How To Take Creatine

Creatine Practical Guide.

Creatine: A practical guide evolved from the thousands of questions asked by professional and amateur athletes from around the globe. Learn How To Most Effectively Combine Exercise, Nutrition And Smart Creatine Use For Explosive Muscle Growth And Improved Overall Health. Here is just a small sampling of the many questions addressed by this e-book How long can I keep creatine on the shelf? Will I lose muscle after I stop supplementing? Not all creatine brands recommend the same amount. What gives? Is mixing creatine with protein powder a bad idea? Why do so many creatine brands contain so much dextrose? Is loading really necessary? Im currently taking Accutane for nodular acne. Is it safe for me to supplement? Will creatine stunt my growth? Im training twice as much these days and Im still not making any gains! Why? If creatine isnt a steroid, then how come it gave me a positive doping result? Will creatine shrink my package?!

Creatine Practical Guide Overview

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Theoretical Ergogenic Benefits of Creatine Supplementation

Table 9.2 lists the types of exercise and sports that creatine supplementation has been suggested to influence, while Sidebar 9.2 lists the reported ergogenic benefits of creatine supplementation. Increasing muscle availability of creatine and PCr can affect exercise and training adaptations in several ways. First, increasing the availability of PCr in the muscle may help maintain availability of energy during high-intensity exercise like sprinting and intense weight lifting. Second, increasing the availability of PCr may help speed recovery between sprints or bouts of intense exercise. These adaptations would allow an athlete to do more work over a series of sprints or sets of exercise, theoretically leading to greater gains in strength, muscle mass, or performance over time. For this reason, creatine supplementation has primarily been recommended as an ergogenic aid for power strength athletes or patients who need to increase strength, power, or maintain muscle mass. However, recent...

Examples of Sports Performance Theoretically Enhanced by Creatine Supplementation

Adapted from Williams, M.H. et al., Creatine The Power Supplement, Human Kinetics Publishers, Champaign, IL, 1999. 9.2.8 Effects of Creatine on Exercise Performance and Training Adaptations As of this writing, there have been over 1000 articles published in the peer-reviewed scientific literature on creatine supplementation. Slightly over half of these studies have evaluated the effects of creatine supplementation on exercise performance. The majority of these studies (about 70 ) indicate that creatine supplementation promotes a statistically significant improvement in exercise capacity.28 This means that 95 times out of 100, if you take creatine as described in the study, you will experience a significant improvement in exercise performance. The average gain in performance from these studies typically ranges between 10 and 15 . For example, short-term creatine supplementation has been reported to improve maximal power strength (5 to 15 ), work performed during sets of maximal effort...

Can Creatine Supplementation Enhance Muscle and Strength Development

Creatine is naturally made by the human body and has become one of the most studied sport supplements. As discussed, in muscle and other tissue, ATP is used to transfer energy and a phosphate group to creatine, forming creatine phosphate. This substance then becomes a readily available means of regenerating ATP when it is in demand. For muscle, this would be during the early stage of an exercise. In the brain, it can help to maintain ATP levels during brief periods of poor oxygen supply. The brain relies on aerobic ATP production so periods of decreased oxygen availability are extremely critical. ATP can be regenerated from creatine phosphate in a single chemical reaction, which does not require oxygen. Creatine supplementation can enhance muscle strength and size, and positively affect body composition. Creatine is made in the body using three amino acids (methionine, glycine, and arginine) and two organs (liver and kidneys). Creatine is also found in animal foods, primarily the...

Effects of Creatine Supplementation on Muscle Creatine Stores

Numerous studies indicate that dietary supplementation of creatine monohydrate increases muscle creatine and phosphocreatine content by 10 to 40 .916 In simple terms, one can think of the normal creatine content of the muscle (about 120 g) as a gas tank that is normally about three fourths full. Creatine supplementation typically allows an individual to fill up his creatine storage tank up to 150 to 160 g (i.e., 20 to 30 ). It should be noted that the amount of creatine retained in the muscle following creatine supplementation depends on the amount of creatine in the muscle before supplementation. Individuals with low creatine content in muscle prior to supplementation may increase creatine stores by 20 to 40 , while individuals with relatively high creatine levels before supplementation may experience only a 10 to 20 increase in muscle creatine content. Performance changes in response to creatine supplementation have been correlated with the magnitude of increase in muscle creatine...

Combination of HMB and Creatine

Most commonly HMB is available singularly in capsule form. However, HMB is also found combined with other nutritional ingredients. The most popular of these products is a combination of HMB and creatine. As shown in a recent meta-analysis, creatine and HMB are the only two supplements that have been scientifically shown to individually increase strength and muscle mass.13 One study measured the effect of a combination of creatine and HMB, and this combination was shown to work even better than each of the supplements alone.11 This suggests creatine and HMB might work by different mechanisms. Lean mass and strength gains were significantly increased in the creatine, HMB, and combination of creatine and HMB groups, with the greatest increases reported in the subjects receiving the creatine and HMB combination. Therefore, the interaction between creatine and HMB results in an additive effect on lean body mass gain and strength with resistance training.

Sidebar Should Athletes Take Creatine

After extensively evaluating the literature, Williams et al.12 concluded the following in their book, Creatine The Power Supplement (available at http www.humankinetics.com) Individuals contemplating creatine supplementation should do so after being informed of potential benefits and risks so that they may make an informed decision. Adolescent athletes involved in serious training should consider creatine supplementation only with approval supervision of parents, trainers, coaches, and or appropriate health professionals. If you plan to take creatine, purchase quality supplements from reputable vendors. Athletic administrators in organized sports who desire to establish policies on creatine supplementation for teams should base such policies on the scientific literature. Any formal administration policy should be supervised by a qualified health professional. Although more research is needed, available studies indicate that creatine supplementation appears to possess no health risk...

Medical Safety of Creatine

The only clinically significant side effect that has been consistently reported in the scientific and medical literature from creatine supplementation has been weight gain.12,16,105 However, there have been a number of anecdotally reported side effects in the popular literature, such as gastrointestinal distress, muscle cramping, dehydration, and increased risk to musculoskeletal injury (i.e., muscle strains pulls). Additionally, there has also been concern that short- or long-term creatine supplementation may increase renal stress or adversely affect the muscles, liver, or other organs of the body. One research group suggested that creatine supplementation may increase anterior compartment pressure in the leg, thereby increasing an individual's risk to developing anterior compartment syndrome (ACS).106-109 Over the last few years, a number of studies have attempted to assess the medical safety of creatine. These studies indicate that creatine is not associated with any of these...

