the pelvis detect increases in intraabdominal pressure, causing changes in the anal sphincter complex, leading to expulsion of rectal contents. These receptors also activate compensatory reflexes to increase anal sphincter pressure and ensure fecal continence. Sensations arising from the anorectal area are transported by afferent neural pathways to the spine via ascending nerves in the spinal cord (the spinal thalamic tract). The information is transported to the thalamus. This sensory information is transferred to the limbic and somatosensory areas of the cerebellum, where sensations such as flatus and the desire to defecate will be perceived.8
In addition the drug xenical (Orlistat) hinders the actions of pancreatic lipase, the principal fat-digesting enzyme. This results in less absorption of diet-derived fat and more fat in the feces. Orlistat has been shown in research studies to be an effective therapy for weight loss and is recommended in conjunction with a healthy, reduced calorie and fat diet and exercise program. Because Orlistat can increase the amount of fat in the lower digestive tract there is the potential for side effects such as loose, oily stools and flatulence. Furthermore, because there is the possibility of reduced absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, manufacturers recommend the use of a supplement at least 2 hours before the use of Orlistat.
As an autosomal dominant trait.39 The age of onset may differ within the same family, but in general symptoms develop after infancy. Most patients present with severe slow-transit constipation associated with abdominal distension and colicky pain. In about half of the patients severe episodes of functional obstruction have occurred which have required decompression. To date, there have been no descriptions of any associated abnormalities, such as extrinsic autonomic dysfunction. Full-thickness biopsies of the affected parts of the bowel have shown evidence of degeneration, both on silver staining and on routine hematoxylin-and-eosin staining. No other abnormalities have been observed.
The majority of children with CIP present either at birth or in the neonatal period.1 In all series approximately half the infants have symptoms at birth or within the first few days of life. In those who present at birth, the labor and delivery are frequently difficult, owing to an already distended abdomen. After birth there is abdominal distension, failure to pass meconium and bilious vomiting. The abdominal distension is due to swallowed air, which distends and dilates the small bowel, but is not passed further through the gut. Contrast studies may show the presence of a microcolon or a short small intestine or, in approximately 34 , a malrotation. In some there may be a specific clinical syndrome of a congenitally short small intestine, pyloric stenosis and a mal-rotation.6,7 In addition to gastrointestinal symptoms, there may also be failure to pass urine, mega-cystis and hydroureter or hydronephrosis. Incomplete bladder emptying often results in recurrent urinary tract...
When bad bacteria overgrow in the colon and enter the small bowel, malabsorption and maldigestion of foods can take place.441 Under such circumstances, the undigested carbohydrate ferment in the colon, leading to bloating, flatulence, diarrhea or constipation, and fatigue.
After dietary assessment recommend nutrient supplements for vegan diets which are found to be nutrit
Various pharmacological treatments have been tried but none has been proven to be of definite benefit. Simethicone, a defoaming agent, has been most extensively studied. It is said to accelerate the passage of intestinal gas by decreasing the surface tension of gas bubbles. Hard and painful bowel movements signal a mild to moderate problem in bowel function, whereas abdominal distention requires further work-up and medical intervention. The use of prune juice (with its high sorbitol content) and or increasing the fibre content of the diet may be helpful for infants older than 6 months. A varied intake of fibre-containing foods such as whole grain breads and cereals, fruits, vegetables and cooked legumes is suggested rather than the routine use of fibre supplements (Agostini et al., 1995). There are no data regarding the amount of fibre needed for normal laxation during the first 2 years of life. Recent recommendations on dietary fibre intake for children (age plus 5 g day) apply to...
Flatulence Reduce the amount of legumes you eat if this is a problem. Chew your food slowly and don't drink fluids with your meals (many people feel more comfortable in their digestive system by following this advice). You may be reacting to extra vegetable fibre, in which case, eat lightly cooked vegetables until your body settles, then gradually increase the amount of raw vegetables you eat. If raw vegetables aren't commonplace in your diet, you may suffer with excess flatus. Sometimes fresh vegetable or fruit juices can create flatulence. In this case, make half the amount and dilute with an equal quantity of water.
