Developments In Nutritional Training

  1. Athletes should consider their specific energy and fluid demands of training and competition and, in the face of their habitual diet, adopt a pattern of 'nutritional periodization' before major events.
  2. Nutritional periodization for endurance and particularly ultra-endurance (>4 h) events should aim to increase the contribution of fat to energy metabolism, and thus spare the body's CHO stores.
  3. Individuals should consider trying to improve their performance times for ultra-endurance events by training for most of the year on a 'normal sports adapted diet'. This should be followed by undertaking a 7-10 day period of fat adaptation, prior to the final CHO-loading period carried out over the last 2 -3 days before a competition.
  4. The effects of adapting to a high fat diet or to medium chain triglyceride ingestion, on energy metabolism and performance during ultra-endurance events requires further research before recommendations can be made.
  5. Athletes should practise 'volume drinking' while exercising during training as this may result in a substantial increase in the amount of fluid that can be tolerated during intense competition, without causing gastrointestinal upset.
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