Creatine Monohydrate Technically Speaking

Competitive and recreational athletes use creatine monohydrate for its per-formance-enhancing, or ergogenic, properties. It's been shown in numerous studies to be beneficial in activities that are dependent on the anaerobic energy system, which includes such sports as powerlifting, sprinting, swimming and field events. Such sports typically involve high-intensity, short-duration movements with short rest breaks during training. The energy for them comes primarily from stored skeletal muscle ATP and ATP regenerated from phosphocreatine stores. Anaerobic glycolysis is another potential energy source, though its relatively slow rate of ATP production prevents it from contributing to short-duration activities that is, those of less than 30 seconds. Studies show that oral creatine supplementation increases total muscle creatine stores. Increases in creatine and phosphocreatine have been demonstrated by muscle biopsy, and those results correlate well with studies that measure anaerobic work...

Metabolic Role of Creatine

Most research on creatine has evaluated the effects of creatine supplementation on the content of high-energy phosphates within muscle and its role on exercise capacity and recovery following intense exercise that is dependent on the phosphagen energy system.12,28 However, recent attention has also been paid to the role of creatine supplementation on creatine kinases (CKs) in muscle as well as the transfer of high-energy phosphates within the cell via what has been called the creatine phosphate shuttle29-31 (Figure 9.2). CK is an important cellular enzyme that facilitates energy transduction in muscle cells by catalyzing the reversible transfer of a phosphate moiety between ATP and PCr.32 There are several isoforms of CK which work simultaneously to form a rapid interconversion of PCr and ATP. In this regard, CK is composed of two subunit types, including M (muscle) and B (brain), with three isoenzymes, MM-CK, MB-CK, and BB-CK. In addition, a fourth CK isoenzyme (Mi-CK) is located on...

Creatine and Creatinine

Most of the creatine in the body is found in muscle, where it exists primarily as creatine phosphate. When muscular work is performed, creatine phosphate provides the energy through hydrolysis of its high-energy phosphate bond, forming creatine with transferal of the phosphate to form an ATP. The reaction is reversible and catalyzed by the enzyme ATP-creatine transphosphorylase (also known as creatine phosphokinase). The original pathways of creatine synthesis from amino acid precursors were defined by Bloch and Schoenheimer in an elegant series of experiments using 15N-labeled compounds (35). Creatine is synthesized outside muscle in a two-step process (Fig 2.5). The first step occurs in the kidney and involves transfer of the guanidino group of arginine onto the amino group of glycine to form ornithine and guanidinoacetate. Methylation of the guanidinoacetate occurs in the liver via S-adenosylmethionine to create creatine. Although glycine donates a nitrogen and carbon backbone to...

Creatine

Creatine is the most studied ergogenic substance in the last decade. Creatine is not on the doping list of the International Olympic Committee (IOC). Meanwhile, a number of excellent reviews have been published (261-268) that will give the reader abundant and detailed information on this topic. In summary, creatine is synthesized in the human body from the amino acids arginine, methionine and glycine at a rate of 1-2 g day. Creatine is present in food in small quantities resulting in a daily intake of 0.25-1 g day. Creatine is mainly present in skeletal muscle, which contains about 95 of the total creatine pool. The total amount in the human body is estimated to be 120 g. In skeletal muscle, creatine plays a role in a number of important metabolic functions. 2. Supporting the creatine phosphate shuttle. Free creatine and phospho-creatine enhance the exchange of high energy phosphate from the site of the mitochondria to the site of the cytosol. Accordingly, ATP produced by oxidative...

Creatine QA

Q Do I have to load effervescent creatine the way I do other creatine products A Yes, you should perform a standard loading phase, using 20 grams of creatine a day for five days, and spread that dosage throughout the day so you get five grams at four different times. If you're using Muscle-Link's Effervescent Creatine Elite, that's four packets a day, which means one 20-packet box will take you through your five-day loading phase. A Take your effervescent creatine about 30 minutes before a meal. Also, it's best to use effervescent creatine 1 1 2 hours or more after a meal preferably a protein drink rather than solid food, as protein drinks tend to leave your stomach faster. A Effervescent creatine manipulates the pH of your stomach so that it immediately dumps the solution into your small intestine for maximum absorption. If food is present, the pH of your stomach will be impossible to manipulate due to stomach acid, and the creatine solution could remain in your stomach for hours,...

Muscle Is Fueled Primarily by Carbohydrates and

What Is Creatine Another power source for working muscle is creatine phosphate. Creatine is a substance found mostly in skeletal muscle cells, but it is also found in heart muscle cells and brain. When ATP is abundant in these cells, such as During periods of rest, creatine phosphate is regenerated when muscle is not active (at rest), phosphate is transferred to creatine. This forms creatine phosphate, which is a rapid ATP-regenerating source (Figure 11.1). When ATP is used to power muscle contractions, the phosphate of creatine phosphate can be transferred to ADP to regenerate ATP. This involves only one chemical reaction and can happen very rapidly. How Does Creatine Power Skeletal Muscle Efforts During Exercise The regeneration of ATP from creatine phosphate is especially important for quick-burst activities such as sprinting and weight training. However, this system is extremely limited and will last only a few seconds. Yet this operation helps muscle cells bridge the gap between...

Effects of bcaa ingestion on recovery from muscledamaging exercise

Because of the stimulation of muscle protein synthesis by leucine and the suppression of exercise-induced increases in protein breakdown by BCAAs, it has been suggested that BCAA supplements might accelerate the repair of muscle damage after exercise however, at present, evidence for this is limited. For example, it has been reported that oral ingestion of BCAAs (12 g day for 2 weeks and an additional 20-g dose both before and after the exercise bout) was associated with a smaller rise in serum creatine kinase (CK) activity (a marker of muscle fiber damage) for several days after 2 h of cycle ergometer exercise at 70 VO2max, compared with a placebo group.32 The drawback with this study is that cycling involves concentric muscle actions and so is not usually associated with muscle damage, and the rises in serum CK activity observed were considerably smaller than those observed with eccentric exercise modes. However, a similar effect was observed in a study in which subjects ingested...

Mercury The Silent Killer

Mercury is considered by toxicologists to be one of the most poisonous naturally occurring substances on the earth. Because of its tremendous toxicity, it is carefully regulated by the EPA, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and other regulatory bodies. The amount allowed in the atmosphere is fewer than 50 ug M3, fifty-millionths of a gram per cubic meter of air. In the summer of 1990 the EPA banned the use of mercury-containing interior latex paint after discovering that levels of mercury in the urine of occupants living in recently painted houses could reach 118 micrograms (ug) per gram of creatine, a level associated with human toxicity. Such levels could produce subtle neurological damage such as memory loss, irritability, difficulty concentrating, and tremors.