Dosage For therapeutic purposes, chew one fresh clove daily. (For breath purposes, you might want to follow it up with an Altoid, one of those curiously strong mints ) There are also enteric-coated garlic-powder supplements, but note that the supplement should provide at least 5,000 mg of allicin daily. Consumption of large quantities (five or more cloves daily) can result in heartburn, flatulence, and related gastrointestinal problems.
Soy protein is a product derived from soybeans. Whole soybeans are 40 protein, with the remaining percentage of macronutrients in the form of fat and carbohydrates. Soy protein is a complete protein with a relatively high amount of BCAAs, albeit lower than whey proteins' BCAA content.12 Soy protein is also lower in methionine and lysine content. The carbohydrate content of soybeans is made up of several sugars that humans cannot digest. Raffinose and stachose are two such sugars, and if consumed in high amounts, pass into the large intestine where bacteria digest them, producing flatulence.
Lactose intolerance is a metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme b-galactosidase (lactase) in the intestine (34). As a result, lactose-intolerant individuals cannot properly metabolize lactose (milk sugar). Lactase hydrolyzes lactose into its constituent monosaccharides galactose and glucose, which can then be absorbed for energy. Without the action of lactase, the lactose cannot be digested and absorbed from the small intestine. The lactose passes into the colon where large numbers of bacteria exist and metabolize the lactose to carbon dioxide, hydrogen and water. The resulting symptoms are bloating, flatulence, abdominal cramping and frothy diarrhea (2, 34). While lactose intolerance is treated with a dairy product-avoidance diet, many individuals with lactose intolerance can tolerate several grams or more of lactose in their diets.
The heat of cooking gelatinizes the starch granules, increasing their susceptibility to enzymic (a-amylase) breakdown. However, a proportion of the starch, called resistant starch (RS), is undigestible even after prolonged incubation with the enzyme. In cereals, RS represents 0.4 to 2 of the dry matter in potatoes, 1 to 3.5 and in legumes, 3.5 to 5.7 . RS has been categorized as the sum of the starch and degradation products not absorbed in the small intestine of a healthy person (3a). There are three main categories RS1, physically enclosed starch (partially milled grains and seeds) RS2, ungelatinized crystallite granules of the B-type x-ray pattern (as found in bananas and potatoes) and RS3, retrograded amylose (formed during the cooling of starch gelatinized by moist heating). Resistant starch escapes digestion in the small intestine, but it then enters the colon, where it can be fermented by the local resident bacteria (of which there are over 400...
Most IBS patients experience rectal discomfort at lower intraluminal volumes or pressures31,32 and have diminished tolerance to intestinal gas.33 Trimble et al31 found that patients presenting with one functional bowel disorder frequently had additional symptoms referable to other parts of the digestive system, suggesting that enhanced visceral nociception may be a pan-intestinal phenomenon. For example, it has been reported that in addition to the features of rectal hyperalge-sia, IBS patients have a decreased sensory threshold to balloon distension of the esophagus. Children with functional abdominal pain exhibited generalized visceral hyperalgesia, whereas IBS patients had rectal but not gastric hyperalge-sia.32 Different GI symptoms were reproduced by stimulation of the predominant site of hyperalge-sia, providing a physiological explanation of symptoms in children who have distinct phenotypic presentations. These alterations may presumably cause diarrhea, constipation or...
Classification of Chronic Pain, 2nd edn. Seattle IASP Press, 1994. Trimble KC, Farouk R, Pryde A et al. Heightened visceral sensation in functional gastrointestinal disease is not site-specific. Evidence for a generalized disorder of gut sensitivity. Dig Dis Sci 1995 40 1607-1613. Di Lorenzo C, Youssef NN, Sigurdsson L et al. Visceral hyperalgesia in children with functional abdominal pain. J Pediatr 2001 138 838-843. Serra J, Azpiroz F, Malagelada JR. Impaired transit and tolerance of intestinal gas in the irritable bowel syndrome. Gut 2001 48 14-19.
In the neonatal period the disease should be considered in any infant who fails to pass meconium in the first 48 h of life. The usual presentation in the neonatal period is with constipation, abdominal distension and eventually vomiting during the first few days of life. More severe symptoms may be present in the neonatal period including those of gastrointestinal obstruction, enterocolitis (see below) and rarely perforation. Later in infancy symptoms of intractable constipation may signify the presence of Hirschsprung's disease.