Formation of toxic compounds

AIAs are also referred to as thermic mutagens because they are formed at temperatures used during ordinary cooking and were first isolated from cooked meat and fish. Since they are very mutagenic, much attention has been applied to their determination in foods. They are characterised by the presence of a 2-amino-imidazo group, indispensable for genotoxic mutagenic activity, and derive from the condensation of creatine with an aldehyde, coming from the Strecker degradation, and a pyrazine or pyridine. There are indications that free radicals may be involved (Pearson et al, 1992). Phenylalanine and creatine are the precursors of PhIP (Felton and Knize, 1991).

Measuring Nutrigenomic Factors

Another example of a nutrigenomic test is phosphorus 31 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. This helpful research technology does not require muscle biopsy and can be done in real time with a person exercising the muscle within a spectrometer to examine the effects of exercise on bioenergetics. In a study of individuals who were suffering from disorders associated with malnutrition and increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines, Khursheed Jeejeebhoy and colleagues found that phosphorus 31 NMR spectroscopy was capable of detecting bioenergetic changes in muscle.28 Phosphorus 31 NMR spec-troscopy is used to evaluate the ATP dynamics in muscle because it can evaluate the presence of ATP, ADP, AMP, and inorganic phosphorus, as well as phospho-creatine in muscle.

Summary and conclusions

Creatine remains one of the most extensively studied nutritional ergogenic aids available for athletes. Hundreds of studies have reported that increasing muscle creatine stores through creatine supplementation can augment muscle creatine content, improve exercise and training adaptations, and provide some therapeutic benefit to some clinical populations. Consequently, creatine represents one of the most effective and popular nutritional ergogenic aids available for athletes. The future of creatine research is very promising. Researchers are attempting to determine ways to maximize creatine storage in the muscle, which types of exercise may obtain the greatest benefit from creatine supplementation, the potential medical uses of creatine, and the long-term safety and efficacy of creatine supplementation. Among these, the most promising area of research is determining the potential medical uses of creatine, particularly in patients with creatine synthesis deficiencies or neuromuscular...

Muscle Recovery Workout Drinks

Creatine monohydrate increases muscle free creatine and phosphocreatine concentrations. These naturally occurring energy pools are responsible for replenishing the muscle's number 1 energy supply - ATP. By boosting free creatine and phosphocreatine with creatine supplements, not only is energy production and anaerobic power muscle strength enhanced, muscles actually begin to swell. This swelling can lead to increases in muscle protein synthesis, muscle glycogen storage, and muscle size. While some people may argue this point with us, we think that continual creatine supplementation is essential for good health as well as athletic performance. While creatine has been discussed in the athletic context quite extensively, it has some amazing regenerative effects on all tissues of the body, including the brain. That's right, even if you're not an athlete, you may benefit from creatine supplementation. Studies have shown that creatine supplements can improve the functional capacity of the...

Vital Protein Functions

Not necessarily economical for the body, because tissue maintenance, growth, and repair are compromised to meet energy needs. If taken in excess, protein can be converted into body fat. Protein yields as much usable energy as carbohydrates, which is 4 kcal gm (kilocalories per gram). Although not the main source of usable energy, protein provides the essential amino acids that are needed for adenine, the nitrogenous base of ATP, as well as other nitrogenous substances, such as creatine phosphate (nitrogen is an essential element for important compounds in the body).

How Much Rest Do You Need InBetween Sets Within the Same Workouts

When you engage in resistance training you are making great demands on your muscles. Therefore, the worked muscle should be given adequate time to rest and recover after a set of repetitions. Depending on the intensity of the set, muscle will need about 1 to 3 minutes to rest between sets to recover. During a set the limited stores of ATP and creatine phosphate are rapidly depleted. Giving muscle a break between sets allows for regeneration of ATP and creatine phosphate. The period of rest between sets also allows for the blood to bring more nutrients and oxygen and remove waste and at the same time also. As muscle contracts it temporarily pinches blood vessels and hinders blood flow within that muscle. This not only decreases nutrient and oxygen delivery to working muscle fibers but also decreases the removal of waste such as lactate and carbon dioxide.

Short Term Supplementation

Numerous studies have been conducted to evaluate the effects of short-term creatine supplementation (3 to 7 days) on exercise performance. For example, Volek and colleagues56 reported that creatine supplementation (25 g day for 7 days) resulted in a significant increase in the amount of work performed during five sets of bench press and jump squats in comparison to a placebo group. Tarnopolsky and MacLennan57 reported that creatine supplementation (20 g day x 4 days) increased peak cycling power, dorsi-flexion maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque, and lactate in men and women with no apparent gender effects. Moreover, Wiroth and colleagues58 reported that creatine supplementation (15 g day x 5 days) significantly improved maximal power and work performed during 5 x 10 sec cycling sprints with 60-sec rest recovery in younger and older subjects. Creatine supplementation has also been shown to improve exercise performance during various sport activities. For example, Skare and...

Ethical Considerations

Several athletic governing bodies and special interest groups have questioned whether it is ethical for athletes to take creatine as a method of enhancing performance. Their rationale is that since studies indicate that creatine can improve performance and it would be difficult to ingest enough food in the diet alone to creatine load, that it is unethical to do so. Others argue that if you allow athletes to take creatine, they may be more predisposed to try other dangerous supplements or drugs. Still others have attempted to lump creatine in with anabolic steroids or banned stimulants and have called for a ban on the use of creatine and other supplements among athletes. Finally, fresh off of the ban of dietary supplements containing ephedra, some have called for a ban on the sale of creatine citing safety concerns. Creatine supplementation is not currently banned by any athletic organization, although the NCAA does not allow institutions to provide creatine or other muscle-building...

Supplementation Protocols

Sidebar 9.1 summarizes the various creatine supplementation protocols that have been studied over recent years. Most studies that have evaluated the effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation have utilized a creatine loading technique. This has typically involved ingesting 20 g day of creatine (divided into four 5-g doses ingested throughout the day) for 5 to 7 days. More recently, researchers have suggested ingesting relative amounts of creatine (i.e., 0.3 g kg day), which would provide 15 to 30 g day of creatine for 50- to 100-kg individuals.51216 Studies show that this protocol can increase muscle creatine and PCr by 10 to 40 .5,16 Once muscle creatine stores are elevated, research indicates that you only need to ingest 3 to 5 g of creatine per day to maintain elevated creatine stores. Cessation of creatine maintenance doses after loading typically allows for creatine stores to return to normal within 4 to 6 weeks after loading. More recent studies indicate that it may only...

Nutrient Interactions

Many substances that are physiologically, but not nutritionally, essential are synthesized from specific essential nutrients. If the products of the synthetic reactions are present in the diet, they may exert sparing effects that reduce the need for the precursor nutrients. Less phenylalanine and methionine are required, particularly by adults, when the diet includes tyrosine and cystine, for which they are, respectively, specific precursors. Birds, which do not synthesize arginine, have a high requirement for this amino acid. Inclusion in the diet of creatine, for which arginine is a precursor, reduces the need for arginine. Effects of this type, however, have not been explored extensively (23).

Special Concerns For Athletes On Vegetarian Diets

Protein and Creatine Creatine supplementation has been urged as an ergogenic aid for athletes who engage in repeated bouts of short-term, high-intensity exer-cise.66,67 Creatine is found in large quantities in skeletal muscle and binds a significant amount of phosphate, providing an immediate source of energy in muscle cells (adenosine triphosphate or ATP). The intent of consuming supplemental creatine is to increase the skeletal muscle's creatine content, in the hope that some of the extra creatine binds phosphate, increasing muscle phosphocreatine content. During repeated bouts of high intensity exercise (for example, five 30-second bouts of sprinting or cycling exercise separated by 1-4 minutes of rest), the increased availability of phosphocreatine may improve resynthesis and degradation rates, leading to greater anaerobic ATP turnover and highpower exercise performance.66 The estimated daily requirement for creatine is about 2 grams. Non-vegetarians typically get about 1 gram...

Potential side effects of excessive protein intake

Disorder called eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome.171172 Some sources state that this occurred as a result of a high-performance liquid chromatography purified contaminant present from a bacterial processing method.173 In addition to the expense involved, large doses of purified amino acids could potentially be carcinogenic and mutagenic. Such warnings are noted on the Materials Safety Data Sheet labels of purified chemical-grade laboratory amino acids, although these problems have not been substantiated in humans. Even if purified amino acids are safe, they are expensive and the efficacy is equivocal 174 175 however, recent work does suggest that the addition of leucine to post-exercise supplements may confer metabolic advantages,105 which could translate into enhanced performance. Although essential amino acids appear to be the most potent in stimulating post-exercise protein synthesis,54 this response does not appear to be greater than the consumption of high biological value...

What Are the Most Prominent Supplements Touted to Increase Muscle Strength and Development

Sport supplements have evolved into a multibillion dollar industry, yet their evolutionary process really has not been that long. Today there are numerous supplements available to people looking to improve their muscle mass or leanness. While many of them are well known, not all are known to really make a difference. Among the more efficacious supplements are protein (level and timing), creatine, HMB (p-hydroxy P-methylbutyrate), carnitine and p-alanine. In this next section we will discuss only the most prominent and promising of supplements on the market today.

Increases Strength and Muscle Mass

In the first published study, Nissen et al.3 reported a linear increase in lean body mass with HMB supplementation. Three weeks of HMB supplementation at 0, 1.5, or 3.0 g day resulted in gains of 0.4, 0.8, and 1.2 kg of lean body mass, respectively. Furthermore, similar increases in total body strength were observed with the three levels of HMB supplementation. Total strength increased 338, 529, and 707 kg with 0, 1.5, and 3.0 g of HMB day, respectively. Although positive changes were observed with the lower dose of 1.5 g of HMB day, the dose of 3.0 g day resulted in the greatest gains with resistance training. Later, in a study by Gallagher et al.,9 it was concluded that a higher dose of HMB of up to 76 mg kg of body weight day (6 g day) may result in some additional benefit, such as attenuating the creatine phos-phokinase (CPK) levels during an intense training program. However, the higher dose did not appear to promote additional increases in one repetition maximum strength or...

Fuel Used During Exercise

You may have heard about two of the chemicals involved in the production of ATP without oxygen creatine phosphate and lactic acid. Creatine phosphate is present in the muscles and is used to make ATP rapidly. Creatine phosphate can make enough ATP to last for 30 seconds worth of exercise. To try and increase the amount of ATP that can be made from creatine phosphate, some people take creatine supplements. However, the research is not conclusive as to the benefits of taking creatine and the long-term risks are not known (see Chapter 14). Furthermore, your body makes creatine and it is obtained in the diet from meats. The second chemical is lactic acid. When maximal or near maximal exercise continues beyond 30 seconds, the muscle must use glucose (a simple CHO) to produce ATP. During this anaerobic energy process, the by-product lactic acid is formed. Small amounts of lactic acid can be converted back into glucose and then broken down again to form more ATP. However, as exercise...

Other Sport Concepts Applications

ARG is a precursor for creatine synthesis. In a 1976 study, ARG with glycine in equimolar amounts increased the rate of creatine biosynthesis.29 Based on the availability and success of creatine supplementation, there appears to be no sport application for the use of supplemental ARG as a substrate for creatine synthesis.

Protein Energy Nutritional Status

Serum creatinine is a nutritional screening parameter in people receiving maintenance dialysis (3). Predialysis serum creatinine concentration reflects the sum of creatinine by dietary origin (creatine and creatinine from meat) and that formed endogenously in skeletal muscle tissue less the creatinine removed by residual kidney function and dialysis. Creatinine is formed irreversibly from creatine in skeletal muscle at a fairly constant rate that is directly proportional to skeletal muscle mass. Thus, under steady state conditions of diet and dialysis, predialysis serum creatinine is roughly proportional to lean body mass. A declining predialysis serum creatinine over time in otherwise stable dialyzed patients indicates loss of skeletal muscle mass. Although not commonly used in clinical practice, creatinine index can be calculated to easily estimate fat-free body mass, especially in anuric patients (3). Serum creatinine, and a decline in serum creatinine over time, predicts all-cause...

Carnitine and High Intensity Exercise

High-intensity exercise has been implicated in muscle soreness. Giamberardino et al.58 examined the effects of carnitine on pain using the Visual Analog Scale, tenderness (pain thresholds), and creatine kinase (CK) release. Subjects were given 3 g day of a placebo for 3 weeks, and then after a week, washout was given, 3 g day of carnitine. Subjects performed a step test to stimulate eccentric muscular work during both supplementation periods. Results showed that carnitine supplementation reduced pain, tenderness, and CK release compared to placebo. These results are supported by Kraemer et al.,59 who also found decreased muscle tissue damage as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Both authors suggest that carnitine supplementation is beneficial for hypoxic (high-intensity) exercise, perhaps due to its vasodilatory properties, and will reduce sarcolemma disruption and perceived muscle soreness.