Ivermectin has broad-spectrum activity against helminths and filariasis, but is the drug of choice against strongyloidiasis. Ivermectin is well absorbed orally, accumulating in adipose tissue, metabolized in the liver, highly protein bound with a serum half-life of 12 h and excreted in stool. It is generally well tolerated, with occasional abdominal distension, chest tightness or wheezing. In a Tanzanian study of children, ivermectin was found to be more effective than albendazole for curing Strongyloides, equally effective for Ascaris, less effective for Trichuris and ineffective against hookworm infections.163 Another African study of ivermectin in intestinal nematode infections found little effect on either prevalence or intensity of N. americanus hookworm or Trichuris, and only a modest effect on Ascaris.164
Mean incidence is 25 , but the range is great (from 17 to 50 ) and may be differently estimated, depending on the manner in which it is diagnosed. Mortality rates range from 0 to 33 , probably reflecting differences in the diagnostic criteria.12 Mortality also appears to be associated with other factors, such as trisomy 21. The classic clinical manifestations described for enterocolitis include abdominal distension, explosive diarrhea, vomiting, fever, lethargy, rectal bleeding and shock.13 Figure 17.1 Severe abdominal distension in an infant with Hirschsprung's disease. Figure 17.1 Severe abdominal distension in an infant with Hirschsprung's disease.
Of life often with severe constipation and abdominal distension. Failure to thrive and malnutrition are common. When recurrent episodes of functional obstruction occur, long-term parenteral nutrition is necessary. Usually the entire gastrointestinal tract is affected, and almost all patients have involvement of the urinary tract with mega-ureter and megacystis. After birth, the affected infants develop massive abdominal distension, which is partly due to distended bowel and partly due to a distended bladder. Patients require a decompression ileostomy and either a vesicostomy or frequent catheterization to ensure that the urinary tract is decompressed. Almost all children require long-term parenteral nutrition for survival and, if this becomes problematic, small intestinal transplantation. Megacystis microcolon hypoperistalsis syndrome must be differentiated from prune belly syndrome, which is due to early intrauterine urethral obstruction and affects predominantly male infants. They...
The carrier state is the most common form of amebic infestation with all E. dispar infections and up to 90 of E. histolytica infections remaining asymptomatic with only cysts in the feces. Amebic dysentery is the most common form of symptomatic disease, with gradual onset of symptoms over 3 or 4 weeks after infection with increasingly severe diarrhea with abdominal pain such that an acute abdomen is often suspected. Stools contain blood and mucus, fever occurs in about half, and a small proportion develop abdominal distension with dehydration. Occasionally, young children present in a more fulminant manner with intussusception, perforation, peritonitis or necrotizing colitis. Rarely, children with amebic dysentery may present with an abdominal mass that has an 'apple-core' appearance on radiographs, similar to colonic carcinoma. Amebic liver abscess and
In fructose malabsorption, ingestion of the ketohexose in quantity creates abdominal bloating, flatulence, and diarrhea. Persons with this condition appear to have a defect in fructose absorption. No assessments of intestinal GLUT 5 or its controlling gene have yet been made in any of these patients. If either glucose or galactose is ingested with fructose, fructose absorption is enhanced, and often no symptoms of malabsorption occur (50, 51).
The remaining initial treatment after desimpaction is achieved involves osmotic laxatives (lactulose, lactitol) at a dose of 1-6 g kg body weight per day. The main function is to loosen stool consistency, and enhance the rectal sensation and urge of the child to defecate. The dose might be increased without any danger up to 20-40g daily. Side-effects are initially bloating, flatulence and increase of abdominal pain, but these symptoms usually disappear after the first 1-2 weeks. Therapy should be continued for at least 3-6 months until constipation has disappeared the dose should be titrated individually. If this treatment is insufficient, recently polyethylene glycol has been shown to be effective in treating constipation in children at a dose of 0.8g kg per day. It also functions as an osmotic laxative.39,40 It has fewer side-effects in terms of flatulence and abdominal pain, and its tasteless nature increases compliance. The effects are comparable to those of lactulose.