Safe and Effective Supplements

Creatine Monohydrate That's it - 5 staple supplements that every one of our clients takes. If you're wondering why we've forgotten the multi-vitamins, the nitric oxide stimulators, the l-carnitine, and the super-creatine products, with everything but the kitchen sink thrown in - we didn't forget them. They simply didn't make our list. They're not the regular supplement staples our clients take. So instead of obsessing about the supplements you thought you needed to take, let's delve right into these 5 supplements - the supplements you do need to take - and discuss what advantages they give you.

Problem A TP in working muscle

Table 3.1 shows the concentrations of ATP, ADP, creatine phosphate and creatine in rat gastrocnemius muscle (1) at rest and (2) after electrical stimulation (causing contraction) for 3 minutes. What conclusions can you draw from these results Table 3.1 ATP, ADP and creatine phosphate in muscle ( mol g) Creatine phosphate 17.00 1.00 Creatine 0.10 16.10

Amino Acid Losses from the Urinary Tract of Cats and Dogs

Hendriks et al. (1997a) determined the endogenous content of several urinary nitrogen fractions in adult cats fed a protein-free diet and by regression to zero dietary nitrogen intake, and found undetermined nitrogen (total N-urea N-creatinine N-ammonia N) fractions of 57.6 and 38.0 mg kg-1 day-1, respectively. The undetermined nitrogen fraction would have contained free amino acids, mucus, sloughed cells, enzymes, creatine, metabolites of purine metabolism (uric acid, allantoin, xanthine, hypoxanthine), etc.

Amino Acids Required for the Synthesis of Other Compounds

Ing compounds (e.g. 3-methylhistidine, carnitine, purines, creatine, felinine, etc.) (see Chapters 1 and 4). Although the losses of amino acids from the body through these routes are often considered to be small (Reeds, 1988 Moughan, 1995) in some cases the amount of amino acids lost via these compounds can be significant.

Long Term Supplementation

Theoretically, increasing the ability to perform high-intensity exercise may lead to greater training adaptations over time. Consequently, a number of studies have evaluated the effects of creatine supplementation on training adaptations. For example, Vandenberghe et al.25 reported that in comparison to a placebo group, creatine supplementation (20 g day x 4 days 5 g day x 65 days) during 10 weeks of training in women increased total creatine and PCr content, maximal strength (20 to 25 ), maximal intermittent exercise capacity of the arm flexors (10 to 25 ), and FFM by 60 . In addition, the researchers reported that creatine supplementation during 10 weeks of detraining helped maintain training adaptations to a greater degree. Noonan and collaborators65 reported that creatine supplementation (20 g day x 5 days 0.1 or 0.3 g kg day of FFM x 51 days) in conjunction with resistance and speed agility training significantly improved 40-yard dash time and bench press strength in 39 college...

Buy a Better Sports Drink

Sports drinks with lots of extra ingredients are not necessary and have not been proven to enhance endurance. If a product contains protein, taurine, choline, ribose, ginseng, glucosamine, or creatine, you probably are paying more for an ingredient(s) that has not been sufficiently proven to enhance performance in a sports drink. In addition, these added ingredients may slow the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates and fluids, so it's best to stick with products that deliver what you need most fluid, carbohydrates, and sodium.

Nonessential Amino Acids

Glycine is another amino acid associated with multifunctional roles, being involved in the synthesis of purines (Fig. 4.6), creatine (Fig. 4.8) and haem (Fig. 4.9). Creatine Fig. 4.8. Biosynthesis of creatine from arginine and glycine. Enzymes 1, transaminase 2, guanidinoacetate methyltransferase. Creatine supplements may exert beneficial effects on pork quality (James et ai, 2002). Together with aspartate, glycine is a component of the amino acidergic system of neurotransmitters.

HMB Compared to Other Nutritional Supplements

The previously mentioned meta-analysis by Nissen and Sharp13 looked at the effects of common dietary supplements on lean mass and strength gains in conjunction with a resistance exercise program. A meta-analysis involves the scientific process of gathering and analyzing research results from all previous studies on a related topic to form a final conclusion. Peer-reviewed studies during the years 1967 to 2001 were included in the analysis of nutritional supplements and ergogenic aids marketed to improve the results from exercise or athletic performance. Criteria for inclusion in this meta-analysis were studies that were randomized and placebo controlled, were at least 3 weeks in duration, and performed full-body (all major muscle groups) resistance training at least twice per week. Over 250 researched supplements were found in the original search, and only 48 studies met the inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis. Interestingly, only six supplements had more than one published study...

Should Choline Be Supplemented to Enhance Performance

Choline is a component of acetylcholine, which is a neurotransmitter of great importance to skeletal muscle activity. First, nerve cells reaching skeletal muscle cells release acetylcholine, which then stimulates muscle cells to contract. Furthermore, choline is a component of phosphotidyl-choline which is a structural component of muscle cell membranes. Choline, along with betaine (trimethylglycine TMG ), dimethylglycine, sarcosine (N-methylglycine), methionine, and S-adenylsyl methionine, is involved in some of the processes that build several molecules which may be important for muscle performance, such as creatine and nucleic acids. Choline supplementation for the purposes of enhancing athletic performance (with and without other substances) requires further study.

Are Amino Acids Used for Energy

In addition to the amino acids used to make important body chemicals, such as certain hormones and neurotransmitters, as well as key metabolic factors (for example, carnitine, creatine), amino acids are used for energy. Typically 20 to 40 grams of body protein, in the form of free amino acids, is utilized to make each day as energy. If our diet failed to include protein we would lose a significant amount of body protein over time. The RDA level for protein factors this in and has provides some padding as well. Some situations can increase the reliance on amino acids as a fuel source such is the case of weight loss and higher levels of exercise as discussed soon.

Biochemistry of Selenium Metabolism

Seleno amino acids are actively incorporated into animal proteins, presumably by the same enzymic reactions that apply to their sulfur-containing counterparts. They also participate in various other metabolic reactions usually associated with their thio-analogs. For example, rat liver S-adenosyl methyltransferase uses selenomethionine as substrate in forming creatine and choline (Pan and Tarver, 1967). Selenium analogs of glutathione and coenzyme A have been reported in liver (Lam et al, 1961). Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Bremer and Natori, 1960) and Escherichia coli (Tuve and Williams, 1961) reportedly incorporate selenite selenium into seleno amino acids, whereas baker's yeast appears to lack this capacity (Tuve and Schwarz, 1961). There is little information on the metabolism of selenate by animals, but studies on plants have revealed important differences between the metabolism of sulfate and selenate, differences evidenced by an inability to form phosphoadenosine-5 1...

Anavolics The Science Behind Cell Volumization

Arginine Side Effects

Frankly, the only ones that have shown any mass-building properties are creatine, certain amino acids (in various concentrations), high-protein formulas and insulin-based high-glycemic formulas. Some products used in animal feed are promoted as anabolic but aren't effective as performance supplements. The fact is, nothing currently available is as effective as anabolic steroids. Creatine is close for the first-time user, being comparable in effect to a light cycle of an oral steroid like Anavar. That's not surprising, as many of the oral steroids cause an increase in hepatic, or liver, production of creatine. If volume changes are actually responsible for the metabolism of a cell, why haven't others written about it in the many fine (and less-than-fine) strength magazines Frankly, the material isn't easy to find. The easy stuff is already exploited to nearly unrecognizable states. Ephedrine, creatine, protein and caffeine have all been included in...

Klaus KA Witte and Andrew L Clark

Relationship Between Vit And Copper

Creatine Phosphate 6.4.3 Creatine Phosphate Creatine is used to improve athletic performance. Patients with chronic heart failure develop skeletal myopathies.240 Muscle contraction and relaxation are fueled through the dephosphorylation of ATP, which must be rapidly resynthesized. Creatine serves as a phosphate donor to maintain high levels of intracellular ATP, and creatine supplementation increases the rate of phosphocreatine resynthesis.241 Skeletal muscle strength and endurance were improved in patients with chronic heart failure after short-term oral creatine supplementation, but no effect on cardiac contractility was noted.242 Creatine administered intravenously improved ejection fraction.243,244 The improvements in skeletal muscle function were seen predominantly in patients with low levels of creatine and phosphocreatine in their skeletal muscles.245 This was not a ubiquitous finding in patients with chronic heart failure.245,246 It is possible that creatine is of benefit in...

Difficulties in Defining Essential to Nonessential Amino Acid Ratio

When crystalline amino acids are a main or sole source of dietary nitrogen, both of the above ways of N expression are essentially equivalent since the content of non-amino acid N is low or close to zero the essential to total N ratio can be easily converted into essential to non-essential N ratio and vice versa. Crude protein of natural feedstuffs, however, contains a considerable amount of non-amino acid nitrogen such as nucleic acids and their derivatives, amino sugars, nitrates and nitrites, creatine, porphyrins, etc., only part of which may be used for the synthesis of non-essential amino acids (ARC, 1981 AFRC, 1987). Hence the essential to total N ratio may differ depending upon the type of diet. To avoid uncertainties associated with the utilization of sources of non-specific nitrogen other than amino acids, it seems reasonable to take into account amino acid nitrogen only. Therefore, the ratio between the amino acid groups is defined in this chapter as the ratio of essential...

Matthew S Ganio MS Douglas J Casa PhD ATC Lawrence E Armstrong PhD Carl M Maresh PhD

Studies related to fundamental hydration issues have required clinicians to re-examine certain practices and concepts. The ingestion of substances such as creatine, caffeine, and glycerol has been questioned in regards to safety and hydration status. Reports of overdrinking (hyponatremia) also have brought into question the practices of drinking appropriate fluid amounts and the role that fluid-electrolyte balance has in the etiology of heat illnesses such as heat cramps. This article offers a fresh perspective on timely topics related to hydration, fluid balance, and exercise in the heat.

Biochemistry And Bioavailability Of Carvocrol

Established risk factors, 35-41 possible risk factors, 41 -43 Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), 234 Cortisol, elevated levels of, 126 Coumarins, herbal source of, 353 Cowherd, William, 528 Creatine supplementation, 288, 290 Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CjD), 145 Creutzfeldt-Jakob variant, 139 CRH, see Corticotropin-releasing hormone Crop(s)

Relationship of Methionine with Other Methyl Donors

In addition to its primary function as a constituent of proteins, methionine can be converted into S-adenosylmethionine and S-adenosylhomocysteine, as illustrated in Fig. 8.3. These reactions release a methyl group that is used in several metabolic processes, primarily DNA methylation and synthesis of carnitine from lysine, adrenaline from noradrenaline, and creatine from guanidine acetate (Simon, 1999). Thus, methionine is sometimes referred to as a 'methyl donor'. To regenerate methionine from homocysteine, a methyl group must be transferred back via either the tetrahydrofo-late pathway (involving folates and vitamin B12) or the betaine pathway (Fig. 8.6). Betaine can be produced from choline by an irreversible two-step oxidation reaction that occurs in liver and kidney.

Mammary metabolism of amino acids

Along with lysine, methionine is often considered to be one of the limiting AA of maize-based rations, particularly when heated soybeans make up most of the protein source. In addition to incorporation into protein, methionine is involved in multiple pathways leading to synthesis of phospholipids, carnitine, creatine (Fig. 4.8) and polyamines (Fig. 4.3). At the same time, methionine provides methyl groups for a number of transmethylation reactions involved in regulation of DNA activity and oncogene status, and it provides sulphur for cysteine synthesis. In goats, 28 of the methionine methyl group contributes to the plasma choline pool, and 10 is irreversibly lost through oxidation (Emmanuel and Kelly, 1984). One consequence of this catabolism is the synthesis of cysteine. In the goat udder, 10 of methionine-sulphur contributes to cysteine synthesis (Lee et al, 1996).

Muscle Building Nutrition

The title 'Muscle Building Nutrition' , is a little misleading as that's only half of this book, as although it contains his tried and tested mass gaining bodybuilding diet , that he has taught to pro bodybuilders, natural athlethes, golfers and many other star atheletes , it also contains reviews on over 30 bodybuilding supplements, including creatine, prohormones, whey , casein, ZMA etc.

Amino Acid Antagonisms

By virtue of their uricotelism, avian species are unable to synthesize arginine and are particularly sensitive to the lysine-arginine antagonism. The most significant factor in the avian manifestation of this antagonism is the enhanced activity of kidney arginase which results in increased catabolism of arginine (see Fig. 4.2). If arginase activity is suppressed by the use of a specific inhibitor, then the severity of the antagonism is also attenuated. A second factor is the depression in food intake, presumably arising from lysine-induced disruption of brain uptake and metabolism of other amino acids and their biogenic amines. It should be noted, however, that in this antagonism, the depression in growth precedes the reduction in food intake (D'Mello and Lewis, 1971). Secondary mechanisms include enhanced urinary excretion of arginine and inhibition of hepatic transamidinase activity (Fig. 4.8) with consequent reduction in endogenous synthesis of creatine (D'Mello, 1994). chicks and,...

Betaine

Betaine comes from natural foods such as beets, wheat germ, and spinach. It has been shown to be beneficial for sports performance and general health. Betaine donates methyl groups (CH3) needed for over one hundred different reactions essential for normal cell function, including synthesis of creatine, carnitine, and epinephrines. Research suggests that 2 to 3 grams per day is optimal for most athletes.

Edward N New York

Hi there, first I just want to thank you for your GREAT program. I used to be a bag of bones at 130lbs. and I used to dread gym class and going to the beach. I can honestly say after your 12 week program I now weigh 170lbs. (8 body fat) and I feel great. I did your program all natural though, but I am now considering using creatine. Frederick F., New York

Side Effects

There has been some concern about theoretical negative effects of high dosages of creatine ingestion on kidney function because of the high excretion rates. However, thus far no negative side effects have been observed (269). A recent study by Poortmans and Francaux described the effects of long-term creatine ingestion (10 months up to 5 years) on kidney function and concluded that neither short-, medium-term or long-term supplementation induced detrimental effects on the kidney (305). Side effects, apart from an increase in body weight in the range of 1-3 kg, have not been observed. The most comprehensive review on the effects of creatine on performance and body composition can be found in reference 265 and 481. Muscle creatine (TCr) amounts 120 mmol kg.dm ( 30 mmol kg.wwt). 1 mmol Cr 131 mg.1 kg muscle contains 3.5-4 g Cr. A 70 kg male has a muscle mass of 30 kg muscle, which contains about 120 g creatine. The most important creatine functions are supporting the resynth-esis of ATP...

Conclusion

The available evidence does not support either a beneficial or detrimental effect of a vegetarian diet upon physical performance capacity, especially when carbohydrate intake is controlled. Concerns have been raised that an emphasis on plant foods to enhance carbohydrate intake to optimize body glycogen stores may increase dietary fiber and phytic acid intake to levels that reduce the bioavailability of several nutrients, including zinc, iron, and some other trace minerals. There are no convincing data, however, that vegetarian athletes suffer impaired nutrient status from the interactive effect of their heavy exertion and plant-food-based dietary practices, at least enough to impair performance or health. Although there has been some concern about protein intake for vegetarian athletes, data indicate that all essential and nonessential amino acids can be supplied by plant food sources alone, as long as a variety of foods is consumed and the energy intake is adequate to meet needs....

Body Reserves

Approximately 95 of creatine is stored in the muscle. There is also a small amount of creatine ( 5 ) found in the brain and testes.3 9 About two thirds of the creatine found in the muscle is stored as phosphocreatine (PCr), while the remaining amount Creatine FIGURE 9.1 Chemical structure and biochemical pathway for creatine and creatinine synthesis. (From Paddon-Jones, D. et al., J. Nutr., 134, 2888S-2894S, 2004.) is stored as free creatine.2 The total creatine pool (PCr + free creatine) in the muscle averages about 120 g for a 70-kg individual. However, the body has the capacity to store up to 160 g of creatine under certain conditions.4,9 The body breaks down about 1 to 2 of the creatine pool per day (about 1 to 2 g day) into creatinine in the muscle. The creatinine is then excreted in urine.10 Creatine stores can be replenished by obtaining creatine in the diet or through endogenous synthesis of creatine from glycine, arginine, and methionine.11,12 Normal dietary intake of...

Cancer

Various components of meat (protein, iron, and heterocyclic amines) have been suspected of contributing to the development of CRC. Dietary protein is broken down in the body to amino acids, which are further degraded to ammonia, which may have cancer-initiating effects. The human colon is also rich in amides and amines that are substrates for bacterial nitrosation by nitric oxide (NO) to N-nitroso compounds that are found in human faeces. There is no conclusive evidence that protein derived compounds can increase cancer risk in humans. It is hypothesised, but not yet established, that the intake of iron from meat and other iron-rich foods may increase the risk of cancer via the production of free radicals in the body. Heterocyclic amines are formed by the Maillard reactions that involve amino acids, sugars and creatine during cooking. They are usually produced on the surface of meat during cooking at very high temperatures, such as in frying, grilling or barbecuing but they are...

Muscle Builders

A naturally occurring compound found in muscles (meat), creatine is an important source of fuel for sprints and bouts of high-intensity exercise lasting up to 10 seconds. This includes weightlifting interval or sprint training with repeated short bouts of explosive efforts and team or racket sports with intermittent work patterns, such as soccer, football, basketball, tennis, and squash. The typical diet of meat eaters contains about 2 grams of creatine per day vegetarians have lower body stores of creatine. Many athletes who take creatine report increases in lean body mass, perhaps because they are better able to recover during strength training this allows more weightlifting repetitions. A study with 31 experienced bodybuilders who took a protein-carbohydrate supplement with or without creatine at midmorning, after their afternoon workout, and before bed (for a total of about 450 calories) suggests the protein-carbohydrate-creatine group gained more muscle mass and...

Conclusions

Tion, it remains to be established whether there is a difference in the anagen phase between long-haired and short-haired canine and feline breeds or, as the data suggest in dogs, the difference lies in the length of the telogen phase of the follicle cycle. There is a general lack of information on the endogenous amino acids lost via the urinary tract of cats and dogs. Although these may comprise only a small fraction of the total endogenous amino acid losses of the animal, endogenous urinary amino acids losses will increase with increased dietary intake of protein. Amino acids required for the synthesis of a number of compounds in the body (e.g. creatine, felinine, 3-methylhistidine) have been quantified in both species although quantitative data on amino acids required for the synthesis of other compounds would further strengthen the model. Data on the irreducible oxidation of body amino acids associated with body protein turnover in adult dogs are available whereas there are no...

Breaking Barriers

Creatine monohydrate is clearly the most effective strength- and performance-enhancing supplement ever developed. So, why has it been getting such a bad rap That's easy. It's the same reason that so much of it gets left in your glass Creatine doesn't dissolve well in water, and that can cause a number of problems. Many athletic trainers and strength coaches don't allow their athletes to use creatine at all because of the associated cramping, diarrhea and dehydration that have been reported. I, along with several colleagues, have consulted and advised many athletes and teams. Sometimes these problems go away after hydration is forced on the athletes. Reducing the dose has also helped four five-gram servings a day for five days, then one five-gram serving per day after that. We've also found that it helps to take creatine first thing in the morning rather than within an hour of an intense practice. For some people the above may provide the full benefit of creatine supplementation...

Remethylation

Mer reaction uses methyl-tetrahydrofolate as a methyl donor and the latter requires betaine and its analogues (Stipanuk, 1986). About half of the HomoCys is consumed in remethylation and the rest diverted to transsulphura-tion in humans, intact rats, perfused rat liver and the incubated liver homogenate from rats (reviewed by Stipanuk, 1986). Remethylation conserves Met, so a change in remethylation may result in a change in Met availability for protein synthesis or for Cys synthesis. For example, remethylation was depressed by 23 when Suffolk cross wethers were infused with choline bitartate (0.5 g day-1 choline equivalent) plus 1 g day-1 creatine for 8 days, whereas Met flux (based on infused U-13C Met kinetics in whole blood) was reduced by 15 and wool growth rate (fibre length and volume) tended to be reduced (Lobley et al., 1996a). The amount of recycling of Met from HomoCys accounted for 0.33-0.38 of the Met flux (5.72 g day-1), compared with the estimated Met absorption of 2 g...

Muscle Damage

In studies investigating the effects of HMB on muscle damage either following a single bout of strenuous exercise651 or during an intense resistance training program,37-911 HMB supplementation has been shown to reduce the appearance of creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), both indicators of muscle damage. Both CPK and LDH are muscle enzymes that appear in blood following muscle membrane damage or disruption, and the amount in blood is proportional to severity or magnitude of the muscle damage. Furthermore, supplementation of HMB also results in a significant decrease in plasma 3-MH, which is another marker used as an indicator of muscle breakdown or damage. While

Phosphorus P

Bonds involving phosphate of special molecules such as ATP (adenosine triphosphate). Other phosphate-containing energy molecules are creatine phosphate (CP) and guanosine triphosphate (GTP). It is important to keep in mind that while carbohydrates, protein, fat, and alcohol are endowed with energy, the body's cells cannot directly use that energy. Thus, these substances are broken down as needed to produce ATP and GTP, which then can be used to power cell operations.

Dietary Sources

Table 9.1 presents a list of foods that contain relatively large amounts of creatine. Most dietary creatine is obtained from meat and fish. For example, there is about 1 to 2 g of creatine in a pound of uncooked beef and salmon.3 Creatine can also be obtained in the diet from a number of dietary supplements. Since large amounts of fish and meat must be consumed in order to obtain gram quantities of creatine, dietary supplementation of creatine provides an inexpensive and efficient means of increasing dietary availability of creatine without excessive fat or protein intake. Creatine Content in Selected Foods Creatine Content Creatine Content in Selected Foods Creatine Content

As and Cell Volume

AA-induced cell swelling not only inhibits proteolysis, but also can simultaneously stimulate protein synthesis in liver cells.188 Cell volume affects protein synthesis by an independent mechanism.163 It has been shown that creatine and CHO loading can make significant contributions to muscle cell volume.160161 Also, mixtures of AA and other nutrients that have been shown to promote cell swelling are often added into dietary supplement formulas purported to increase muscle size or performance.

Oooooooo

3.2.3.1 Creatine phosphate in muscle It was noted above that the small amount of ATP in the body turns over rapidly, and ADP is rapidly rephosphorylated to ATP However, neither the small amount of ATP in muscle nor the speed with which metabolic activity can be increased, and hence ADP can be rephosphorylated, matches the demand for ATP for rapid or sustained muscle contraction. Muscle contains about four times more creatine phosphate than ATP as shown in Figure 3.11, this acts as a reservoir or buffer to maintain a supply of ATP for muscle contraction until metabolic activity increases. Creatine phosphate is sometimes called a phosphagen because it can be used to rephosphorylate ADP to Creatine is not a dietary essential as shown in Figure 3.12, it is synthesized from the amino acids glycine, arginine and methionine. However, a single serving of meat will provide about 1 g of preformed creatine, whereas the average daily rate of de novo synthesis is 1 2 g. Both creatine and creatine...

Arginine

ARG is involved in the transport, storage, and excretion of nitrogen in polyamine synthesis (important for cell division) and as a substrate for nitric oxide (NO) and creatine biosynthesis.16 Arginine (ARG) is also used clinically as a test for growth hormone deficiency (GHD).18 All of these factors have made ARG a popular candidate for study as an ergogenic aid. With regard to sports applications, the following areas are of interest

Drew S Colorado

Thanks for the inspiration, being a skinny tall guy can be very depressing and like you said you're not allowed to be upset about it to others, but your program is already making huge changes for me (I'm up about 6lbs without creatine and a few other things I was missing in the beginning weeks) and starting to look really in-shape. Alan S., Iowa

Did You Know

Creatine supplements are necessary to build muscle and give you energy to train. 9. Fact Creatine supplements are not needed to build muscle. Smart food choices, hard work in the weight room, and adequate rest are the main factors that build muscle. Some college and professional athletes use creatine to help store this energy source in their muscles, but creatine use is not recommended for athletes under age eighteen.

Ribose

Repeated bouts of intense all-out exercise result in a significant production of lactate and ammonia while rapidly depleting muscle glycogen and phosphocreatine levels. Phosphocreatine breakdown and glycolysis are the primary pathways of ATP production during short strenuous exercise. At very high exercise intensities the extensive rate of ATP breakdown may exceed the ability of the creatine kinase reaction and glycolysis to rephosphorylate ADP. This results in an increase of the intracellular ADP content. A fraction of this ADP is eventually degraded to IMP, which may be further converted to inosine and hypoxanthine. These compounds may be washed out from muscle and accordingly lead to a reduction of the total muscle adenine nucleotide pool (TAN) (241, 242, 249). Following exercise TAN is partially replenished via the purine salvage pathway, which involves the successive reverse conversion of hypoxanthine to inosine monophosphate (IMP) and further to adenosine monophosphate (AMP)....

Ribose QA

Synthesis Adenosine

Ibose could potentially be the most significant new food supplement since creatine hit the m U market about six years ago. Until now, ribose was only meaningful to biochemists and medi -cal researchers. While it plays a pivotal role in the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate Q Recent creatine studies indicate that creatine should be taken in cyclical fashion, due to possible decreased creatine absorption follow ing a downgrade of a creatine-carrier system in the body. Does the same hold true for ribose that is, should it also be cycled for best re suits A The metabolic actions of common food supplements are unique. Creatine, for example, increases energy by providing an increased pool of creatine phosphate to drive the passing of a donated phosphate in the recycling of ADP (adenosine diphosphate) to ATP. Carnitine helps to ferry fatty acids across the mitochondrial membrane, which enhances energy production from fatty acid metabolism. Pyruvate enhances the TCA, or Krebs, cycle that...

Selected Readings

Jowko E et al. (2001) Creatine and -hydroxy- -methlbutyrate (HMB) additively increase lean body mass and muscle strength during a weight-training program. Nutrition 17 588-586. McGuire TA et al. Creatine supplementation in high school football players. Clin J Sports Med 2001 11 247-253. Paddon-Jones D, et al. Potential ergogenic effects of arginine and creatine supplementation. J Nutr 2004 134 2888S-2894S.